Possible LENR observation reported in ACS journal

  • Oscillatory behavior and anomalous heat evolution in recombination of H2 and O2 on Pd-based catalysts
    - Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research - American Chemical Society - June 29, 2015
    Abstract
    Gas flow-through microcalorimetry has been applied to study the Pd/Al2O3 type catalysts in the exothermic hydrogen recombination process: H2 + O2  H2O, in view of the potential application in the passive autocatalytic recombination (PAR) technology. The flow mode experiments revealed thermokinetic oscillations, i.e., the oscillatory rate of heat evolution accompanying the process and the corresponding oscillations in the differential heat of process, in sync with oscillatory conversion of hydrogen. Mathematical chaos in the rate of heat evolution has been confirmed. In the outburst of quasiperiodic oscillations of large amplitude, the instances of differential heats as high as 700 kJ/mol H2 have been detected, exceeding the heat of water formation (242 kJ/mol H2) by a factor of nearly three. Another occurrence of anomalously high thermal effects has been measured in calorimetric oxygen titration using 0.09 μmol pulses of O2 injected onto hydrogen- or deuterium-saturated catalysts, including 2%Pd/Al2O3, 5%Pd/Al2O3 and 2%PdAu/Al2O3. Repeatedly, the saturation/oxidation cycles showed the heat evolutions in certain individual O2 pulses as high as 1100 kJ/mol O2, i.e., 550 kJ/mol H2, again twice as much as the heat of water formation. It has been pointed out that it seems prudent for the PAR technologists to assume a much larger rate of heat evolution than those calculated on the basis of a standard thermodynamic value of the heat of water formation, in order to account for the possibility of large thermokinetic oscillation occasionally appearing in the recombination process of hydrogen. A possible relation of the anomalous heat evolution to an inadvertent occurrence of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) phenomena is also briefly considered.


    http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.iecr.5b00686


    PDF document is available after free registration with ACS


    Short Extract -
    "There is currently no satisfactory explanation for the abnormally high thermal effects in the H2
    + O2 recombination reported here, but it may be suggested that the hydrogen-related anomalous
    heat evolutions may be falling into the same category with the low energy nuclear reaction
    phenomena (LENR). In view of the fact, that the PARs are intended to be used in nuclear
    reactors as crucial safety devises, a possibility of uncontrollable heat evolutions caused by these
    very devices themselves calls for a special consideration.
    4.3. A danger of LENR occurrence. It is usual to view the [lexicon]low energy nuclear reactions[/lexicon]..."


    (LENR) as a revolutionary new energy source, but they may also be viewed as posing a danger,


    Download
    https://www.scribd.com/doc/270…-O2-on-Pd-based-catalysts

  • One of the references from the above paper is:


    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10450-012-9445-8


    Abstract:


    Abnormally high heats, exceeding 2000 kJ/mol (20 eV) per molecule of O2, are generated by interaction of the oxygen with the hydrogen absorbed on palladium, gold and nickel particles at 25 °C to 220 °C. The highest heats were observed when the metals were treated with micromole quantities of argon, prior to absorption of hydrogen, as well as its interactions with metal particles reaching nanometer size. In the latter case the heat evolutions due to the interactions with hydrogen were approaching 5000 kJ/mol. The interactions with oxygen in inert gas environments, such as that of argon, yielded higher heat evolutions than those given by pure O2 pulses injected into nitrogen carrier gas.


    The results revealed an important role of argon in increasing the intensity of atomic hydrogen-oxygen reactions to a level several times higher than the heat of water formation from molecular hydrogen and oxygen.


  • The mention of argon reminds me that the Lipinski UGC WIPO application also gets to favorable Ar in some of their later experiments. There are other key differences of course, Lipinski's is protons at modest energies (100 to 5000 eV) onto lithium targets that are sometimes solid, some liquid and I believe some as gas or plasma. There is so much there to digest... it is like reading the Odyssey. I suspect Lipinski is a lot more historical than those old epics though.


    Warnings and advice on reading Lipinski UGC. I would not pay much attention to their novel Unified Gravity theory (at least not at this point), it may be interesting to some, but it is a distraction to low temperature fusioneers like us. Get the original pdf, don't try to read the Google OCR version. The Google scan is not handling what should be the very informative tables at all well, at least not the way it comes to me. The tables may be handled crazily because of the the double column v. single column switching that goes on in the WIPO document. The most reliable pdf, for me anyway, has been that from Unified Gravity Corp itself. Here is that link:


    http://unifiedgravity.com/reso…014189799-PAMPH-330-2.pdf


    Do not listen to anything anyone has said about this patent application, unless they have read and understood every page [of the technical stuff, the theory is not so important, I think] I see from some of the conversations on the Web, the "experts" are ridiculously off on the details of this work. Everyone seems to think they already know everything--- with the clue to us that they don't agree on anything. Take the time to read the middle section of pages describing in detail the acceleration voltages, the bias polarities and voltages, the nature of the alternating square wave modulation of the biases, the phase states of the lithium, the pressures, the proton currents (micro amps generally), the cautions and details with respect to measuring the alpha fluxes generated, the use of argon and so on. Look at how they measure alpha fluxes and their energies.


    The way they calculate Q so as to be consistent with Herb's 1938 work, also excludes the energy used to maintain the vacuum as Herb did. They nicely replicated Herb's result. That showed almost infinitesimal Q values using highly accelerated (300 to 900 keV) protons to lithium. They then move on to various experiments showing modest over unity values and eventually reach the thousands. They give a nifty little calculation that the theoretical maximum for their main aneutronic reaction is something over a Q of 64,000. At an eventual 7,000 something, they appear to do fairly well. Lipinski the elder is a UCSD Ph.D physicist, son a computer whiz, other executive personnel are of amazing caliber / credentials. These are apparently not fools, at least they wisely sold cc:mail to Lotus in the late 90's for what must have been a nice sum. Their initial fusion experimental work was done at three successive US national accelerator labs. They have worked steadily to develop their own facility and seem to have that now near Silicon Valley. That became easier once they found that quite modest proton energies were the key to making their process work.


    They go out of their way to claim that this is not LENR or CF. This must be part of their IP strategy. Anyone here would recognize that it is really indistinguishable from CF / LENR, at least in terms of the goals to which those aspire.

  • I just scanned the document, but it is clear to me that this peer reviewed report contributes to the high pile of documents showing that there is a phenomenon that should further be studied: LENR.
    It is a pity that the authors did not take the opportunity to investigate the by-products of LENR like transmutations and the release of Helium. That would have made the document even more valuable.

  • One question to Erwin Lalik, is there a planning to do this?


    I just scanned the document, but it is clear to me that this peer reviewed report contributes to the high pile of documents showing that there is a phenomenon that should further be studied: LENR.
    It is a pity that the authors did not take the opportunity to investigate the by-products of LENR like transmutations and the release of Helium. That would have made the document even more valuable.

  • I think this paper is very important as it confirms anomalous heat reported by others researching the same potential hazzard, with a methodology that is hard to question. This excess heat happens under conditions that fall within the "LENR ballpark" of conditions where anomalous heat has been reported. That alone is a very interesting and important fact for us (I mean, for people interested in and/or involved in researching LENR as a new energy source). The fact that the authors themselves reached a point where they let themselves consider the existence of LENR as a potential explanation for the observation is also of paramount importance.


    Now, the only question I can think of is if the authors knew of LENR recently and related it to the previously reported observations they quote in their paper, or if they had LENR in their "scope" already prior to starting the experimentes reported on this paper?


    Regards!!!


    (I reckon this question is more epistemologic than truly related to the experiments themselves).

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.


  • Can Argon be the catalyst in E-Cat as well ? And also the O2?


    Another reference shows a patent (granted) which also mentions Argon as a catalyst. The patent is for an engine driven by LENR.
    https://www.google.com/patents/EP2026357B1?cl=en

  • Upon further reading and tips from discussions on other websites it appears that this is more about an anomalous heating rate ("heat evolution") rather than actual anomalous heat "production". In other words, H2 recombination was indeed observed to occur faster than expected, but this isn't directly implying that output energy balance was also in excess. While it might still be related with anomalous LENR effects observed by other researchers, it doesn't really confirm (nor deny) them.


    So, although at this point I'm kind of expecting what the answer to this question would be, for the sake of clarity I would like to ask Lalik et al. if they actually also observed anomalous heat production (= a positive output energy balance) in these or similar experiments.


    Well, certainly with that perspective a re read of the abstract and key parts of the paper can be understood differently, but excess heat is indeed discussed in absolute terms (units of temperature vs amount of reactants without a time frame of reference or rate).

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Well, certainly with that perspective a re read of the abstract and key parts of the paper can be understood differently, but excess heat is indeed discussed in absolute terms (units of temperature vs amount of reactants without a time frame of reference or rate).


    This is true, the paper does seem to report energy produced as Kj/mol H, however the spikes shown in the central graph in figure 3, are followed by subsequent dips - meaning the area under the line (total heat) is not increased?

  • In liew of the comment of Ecco the Dolphin about heat evolution instead of total heat, I'm re reading the discussion section and I can't but end trying to figure out why the authors would have added this paragraph "There is currently no satisfactory explanation for the abnormally high thermal effects in the H2+ O2 recombination reported here, but it may be suggested that the hydrogen-related anomalous heat evolutions may be falling into the same category with the low energy nuclear reaction phenomena (LENR)." if they did not have observed also excess heat.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • A related patent application (presumably from one of the co-authors, although name differs)-


    Method of generating thermal energy - US 20130276771 A1
    http://www.google.com/patents/US20130276771


    A very interesting technology whether proven to be LENR or not.


    A couple of excerpts:
    "The high heats generated by the interactions of oxygen atoms with the adsorbed hydrogen occur
    only as long as the adsorbed hydrogen is available and not totally consumed by the interactions.
    However, readsorption of the hydrogen restores the capacity of the metal, for example gold and
    palladium, to produce these exceptionally high generations of heat. This process is therefore reversible.
    It is evident that the hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on the metal display extraordinary ability to
    dissociate oxygen molecules, a highly endothermic process, and then produce exceptionally high
    heats of the interaction with the oxygen atoms. It seems therefore that at least a part of the
    chemisorbed hydrogen atoms is in a state of very high potential energy, but the nature of these
    energetic atoms remains unknown. However, the abnormally high heat evolutions described herein
    offer considerable opportunity for the development of novel sources of energy
    [...]
    The abnormally high heat generated in this method can reach, for example five to twelve times
    higher than the heats of formation of gaseous water from molecular hydrogen and oxygen, which
    offers the development of new sources of energy for domestic and industrial purposes."


    Interesting that small particles work best, and that surface effects are so important.


    Hopefully, replications will definitively determine the energy in/out ratio.

  • Upon further reading and tips from discussions on other websites it appears that this is more about an anomalous heating rate ("heat evolution") rather than actual anomalous heat "production".


    Actually the author clearly says that the heat energy generated is more than the normal H2-O2 reaction. Its measured in energy per mole. I could not see any mentions of variation in rates of heating.

  • Quote from Ecco the Dolphin: “Upon further reading and tips from discussions on other websites it appears that this is more about an anomalous heating rate ("heat evolution") rather than actual anomalous heat "production".”


    Actually the author…


    That's exactly what I already said, and after re reading carefully the discussions and conclusions, I stand by this. The authors clearly refer to anomalous heat production even if they discuss it in terms of heat evolution.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • My understanding is that they injected O2 in pulses until all the H2 recombined to H2O. With smaller 0.09 μmol O2 pulses they observed a higher (anomalous) energy per mol of O2 than with 0.45 μmol ones, up to more than twice the expected value.…


    That is correct. On summing up over the pulses, the heat does not exceed the standard value for the water formation. It seems that the anomalously high heat evolution is being caused by only a small fraction of the total of hydrogen species that react with oxygen.

  • I would like to ask the following question to the authors: do you think that there is a connection between the heat anomalies that you found and the so called "epicatalysis" phenomenon described in the following papers (expecially the H2 dissociation experiment) ?


    http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAR14/Session/A2.11


    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10701-014-9781-5


    And what about Casimir-Lamb shift hypothesis for Hydrogen atom ?


    http://www.jovion.com/

  • One question to Erwin Lalik, is there a planning to do this?


    Quote from Gerard McEk: “I just scanned the document, but it is clear to me that this peer reviewed report contributes to the high pile of documents showing that there is a phenomenon that…


    Thanks for your suggestion to detect He. We have not done this as yet. It seems relatively easy to connect a mass spectrometer (MS) to the microcalorimeter that we use in our lab, but then the MS results are not always reliable. First, it is difficult to tell D2 form He, both having the mass of 4, and so the "standard" MS results seem unlikely to provide a strong evidence of transmutation. At any rate, extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, and so a detection of He requires a very thorough study, possibly not limited to MS experiments. We are planning, however, experiments with using D2 instead of H2 for the recombination reaction.

  • Quote from David Nygren: “One question to Erwin Lalik, is there a planning to do this?


    Quote from Gerard McEk: “I just scanned the document, but it is clear to me that this peer reviewed report contributes to the high pile of documents showing that…


    My friend Robert Godes had this to say after reviewing your document in an emai yesterday, thought this might be helpful. ". These speeds are notoriously running in fits and
    starts. It could very well be LENR reactions taking place but under those
    conditions they should use a high res amu 1 to 6 mass spec to look for helium
    to see if there is LENR occurring. It would also be very interesting to run
    highrise icp-ms on the catalytic beads before and after the apparent
    observation of excess heat. If they find silicon after that is a good
    indication of aluminum absorbing a neutron.


    The explosion at Sri that killed a researcher was due to the temperamental
    nature of these recombination beads. I also lost at least 12 rupture discs
    before solving the problem of the temperamental nature of these beads."
    Jim Rovnak