Ask questions to Dr. Sveinn Ólafsson, Science Institute - University of Iceland

  • A few days ago we saw an interesting article from Iceland. Today I have had contact with Dr. Sveinn Ólafsson, Science Institute - University of Iceland.
    He has promises to try to answer some of your questions in this thread. Perhaps Leif Holmild also be answer some selected issues! Will try to contact him.


    Please make thumbs up / likes on the questions you want answers to.
    Ask questions in this thread



    cv
    New articel

  • Dear Dr. Olafsonn,


    in your paper "Spontaneous ejection of high-energy particles from
    ultra-dense deuterium D(0)" you said that the Nd: YAG laser pulses with energy of <0.4 J were used to initiate the beta-particle like signal.


    Did you have to let the laser run to measure the beta-particle like signal or did you just fire a certain number of laser pulses on the target, and did the beta-particle like signal
    remain even after the laser was switched off? If so for how long did it remain, after the laser was switched off?


    Thank you very much and keep up the great work,


    E. Majorana

  • EDIT:


    They did write that but it looks like (after skimming through it) this paper is really about high energy particles getting ejected just after diffusing deuterium through the catalyst (thus, "spontaneously"). Their reactor had a Nd:YAG laser installed but they didn't use it this time. Your question is perfectly valid for previous works, though.


    I do not know which paper you are refering to, but in the one I read there is a chapter "Experimental" and the following sentence is written there:
    "A Nd:YAG laser
    with pulse energy of <0.4 J could be used to initiate the
    spontaneous signal, with 7 ns long pulses at 1064 nm and
    10 Hz repetition rate. The laser beam was focused with an
    f ¼ 40 mm lens at the D(0) layer."


    I am refering to the paper "Spontaneous ejection of high-energy particles from
    ultra-dense deuterium D(0)". It is the most recent one.


    Thus, I think my question is justified.



  • Thanks for the question, The laser can start the process but just waiting after admitting the D2 gas does the same.

  • I have a few ones:

    • Is the Fe2O3(K) catalyst used for most of your experiments treated prior running them or is it used straight as it comes from the manufacturer?
    • When D2 gas is diffused through the catalyst, both the catalyst and the gas are electrically heated. Have you attempted heating both indirectly (ie non-electrically, without current flowing through the tube and the catalyst) and checking out if results remain the same?
    • Is the starting base pressure (vacuum level) of the chamber before D2 is injected important for high energy particles from the ultra-dense D(0) layer to show later on?


    EDIT:


    They did write that but it looks like (after skimming through it) this paper is really about high energy particles getting ejected just after diffusing deuterium through the catalyst (thus, "spontaneously"). Their reactor had a Nd:YAG laser installed but they didn't use it this time. Your question is perfectly valid for previous works, though.


    Thanks for the question

    • Straight from the box
    • Heating is best done with electrical current, next method would be ?
    • Bad vacuum H2O, O2 and ions are disturbing the Rydberg matter and therefore eventually also the ultra dense form but once formed it can survive better
  • Dear Dr. Olafsonn, amazing,


    Could you insert an electric field close before the detector, by inserting a plate capacitor in order to check how the signal changes? In order to find out if there are just beta-particles or also neutron radiation?


    Thank you very much
    E. Majorana

  • Dear Dr. Olafsonn, amazing,


    Could you insert an electric field close before the detector, by inserting a plate capacitor in order to check how the signal changes? In order to find out if there are just beta-particles or also neutron radiation?

    Yes you could do that but you would need high voltage range 0-100kev that makes it bit of cumbersome and what new information do you expect?


    Thank you very much
    E. Majorana


  • I think you are right, I just thought since there is also the reaction channel D + D -> He-3 + n which is just as probable as the D + D -> T + p+, T -> He3 + beta channel, this would give further evidence.


    But you already have enough evidence so the neutron spectrum measurement is probably not necessary.


    If you really want the situation to be different than in 1989, you have to allow repetitions of your experiment.


    I contacted the Professor Hans Schieck from the University of Cologne who is an expert for fusion reactions of nuclii with low nucleon number. He was skeptical but also very interested, maybe if you can repeat the experiment in his lab.
    Then the scientific community and the public will wake up.


    And you can start to look for a nice tuxedo for the Nobel prize gala. Since you already published the first paper you don't have to be afraid of repetitions.


  • Thanks for nice words


    Leif Holmlid has been doing research on Rydberg states and Rydberg matter for long time I am a relative newcomer to this field. :-)


    Sveinn

  • I have a perhaps unusual question for Sveinn Ólafsson.


    What is the atomic radius of an ultra-dense deuterium atom, compared to a regular deuterium atom?
    Do you expect it to relatively quickly diffuse through most materials, given enough time and temperature? Or can it be easily contained?


    SO. Good question


    Rydberg matter of deuterium is a collection of many deuterium atoms transforming to ultra dense form, the laser experiments can only probe the the breakup of the cluster so no information about one individual" dense atom". The experiments only give breakup distance information, is the confinement in all dimensions?, it is not known for sure. The phase is sticking to surface, we know that but how deep we don't know.


    Sveinn

  • @sveinol
    Thanks for answering. I was investigating whether the physical properties of ultra-dense deuterium/protium could have implied that its indirect observation (through nuclear particle emission, possibly excess heat, etc) in low-budget LENR experiments might have been difficult due to it not being easily confinable.


    In retrospect, I think that micro-structured metal/metal-oxide wire experiments by others (eg Francesco Celani of INFN, and replications by MFMP) demonstrating that wire resistivity decreases significantly upon hydrogen absorption might be showing that if it's stored in a metal it won't easily leave the reaction environment.


    This resistivity decrease effect is completely reversible upon heating in a dynamic vacuum and I believe it could be due to the superconducting properties of ultra-dense forms of hydrogen getting formed in the metal/metal-oxide layers of these wires.


    Dear Ecco (is it your real name ?:-)


    The H2 gas pressure drop and resistance decrease is probably just sign of normal Rydberg matter formation not the ultra dense phase although they coexist. Also can you easely make electrical contact to ultra-dense phase? is it living in it own world at different fermi energy far from the metal electron system?


    Sveinn

  • Regarding: http://scitation.aip.org/conte…si/86/8/10.1063/1.4928109


    Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: Novel converter arrangements


    The detection of muons produced by Rydberg hydrogen matter supports the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) theory of LENR. This theory specifically described how muons are produced and how these muons result in the production of fusion among the full range of atomic elements. This theory has been recorded in posts written by AxilAxil in the EGO OUT blog and the EcatWorld blog over many months.


    The SPP behavior that has not yet been recognized by plasmonic science is the ability of SPPs to produce a positive feedback loop that compensates for the energy losses due to diffusion through the offsetting gains produced by non linear energy production. This ability to amplify the chemistry based catalytic activity of SPPs is not yet in the province of plasmonic research. When nano-particles setup the SPP to amplify their power and force SPP wave forms to loop onto themselves in a vortex, it produces a short lived “Dark Mode” configuration that acts just like a celestial black hole that draws energy into itself from its surroundings. This ability to attract, concentrate and store new energy involves at least two distinct although related mechanisms.


    First, SPPs concentrate and reorient the spin of photons then project the magnetic single pole beam so formed from one of the poles of the vortex. This beam both destabilizes and then transports energy from the affected matter back along the path of the beam through the action of quantum teleportation. This anapole magnetic beam mechanism can act at a considerable distance away from the vortex. The magnetic beam is energetic enough to produce mesons from condinsation from the vacuum which the decays into muons which act to produce muon canalize fusion.



    Next, the SPP soliton can share, transfer and accumulate energy through quantum mechanical entanglement with clusters of matter of arbitrary size. This instantaneous gleaning of energy from many distinct sources occurs within a spherical zone around the vortex. This duality of causation in the results observed in the LENR reaction leads to understandable confusion. But this multiplicity in the results as produced by the fundamental cause of LENR are unified by a commonality of characteristics linked to a common origin of the effect..


    These common and universal conditions include the thermalization of gamma radiation, the rapid to instantaneous stabilization of radioactive isotopes, lack of neutron emissions, and the wide variation of seemingly random transmutation results which includes fusion of light elements into heavier elements and fission of heavy elements into lighter ones, remote reaction at a distance from the location of the LENR reaction, and instantaneous cluster fusion involving huge numbers of sub-reactions that occur instantly and collectively.


    Even though the LENR reaction oftentimes occurs concurrent with the presence of hydrogen isotopes, hydrogen in not required as a fundamental cause of the reaction as shown in the experiments done at Proton 21 where a ball of copper is blasted with a high powered arc discharge, and the carbon dust experiments performed using microwaves conducted by George Egely, the new editor of infinite magazine. In the Proton 21 experiments in nano-particles involved are copper based and in the Egely case the nano-particles are based on carbon. In the Papp reaction. The nano particles are based on chlorine and noble gases.


    LENR has made itself known in our world ever since the days of young Tesla when electricity has be made powerful enough to generate nano particles from matter. Since we have brought Egely’s name up, Egely has written a wonderful series of articles explaining how SPPs have produced LENR for over a century in many diverse and now long forgotten systems going back to the times and work by Tesla. They are well worth a read and as follows:


    http://www.egely.hu/letoltes/F…seudo-Particles-Part1.pdf
    http://www.egely.hu/letoltes/F…seudo-Particles-Part2.pdf
    http://www.egely.hu/letoltes/F…seudo-Particles-Part3.pdf

  • I would like to ask these questions to Prof. Sveinn Ólafsson:
    How much energy do the electron orbitals in ultra dense D have?
    Do they approach 85 [eV]? Do you see anything strange when the sum of the energy of the electron orbitals and the D energy added by the laser reach 85 [eV]?


    Do you see particles that are neutral (no delta electrons), but can be deviated by a magnetic field as they had the magnetic moment of the electron, while having a mass corresponding to the sum D + e?


    Do you observe strong Extreme Ultraviolet emissions in the wavelength range around 14.6 [nm]?

  • If I may explain...


    The wavelength (XUV and soft x-rays) of the light seen in LENR is determined by the circumference of the SPP soliton which is reckoned based on the SPP soliton with a diameter on the order of between 1 to 3 nanometers. The soliton acts as a whispering gallery wave where fano resonance up/down converts the light frequencies of confined EMF to resonate inside the soliton.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whispering-gallery_wave


    Because these solitons are coherent, these enclosed photons are released when the soliton explodes in a Bosenova as seen in the observations of the LENR reaction inside the DGT reactor by Dr. Kim.


  • [SO] Not a measured parameter in the experiment. 14.5nm needs a good diffraction gratings,


    Greetings SO

  • Dear Axil


    I have never understood the surface plasmon polariton discussion.


    It is a low energy excitation of few eV of the electron system. You can reach intense electric field and high total energy if you include many electrons and large ensemble size.
    But it still only a few eV excitation energy unit per electron.


    In Leifs experiment the Laser is probably perturbing the electrons of the ultra-dense phase resulting entanglement breaking and whole zoo of particles are flying out.


    Greetings


    Sveinn



  • See these posts


    http://egooutpeters.blogspot.c…siegel-paper-comment.html


    AXIL’S ANSWER TO THE SIEGEL PAPER


    http://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/search?q=muon


    Fundamental Causation Mechanisms of LENR.


    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015…-the-nanoscale-axil-axil/


    Plasmonics With a Twist: Taming Optical Tornadoes on the Nanoscale (Axil Axil)
    Posted on April 1, 2015


    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015…and-rossis-cat-and-mouse/


    Polariton Coherent Light and Rossi’s Cat and Mouse
    Posted on June 18, 2015

  • Dear Axil


    This is good paper you are referring and can be compared to radio antenna theory scaled to nanoscale dimensions


    Do you agree with this statement?


    SPP is alternative energy source/storage of "incoherent" low energy photons or electromagnetic radiation in the 1-9eV range?


    Greetings


    Sveinn


  • Hello Dr. Olafsson,


    I think a classical analog that might be similar is a 1000 car freight train moving at
    (say 10 km/h) up a hill. The lead car of the train will climb far higher than a single
    car moving at the same velocity, since it borrows kinetic energy/momentum via
    mechanical coupling.


    Would not an electron (anti-electron or perhaps heavier charged particle) couple via
    electric, or magnetic, field to the many other electrons with the same directional
    momentum be able to climb a much higher potential wall than a single electron?


    See, for example, Feynman Lectures, vol. 3, section 21-3, "Two kinds of momentum" --
    [Excerpt] [[["But remember what happens electrically when I suddenly turn on a flux.
    During the short time that the flux is rising, there’s an electric field generated whose line
    integral is the rate of change of the flux with time: E=−dA/dt .
    That electric field is enormous if the flux is changing rapidly, and it gives a force on the
    particle. The force is the charge times the electric field, and so during the build up of
    the flux the particle obtains a total impulse (that is, a change in mv) equal to −qA
    In other words, if you suddenly turn on a vector potential at a charge, this charge
    immediately picks up an mv -momentum equal to −qA
    But there is something that isn’t changed immediately and that’s the difference between
    mv and −qA . And so the sum p=mv+qA is something which is not changed when you make
    a sudden change in the vector potential. This quantity p is what we have called the p
    -momentum and is of importance in classical mechanics in the theory of dynamics, but it
    also has a direct significance in quantum mechanics."]]]
    http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/III_21.html


    I believe that collisions between oppositely charged particles with approximately
    equal opposite momenta in a strong magnetic field conforms to Feynman's description.


    See also, Widom-Larsen's preprint: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0802.0466.pdf
    where, I believe, they describe the same multi-particle coupling phenomenon
    using the Darwin Lagrangian.

  • Analysis of both the fuel and the ash from the Hot Cat demo at Lugano shows composite sintered nickel micro particles that measure about 100 microns in size. These large particles act as an EMF antenna that gathers power (infrared) from an extended volume surrounding the large nickel particle of maybe 10 times that 100 micron volume in a large fraction of a cubic millimeter.


    The Rydberg matter that is attracted to and rests on the surface of that large nickel particle in an aggregation concentrates that infrared power into a volume of 1 to 3 nanometers in diameter. Like hydraulic advantage, there is a power concentration factor in the billions. For example, 100 microns/1 nanometer = (100)(1000)^^3 = 10^^15 power amplification. The “Dark Mode” SPP is a black hole for coherent EMF. This soliton absorbs EMF with no limit until it explodes in a Bosenova. The soliton also absorbs nuclear energy from catalyzed muon based fusion originated gamma photons from positive feedback effects. The SPPs with spin 2 all points toward the north pole of this black hole which acts as a monipole. This anapole magnetic field strengths that result are extreme. This EMF beam produces mesons from the vacuum through the Schwinger effect.


  • See my reply above.



  • [SO] Yes SPP can accelerate particles somewhat but what for?


    I understand the neutron arguments but there is no supporting experimental indications available?


    Sorry for short answer


    Sveinn

  • Analysis of both the fuel and the ash from the Hot Cat demo at Lugano shows composite sintered nickel micro particles that measure about 100 microns in size. These large particles act as an EMF antenna that gathers power (infrared) from an extended volume surrounding the large nickel particle of maybe 10 times that 100 micron volume in a large fraction of a cubic millimeter.


    The Rydberg matter that is attracted to and rests on the surface of that large nickel particle in an aggregation concentrates that infrared power into a volume of 1 to 3 nanometers in diameter. Like hydraulic advantage, there is a power concentration factor in the billions. For example, 100 microns/1 nanometer = (100)(1000)^^3 = 10^^15 power amplification. The “Dark Mode” SPP is a black hole for coherent EMF. This soliton absorbs EMF with no limit until it explodes in a Bosenova. The soliton also absorbs nuclear energy from catalyzed muon based fusion originated gammBa photons from positive feedback effects. The SPPs with spin 2 all points toward the north pole of this black hole which acts as a monipole. This anapole magnetic field strengths that result are extreme. This EMF beam produces mesons from the vacuum through the Schwinger effect.


    [SO] Dear Axil you are complicating things with using words such as monopoles and black holes the physics is much simpler. :-)

  • [SO] Dear Axil you are complicating things with using words such as monopoles and black holes the physics is much simpler. :-)


    Dear sveinol,


    To justify my thinking, please see as follows:


    For monopoles: Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles


    Note: There is a micro-graph in this research paper that shows an actual picture of the magnetic beam coming out of the SPP soliton.


    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1204/1204.3564.pdf


    For black holes: Prof. Daniele Faccio: "Black Holes, With A Twist" - Inaugural Lecture


    The "Dark Mode" SPP soliton that produces the power involved in E-Cat LENR is really a rotating Black Hole for light. This is a real black hole including the Hawking radiation mechanism that radiates ½ of the vacuum energy extracted from virtual photons to the far field and absorbs the other ½ fraction of the vacuum energy to amplify and add to the energy contained in the soliton. Once light enters the soliton, it does not come out. The beam that projects out of the soliton is amplified by a process called Penrose Superradiance. These light based solitons have be generated using lasers. Waves of Hawking radiation have also been observed.





    ---------------



    https://www.newscientist.com/a…-in-artificial-black-hole


    Where does the vacuum energy come from in LENR.


    Nano-particles slows down light and cause light(actually surface plasmon polaritons - SPP) to flow in a tight circle called a vortex. When this happens a black hole on a nano-scale is formed. This black hole of light sucks in virtual photons from the vacuum and adds that new born light to the light already spinning around inside the vortex..



  • [SO] Thanks Axil for this information, I am not very well versed in these composite electron-photon quantum fluids and excitations. I think there is much more simpler mechanism hiding behind the curtains that fits Holmlid's observation much better. I am trying to write that up for a funding application and eventually a research paper. I like the "keep it simple" mantra. I am pondering now cryptically what is of more importance the Hydrogen system or the electron system of the nanoparticles.


    Greetings


    Sveinn

  • Regarding: "I think there is much more simpler mechanism hiding behind the curtains that fits Holmlid's observation much better."


    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0912/0912.5414.pdf
    Note the pictures of the rydberg matter in the figures at the end of this paper


    Holmlid as reference this Winterberg paper as the theory that he believes is producing his experimental findings. He is right as far as that goes but the devil is in the details; and the details are very complex.


    F. Winterberg, University of Nevada, Reno, has a reaction mechanism that I like a lot. It is based on a electron vortex and a Bose Einstein condensate(BEC) being imposed on the ultra dense hydrogen crystals of Rydberg matter. But unlike F. Winterberg thinking, I believe that the LASER pulse produces the BEC over the area that it irradiates.


    The vortex is not an electron vortex, but an SPP vortex. If we want to understand LENR we must understand how nuclear reactions happen in and around a BEC.


    This understanding will not be easy to arrive at. The true theory of LENR must explain many and varied unbelievable things which include the following: the thermalization of gamma radiation, the rapid to instantaneous stabilization of ALL radioactive isotopes, lack of neutron emissions, and the wide variation of seemingly random transmutation results which includes fusion of light elements into heavier elements and fission of heavy elements into lighter ones, remote reaction at a distance from the location of the LENR reaction, and instantaneous cluster fusion involving huge numbers of sub-reactions that occur instantly and collectively.


    Now LENR must explain the spontaneous production of a wide range of subatomic particles that can only be produced in a particle accelerator in the 6 gigavolt range.


    SPP theory provides an explanation to the production of mesons. This experimental discovery is new in LENR but SPP theory has predicted it.


    Holmlid has also seen the instantaneous fusion of billions of atoms, This is also been seen in the production of the PURE Ni62 nickel ash particle in the Lugano fuel study. Here uncountable atoms of nickel entered a reaction where Li7 gave a either one, two, or three neutrons to all the countless nickel atoms that make up that 100 micron particle.


    Like any individual LENR experiment, the full scope of the wonders of LENR cannot all be revealed at one time, but because Holmild is not seeing gamma radiation from billions of D D fusions, he is seeing a LENR reaction.


    I understanded that you must start out simply for political and institutional reasons, but be sure that the true LENR theory is a great challenge.

  • The recent experiments by Holmlid indicate the production of a zoo of sub-atomic particles including muons associated with the LENR reaction. When muons decay, they produce electrons. Could the Hot cat be producing this unusual type of radiation? Is the name “M.meCurie” related to the discovery of radiation? Will the Hot cat produce so much muon radiation that it may be harmful to Rossi in that shipping container? Does Rossi know that his Hot cat is producing muons? Does Rossi use test equipment to test for muons? Will Rossi meet the same fate as “M.me Curie” under the possible extreme exposure to radiation? When breaking new ground in science danger to life and limb sometimes occurs.


    All those muons coming from the "Mouse" might be driving the "Cat" into unexpectedly high SSM efficiency. Any reactor that can produce all those electrons, so many as to enable direct electrical production, that reactor must be producing huge amounts of muons. Rossi realty doesn't know what is happening inside the Hot cat...its new...and he is just an experimenter, but there is no free lunch in this world. For all those who care for Rossi's welfare. for safety sake, convince him to leave that shipping container.


    If muons from the "Mouse" can catalyze SSM in the "Cat" it could also catalyze fusion reactions inside Rossi.


    http://www.i2u2.org/elab/cosmi...


    The Effects of Lead Shielding on Muon Counts…. If you are near a LENR reactor, tt looks like lots of muons will get to and into the body. I wonder if muons are harmful and at what level of flux?


    Aside from the possible (likely) harm from muons, the curious and disturbing thing about this paper is that the authors:


    1) expected to see a decreasing rate of muon counts as more lead above the detectors was added,


    2) They were extremely surprised to see that when going from 15cm to 20cm of lead, the count rate of muons actually increased


    3) This data point was extremely unexpected. They had expected that the rate of decrease of the muon count rates would have slowed, but the last thing expected was for the count rates to actually increase.


    That is a lot of lead, first of all. Even then, it never blocked all the muons. For the muon count to increase, with thicker lead, this means that some kind of chain reaction is happening above a thickness level, but muon keep progressing thought the metal.


    As an analogy – (of how LENR could benefit from this) consider the known parameters of fission … a chain reaction of neutrons is the driver of fission reactors, and thus the concept of a chain reaction of muons is intriguing. Can muons be harvested?


    As for using this information in a practical manner, the main problem is that tons of lead would be needed for even a small reactor - and in the end – the question is whether they can be converted into energy.


    The flow of Muons from the "Mouse" into the "Cats" in Rossi's Self Sustain mode (SSM) configuration looks like an application of a muon chain reaction that we are speculating about. We will need to watch Rossi to see what type of health problems he develops from his time inside the shipping container.


    Muons have a very low interaction cross section with matter; muons do not interact with matter much at all at backgroud levels. That low reaction cross section is why muons are harmless to health at background levels, But the Hot cat might be producing a huge number of muons in SSM mode. However, in the Cat and Mouse configuration employed in the Rossi’s SSM mode, something must be increasing that cross section by a huge amount. That increase in the level of the probability of reaction must be due to a quantum mechanical process. My guess the cause is QM coherence of the Cat. A Bose condensate might make the Cat look like an atom that is many centimeters in size. The muon from the mouse can’t help but react with an atom that is that big. The same must be true of neutrinos. Coherence and entanglement might make particles that don’t usually interact with atoms always interact with Super Atoms in a Bose condensate cause by quantum effects.


    Just the muons that come to earth from cosmic rays might trigger nuclear reactions in a Bose condensate. Rydberg matter because of its coherence might be a great receiver for subatomic particles that don’t usually interact with matter at all. What would happen if Rossi became QM coherent like one of his "Cats"?

  • Hi Sveinn:


    Would it be possible to get a pre-print/link to Reference 35 of your co-authored paper with Leif, entitled "Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: Novel converter arrangements", published in Review of Scientific Instruments, which is:


    L. Holmlid, "Decay of charged nuclear particles at 13 and 26 ns formed by laser-induced processes in ultra-dense hydrogen," Ann. Phys. (submitted). ?


    Do you know how long it will be until it is online as an "Articles in Press"?


    Thank you so much.

  • There is a recent article by Leif Holmid about laser induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium, that Pr Svein Olafson have cited recently.


    http://scitation.aip.org/conte…dva/5/8/10.1063/1.4928572

    Quote


    Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles H N(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.


    This looks like hot fusion, but the higher efficiency may show it is also LENR...
    I let experts comment.


    my personal question is whether this is an intermediate "regime" between plasma physics and material science? ?(



  • [SO] I fully agree with you LENR is complex but the complexity is not in the nanoscale grain structure or where surface plasmon polaritons can live the complexity is in the ultra-dense Hydrogen phase. The transformed Rydberg matter phase.


    Greetings


    Sveinn