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  • Found what seems to be a LENR Electric energy tech patent and a new related paper


    Energy generation by efficient inverse-Primakoff Effect conversion of scalar particle dark matter into photons

    • March 2021


    (PDF) 📄 Energy generation by efficient inverse-Primakoff Effect conversion of scalar particle dark matter into photons
    PDF | Update on Cosmological Model for the Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE) #Graham K. Hubler The Medical School, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO... | Find,…
    www.researchgate.net


    Update on Cosmological Model for the Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE) #Graham K. Hubler The Medical School, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO USA E-mail: [email protected] 6635 Prestwick Drive, Highland, MD 20777 At ICCF19 in Padua, I gave a talk entitled “On a Possible Cosmological Explanation for the Anomalous Heat Effect” that proposed the AHE was the solid-state conversion of Axion dark matter particles into photons. I submitted a patent in 2017 on this topic that was rejected by the USPTO in part because there was no proof that Axions composed dark matter. In the intervening years Axions have garnered the most interest as a dark matter candidate after sensitive searches for WIMPS failed to detect them and searches for particles predicted by Super Symmetry (SUSY) have not been detected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN and so SUSY is not an explanation of physics beyond the standard model (SM). In fact, the Axion is the only particle prediction motivated by the SM that has not been detected, and so is theoretically well motivated. Most Axion researchers point to cosmological models that predict the Axion mass is <30x10-6 eV, and therefore most searches for the axion are for this mass range. A prediction of this model is that the Axion mass is between 0.01 eV and 1 eV. Recent theories suggest more massive Axions stating that; a) dark matter with a mass of 0.5 eV undergoes Bose-Einstein condensation (Axion is spin 0 Boson scaler particle) and explains the behavior of all galaxies, b) Axion oscillations in the early universe can explain the missing anti-matter paradox if the mass is ~0.06 eV. Given renewed and major interest Axions as a dark matter candidate it is reasonable to revisit the dark matter model as an explanation for AHE and update several points that were problematic in the first iteration. The model can be summarized as follows: a phonon resonance (~1013 Hz) in PdDx causes a metal-to-insulator electronic phase transition each half cycle; in the insulating half cycle, a Pd 5s electrons is localized and unpaired on each Pd atom, causing a magnetic field inside the outer electron shell of up to 16,000 Tesla (Ni 4s electron, 6100 Tesla) causing a very large PdDx (NiHx) bulk effective medium magnetic field. Axions passing through the PdDx are converted to photons via the Inverse Primakoff Effect with momentum conservation provided by photons from the E&M emission of the phonons in resonance that match the mass frequency of the Axions. The converted photons are absorbed in the PdDx and the electrolyte causing heat and self-sustainment of the resonance and therefore the entire process. The conversion probability is enhanced due to; 1) its dependence on the magnetic field squared, 2) the coupling constant of conversion is proportional to the Axion mass so is large for larger masses, 3) the dark matter density in the solar system is greater than the galaxy halo density due to the capture of dark matter and, 4) a resonant enhancement due to the E&M photons in the crystal resonating with the same frequency as the mass frequency of the Axions. Why there is no huge and dangerous external macroscopic magnetic field was ignored in the original patent. Here is an explanation. It is experimentally verified that the Primakoff effect that converts photons to Pions occurs in 10-22 seconds. Due to scaler particle symmetry, we expect that the inverse Primakoff effect, converting particle mass to a photon, would also be very fast. Also, electron relaxation times are fast, on the order of 10-15 seconds. Therefore, the electronic phase transition that produces the large magnetic field is present for a short time each cycle so that the average macroscopic field is small. It was also stated in the original patent that the D/Pd ratio needed to be large, on the-order-of 0.9. Recent advances in the understanding of AHE now dictates that this ratio can be as low as 0.4. Ed Storms has been telling us this for years. The AHE is difficult to induce experimentally as it requires an active phonon resonance of the exact narrow frequency of the mass of the Axion when converted to a photon. The phonon resonant frequency in PdDx is a complicated function of the D concentration (cannot get right frequency with H), defect concentration, interstitial site occupancy (fraction of octahedral vs tetrahedral), temperature, polycrystalline texture, surface micro-topology and probably more factors.


    The patent...


    Apparatus, Systems and Methods for conversion of scalar particle flow to an electrical output


    (PDF) Apparatus, Systems and Methods for conversion of scalar particle flow to an electrical output
    PDF | Graham K. Hubler, University of Missouri and Joseph P. Aviles, Tantalon, MD Energy generation by efficient inverse-Primakoff Effect solid state... |…
    www.researchgate.net


    Graham K. Hubler, University of Missouri and Joseph P. Aviles, Tantalon, MD Energy generation by efficient inverse-Primakoff Effect solid state conversion of scalar particle dark matter into photons The anomalous heat effect (AHE)/Fleischman-Pons Effect is a real physical phenomenon and does not have a nuclear origin. This article introduces a cosmological hypothesis of the (AHE). The article outlines how stimulated phonon resonances in Pd atoms in PdDx initiate oscillating electronic metal-insulator phase transitions that produce up to 10,000 Tesla oscillating magnetic fields at frequencies of ~1013-1015 Hz in Pd atoms. The large local magnetic field is caused by formation of an unpaired 5s electron-mediated hyperfine field in the Pd atom while in the insulating state. The collective effective medium large magnetic field of the entire Pd solid converts scalar, spin 0, axion dark matter particles into photons via the inverse Primakoff Effect in the energy range of 1 meV to 1000 meV, provided the oscillation frequency matches the mass frequency of the axion. The photons are absorbed in the Pd to produce the heat signature of the AHE. It is shown that the available axion dark matter flux density in the solar system provides up to 40 W/cm2 available power, and can provide the observed heat energy in the AHE. The putative axion mass of 1 – 1000 meV is consistent with a promising new superfluid dark matter theory that places the axion mass between 100 and 1000 meV. It is suggested that crystals other than Pd may provide the same effect under special conditions. Axions in this mass range have not been detected previously since there are no existing experiments designed to detect masses >30 µeV. This hypothesis can explain the heat generation and RF mission by active PdDx cathodes and the fact that the heat effect is much less for PdHx.


    Citations (5) References (11)


    ... [100] texture of polycrystalline grains, ENEA, NRL - [2] 8. Surface contaminants important (Pt, Rh, Ni, Fe, Cu, Pb, Hg), Coolesence, SKINR -[8] 9. Labyrinth surface morphology, ENEA, NRL, SKINR - [2] 10. RF emission from heat producing cathodes, NRL, ENEA, TSEM - [-9-,10,11] 11. Voltage increase during excess heat events, ENEA, NRL, SKINR - [3,4,-9-] There is no accepted theory that can explain the excess heat. ...


    ... RF emission from heat producing cathodes, NRL, ENEA, TSEM - [-9-,10,11] 11. Voltage increase during excess heat events, ENEA, NRL, SKINR - [3,4,-9-] There is no accepted theory that can explain the excess heat. Experimental evidence compiled over the last many years that nuclear reaction mechanisms underlie the anomalous heat effect (AHE) is not compelling. ...

    ... The atoms in the Pd cathode and Pt alloy additions in the cathode experience colossal magnetic field impulses from an electronic instability driven by the electrolysis current and that can be triggered by external pulsed energy source. Some of the data from which this idea was generated is shown in Figure 3 [2,4,-9-,10]. In Figure 4 is shown optical phonon energies versus hydrogen or deuterium/Pd fraction obtained using neutron scattering [40]. ...

    Energy generation by efficient inverse-Primakoff Effect conversion of scalar particle dark matter into photons

    Experiment Findings

    Mar 2021

    Graham K. Hubler

    ... However, a slightly lower frequency, appeared, then disappeared for most of one day, then reappeared. Violante and his team [4] from the Italian Agency for Energy and Economic Development (ENEA) did impedance spectroscopy of RF and other frequencies in electrochemical LENR experiments. A schematic of their setup is given in Fig. 5. ...

    ... Kidwell and his colleagues speculated "The RF frequency is too high to originate from electrochemistry, but may be due to deuteron hopping between lattice sites in highly loaded Pd." [4]. If the RF is associated with a phenomenon having the same spatial periodicity as the basic FCC lattice, then dividing the Pd lattice constant by the observed RF period for 5.3 MHz, we get a velocity near 0.25 cm/s, consistent with known diffusional velocities. ...


    Electromagnetic Emission in the kHz to GHz Range Associated with Heat Production During Electrochemical Loading of Deuterium into Palladium: A Summary and Analysis of Results Obtained by Different Research Groups

    Article

    Dec 2016

    Felix Scholkmann

    David Nagel

    Louis F Dechiaro

    ... The atoms in the Pd cathode and Pt alloy additions in the cathode experience colossal magnetic field impulses from an electronic instability driven by the electrolysis current and that can be triggered by external pulsed energy source. Some of the data from which this idea was generated is shown in Figure 3 [2,4,-9-,10]. In Figure 4 is shown optical phonon energies versus hydrogen or deuterium/Pd fraction obtained using neutron scattering [37]. ...


    Apparatus, Systems and Methods for conversion of scalar particle flow to an electrical output

    Patent

    Nov 2017

    Graham K. Hubler

    Joseph Aviles

    ... A number of researchers reported radio frequency emissions (e.g. [13,14]). If the Hyd can end up trapped in condensed matter, they could be stimulated at the Larmor frequency (which is in the radio range for the Hyd) and undergo spin reversal. ...


    Yet Another LENR Theory: Electron-mediated Nuclear Reactions (EMNR)

    Article

    Full-text available

    Jan 2016

    Andrea Calaon

  • Is Alfred part of the Google cold fusion research group?


    Submicron fusion devices, methods and systems


    https://patents.google.com/patent/US10453575B1

    2019-10-22A Application granted

    Inventor Alfred Y. Wong

    Worldwide applications 2015

    2035-06-17 Anticipated expiration

    Classifications

    G21B3/00 Low temperature nuclear fusion reactors, e.g. alleged cold fusion reactors

    Y02E30/10 Nuclear fusion reactors

    Abstract

    Methods, apparatus, devices, and systems for creating, controlling, conducting, and optimizing fusion activities of nuclei. In particular, the present inventions relate to, among other things, fusion activities that are conducted individually or collectively on a very small scale, preferably on the nano-scale or smaller such as pico to femto scales, for the utilization of energy produced from these activities in smaller devices and for aggregation into larger devices.

  • Dissociative gravitoradiophysical transmutation of elements and apparatus therefor


    WO2019102485A1 - Dissociative gravitoradiophysical transmutation of elements and apparatus therefor - Google Patents



    DISCUSSION OF PRIOR ART


    US 5848110 A titled

    “Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei” proposes a solution for the problem mentioned above. The rate of isotopic production is increased by two-three orders of the magnitude by the use of a combination of a high repetition rate high energy pulsed power supply (RHEPP) and magnetically-injected anode plasma (MAP) source diode which are accelerator-based. These are used for the production of the beams of pulsed particle possessing intermediate energy (0.2-20 MeV) and optimize power levels to megawatts from hundreds of kilowatts. This increases two-three orders of magnitude rate of isotopic production over the processes based on conventional accelerators. The targeted nuclei can be selectively transmuted into the desired isotopes by accelerating the any (required) gaseous ion. RHEPP/MAP accelerators are power efficient and small in size for the small unit particle application. The low beam particle energy usage comparatively reduces or eliminates the generation of radioactive waste and problem of undesired products. The invention is discussed regarding the RHEPP/MAP system, and any pulsed ion beam generator is possessing enough ion kinetic energy and total average beam current are used in the same manner.


    US 5764715 A titled

    “Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei” describes ensuring a constant supply of radioisotopes to medicine and industry are of great importance. This invention addresses this problem and helps to solve it by introducing a new device for isotope’s transmutation which enhances the swift and flexible production.


    US 2008232532 A1 titled

    “Apparatus and Method for Generation of Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons” describes an apparatus and method for generating ultra- low momentum neutrons (ULMNs) using surface Plasmon Polariton electrons, collective many-body effects, surfaces of metallic substrates, hydrogen isotopes, and weak interactions in a controlled manner. The ULMNs is used to initiate nuclear transmutation reactions and produce heat. The present invention provides a "transducer" mechanism that allows controllable two-way transfers of energy back-and-forth between nuclear and chemical realms in a low-energy, small-scale, scalable condensed matter system at comparatively modest temperatures and pressures.


    Netherlands Patent No. 1033078 titled

    “ Nuclear Transmutation-Processes” describes the process including the following steps: (A) addition of hydrogen to a reactor vessel possessing a cathode, anode, and optionally an ionizing element. The cathode consists of a primary and secondary transmutation element. There are more neutrons than protons at the core of this element. The primary element contains a neutron with a preferable orientation; (B) some of the hydrogen atoms are ionized to form a plasma; (C) the applied voltage difference between the cathode and the anode makes the protons to move towards the cathode to which they bind to temporarily. The transmutation elements fuse on the surface of the cathode with the plasma vortex elements fuse to form an element having a higher mass number and the second molecule with a lower mass number, and (D) the production of heat or electricity can occur if the radiations are collected. US 2008123793 A1 titled “Thermal power production device utilizing nanoscale confinement” describes a thermal energy generation device through a nuclear transmutation reaction when fuel containing hydrogen comes in contact with nanotubes containing a transmutation element. An energy absorbing fluid is present in a vessel that aids in the heat transfer system. This energy is absorbed due to the transmutation reactions. The transfer of thermal energy is assisted by water. A method of power generation using such a device is also disclosed.


    US 2007297554 A1 titled

    “Method and system for production of radioisotopes, and radioisotopes produced thereby” describes a system and method for the production of radioisotopes by the transmutation of target isotopic material attacked by a continuous wave-particle ray. An ion source generates a continuous wave ion beam, irradiating an isotope target, which is cooled by transmitting heat away from the target at heat fluxes of at least about one kW/cm.


    JP 2005062025 titled

    “Method for increasing nuclear transmutation quantity from nuclear transmutation device and nuclear transmutation device” describes a method for increasing a nuclide amount which permits transmutation from a device in the first nuclear transmutation process. The solution to the mentioned problem is; with this method, a nuclear transmutation rate from a device is increased by applying plasma treatment or electrolysis process to a structure’s surface having a Hydrogen occlusion metal, and a substance addition causing the nuclear transmutation to the surface.


    US 2004047443 A1 titled

    “Electron capture by magnetic resonance” describes the process of electron capture by subjecting a proton to magnetic resonance until the opposite direction of the magnetic moment about the electron's magnetic moment is achieved. The spin-locking technique is applied for a period to initiate particle’s transmutation, and the simultaneous reactions of the product with a group of particles or an adjacent particle and the energy is released when the particles’ magnetic moments are opposite in direction.


    W003098640 A3 titled

    “Processing radioactive materials with hydrogen isotope nuclei” describes a method for processing radioactive materials. The method uses hydrogen isotope nuclei for the treatment of radioactive materials, such as Uranium, and increases the observed decay rate of such substances effectively. Therefore, the disclosed method permits remediation of dangerous radioactive materials, such as Uranium, without the use of long-term, geologically-stable storage sites or costly, accelerator-based transmutation equipment.


    Russian Patent No. 2210630 titled

    “Facility for generation of gas mixture and transmutation of nuclei of atoms of chemical elements” describes a facility for physical and chemical technologies and engineering for the gas mixture and the transmutation of atomic nuclei of chemical elements has body made of dielectric substances with strong hole, inter-electrode chamber, cooling chamber for vapour condensation, vessel for working solution, to feed and drain working solution branch pipes are provided, anode and cathode are connected to the positive and negative poles of power supply source respectively. The body has an upper boss with an internal cavity. The cathode is placed into cathode space from above through an axial hole of the upper boss. The internal space of the boss communicates with the cooling chamber connected to the vessel for working solution.


    US 20030226401 A1 titled

    “ Atomic structure recognition and modification method and apparatus” describes the apparatus and methods for determining the precise makeup of atomic and molecular structures, as well as offering the potential of modifying said structures. The invention utilizes induced resonant frequency wave effects to define and modify the electrical, electromagnetic, atomic weight, radioactive and covalent bonding characteristics of matter. One embodiment of the present invention is, in a gaseous medium the directionally controllable magnetic fields are produced that interact with magnetically polarized vehicle surfaces to allow high-speed, highly energy efficient inter planetary space travel. Another embodiment of the invention is to neutralize nuclear fission power production waste products. The invention uses multi spectrum frequency induction in a controlled manner to catalyze changes in atomic structures that may include, production of new alloys, focused and dramatically amplified release of energy about natural states of matter, transmutation of dangerous organic compounds into non-toxic media, and controlled polarization of matter. The benefits of the invention include hazardous waste elimination systems, highly efficient interstellar spacecraft propulsion systems, production of efficient electricity, and enhancement of biological organism’s health.


    German Patent No. 19803629 titled

    “Transmutation of isotopes with long half life” describes the transmutation of long half-life isotopes. The isotope’s surfaces are exposed to a gas or plasma atmosphere or an electrolyte to form intermediate layers or volume zones of some structure layers. The threshold zones are placed against a carrier material or close to volume zones of metal layers consisting of metals for absorbing -1 atom% of Hydrogen or its isotope.


    WO1999019881 A1 titled

    “Low temperature electrolytic nuclear transmutation” describes a method for creating low-temperature nuclear transmutations by electrolysis in aqueous media. New elements produced by transmutation are found as having discrete peaks in occurrence by atomic number (Z) and by atomic mass (A). New complex nuclei produced by transmutation are identified as having existed based upon the nature and occurrences of fission transmutation elements produced. The electrolytic cell comprised a non-conductive housing with an inlet and an outlet and spaced apart first and second conductive grids located therein. A plurality of cross-linked polymer non-metallic cores each with a uniform conductive outer metallic surface formed of a high Hydrogen absorbing material form a bed of conductive beads closely packed within the housing in electrical contact with the first grid adjoining the inlet. An electric power source in the system is operably connected across the first and second grids.


    WO1998003699 A3 titled

    “ Electrolytic nuclear transmuted elements having unnatural isotopic distributions” describes a method for generating low- temperature nuclear transmutations which happen during electrolysis in an aqueous medium within a cell. New elements created by transmutation during operation of the cell are both higher and lower in atomic mass than the original element undergoing transmutation. Many of the new elements also demonstrate isotopic shifts from natural isotope abundance. The electrolytic cell consisted of a non-conductive housing with an inlet and an outlet and spaced apart first and second conductive grids positioned within the housing. A plurality of preferably cross-linked polymer non-metallic cores each containing a uniform conductive exterior metallic surface created of a high Hydrogen absorbing material, such as a metallic hydride forming substance, form a bed of conductive beads closely packed within the housing in electrical connection with the first grid adjacent the inlet. An electric power source in the system is operably attached across the first and second grid through which electrical current flows between the grids and within the aqueous medium flowing through the cell during cell operation.


    GB970091 titled

    “Transmutation of elements” describes a process or procedure for the synthesis of Helium and also the energy generation consists, mixing in a pressure-tight steel vessel in the presence of air reactants are mixed in the following order-aluminium in a physical form, solid sodium hydroxide, and water in the ratio of 4:8:8 respectively. The reaction is declared to be thermonuclear having the Carbon cycle proposed by Bethe and resulting in Hydrogen to Helium transmutation.


    Most of them use high energy reactions under controlled conditions using special materials, resulting in laboratory results to prove elemental transmutation. None of these prior arts is anywhere near the present invention, to achieve elemental transmutation based on Gravitoradiophysical Nuclear Transmutation (GNT). Further, the present invention is highly repeatable, with precisely controlled reaction under simple conditions and is safe in operation. Elemental transmutation achieved by GNT would produce many and most valuable chemical elements and their isotopes from other chemical elements artificially. The elements are produced without using the atomic reactors, cyclotrons, highly enriched uranium or heavy water. The method is not a threat to the environment or personnel [1]

  • Robert Godes doing some teasing, I assume.


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    The video explanation from the very same video description:


    “Published on Jul 20, 2021

    Just a power supply that does not work and the supplier wants a video on youtube showing the problem.” (Added by Curbina)