FP's experiments discussion

  • Premeditated and postmeditated boiloff


    The boil-off was more simply expected.


    Since 1985, F&P have had the opportunity to run hundreds of similar run, so they knew what would have happened. In 2009, Krivit reported this experimental confidence in this way (1): "By 1993, Fleischmann and Pons had developed such control of their experiments, particularly the cathode material, that they had the confidence and ability to set up a row of four cells side by side and initiate anomalous-heat reactions on all four at will."


    So, they started the experiment on April 11, 1992, knowing that in a few weeks each one of the 4 cell under testing would have reached the boil-off phase, as they had experienced in the past also in their blank tests, as documented by Hansen in 1991 (2).


    The reaching of boiling condition does not require any triggering with heat pulses. The cause of this behavior of the F&P open cells was explained by Morrison in 1993:

    From: http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Fleischmanreplytothe.pdf


    Secondly, it may be noted in fig. 8 of ref 1, that the cell voltage rises as the temperature rises and that as 100 C is approached, the voltage rises more and more steeply. Experience by the GE group [6] was that in operating similar open cells over many hours, they also noticed a rise in cell voltage with time. They attributed this effect as being due to some of the escaping gases carrying some Lithium with them. As the level of the electrolyte is maintained by adding fresh D2O (but not any lithium salt), the concentration of lithium in the electrolyte decreases with time and the voltage rises. This was proved by atomic absorption analysis, that the cell resistance had risen (causing higher voltage due to the constant current mode operation) due to loss of lithium which was caused by sputtering of electrolyte droplets up the gas outlet tube. This may be considered confirmation that even at moderate temperatures, the outlet stream contains liquids as well as gases as discussed for stage three when the temperature was much higher and the boiling much more vigorous. It may be concluded that claims of excess enthalpy in stage two have not been established.


    [6]. General Electric group of ref. 4. priv. comm.


    What you have underlined in red is very important for other reasons. First, because F&P stated that they have accurately examined the videotape recording. Second, because they included in their paper to ICCF3 (3) the video stills of the boiling phase of Cells 1 and 4, but, strangely, not the video still of Cell 2, the only one that was claimed to have undergone a HAD event.


    (1) http://newenergytimes.com/v2/l…ivit-S-ANewLookAtLENR.pdf

    (2) http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/HansenWNreporttoth.pdf

    (3) http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Fleischmancalorimetra.pdf

    • Official Post

    This was proved by atomic absorption analysis, that the cell resistance had risen (causing higher voltage due to the constant current mode operation) due to loss of lithium which was caused by sputtering of electrolyte droplets up the gas outlet tube...


    ....Where the lithium-bearing droplets condensed and dried, leaving the lithium deuteroxide inside the evaporation tube as a thin film.

  • ....Where the lithium-bearing droplets condensed and dried, leaving the lithium deuteroxide inside the evaporation tube as a thin film.


    I don't think so. Leaving aside that I don't understand how a liquid droplet can condense and dry, the images (pictures and drawings) show that the vent pipes of the F&P's open cells were short and straight, so it's very likely that the droplets entrained in the electrolyses gas flowing through these vents may have escaped the cell.

  • Foam vs water the last 10 minutes:


    The debate Ascoli started by trying to analyse some fuzzy pictures in the F&P paper and suggest some serious error by F&P in water level measurments is not a feasible error:


    If, as Ascoli believes, the tube was mostly foam filled and not 50% water at the start of the last 10 minutes in the F&P paper, i.e. No excess heat caused by LENR, it would mean that the actual water level would have to be very low;


    Firstly Fleischmann did a thorough investigation in identifying the heat transfer coefficient to the surroundings. So his calculation of the losses the last 10 minutes is most likely very accurate at reported 6700 joules.


    We also know the electrical input energy the last 10 minutes at 22500 joules is accurate at +/- 0,22%


    This means 15800 Jôule went to produce steam. Boiling of heavy water requires some 2073 Jôule/gram of water.


    So, if there where no excess heat generated at all, the water volume at the beginning of the last 10 minutes would be 7,6 grams, or less than 10% of the original 5 mole test tube volume.


    So the suggestion that F&P in the hundreds of tests during the 80's and 90's read off wrong water level, like 50% when the actual level was less than 10% is Absolutely nonsens.


    F&P also had many "live" cells that did not produce excess heat in addition to control cells, which means they where able to see the differences when the video tapes where fresh.


    And again, several third party confirmation leads to the easy conclusion that nature tell us something that requires further investigation.


    "I feel like the visitor looking at the giraffe and concluding, "there ain't no such animal." " - Edward Teller on Cold Fusion (1992) 🤓

  • Foam vs water the last 10 minutes:


    First of all, can you tell me where the 10 minutes come from?


    Quote

    If, as Ascoli believes, the tube was mostly foam filled and not 50% water at the start of the last 10 minutes in the F&P paper, i.e. No excess heat caused by LENR, it would mean that the actual water level would have to be very low;


    Yes, very very low, less than 1 cm, judging on the basis of the first blue arrow, which - in the boil-off phase of each cell - appears in the explanatory "Four-cell boil-off" video (1).


    Quote

    Firstly Fleischmann did a thorough investigation in identifying the heat transfer coefficient to the surroundings. So his calculation of the losses the last 10 minutes is most likely very accurate at reported 6700 joules.


    The accuracy in the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient, reported in the first part of F&P paper (2), is only apparent. You can't calculate a single value for a coefficient that should be applied to the entire temperature range, especially if this coefficient is multiplied by the fourth power of the temperature. It is a total nonsense.


    Anyway, inverting the relationship shown on page 16, we obtain k'R=9.09 x 10-9 WK-4. Can you find this specific value in the plethora of k values reported in the previous 15 pages?


    Quote

    We also know the electrical input energy the last 10 minutes at 22500 joules is accurate at +/- 0,22%


    That accuracy was calculated by you, making some confusion with the numerical accuracy. Actually, you can't assess the accuracy of the electrical input energy because you don't know all the values involved in the first equation of page 16. In fact the value of Ecell is not specified.


    Well, inverting the relationship, assuming that the current remains constant at 0.5 A and adding the time length of 600 s - that F&P forgot to include in the formula - we get a value of Ecell=76.54 V (=75 + 1.54). But the F&P paper (2) don't say where this value comes from, so we can't know its accuracy and, consequently, establish the accuracy of the electrical input energy.


    Quote

    So, if there where no excess heat generated at all, the water volume at the beginning of the last 10 minutes would be 7,6 grams, or less than 10% of the original 5 mole test tube volume.


    No wonder, as already said, the initial water level was even lower. All the rest was already foam.


    Quote

    So the suggestion that F&P in the hundreds of tests during the 80's and 90's read off wrong water level, like 50% when the actual level was less than 10% is Absolutely nonsens.


    It could be that the real absolute nonsense is that F&P have been trusted by so many people for nearly 30 years. But, this is an argument worth to be discussed only when will be reached a larger agreement on what happened in the four-cell experiment. Let us stick on the 1992 paper (2) for the moment.


    Quote

    F&P also had many "live" cells that did not produce excess heat in addition to control cells, which means they where able to see the differences when the video tapes where fresh.


    Let me give you an advice. Base your opinion on your eyes, rather than on F&P's says.


    Quote

    And again, several third party confirmation leads to the easy conclusion that nature tell us something that requires further investigation.


    The only experimenter, that is considered to have been successful in replicating the F&P boil-off test was Lonchampt. As already said (3), his paper deserves a more thorough examination, but the original has the priority.


    Quote

    "I feel like the visitor looking at the giraffe and concluding, "there ain't no such animal." " - Edward Teller on Cold Fusion (1992)


    Well, don't behave like that visitor. Look more carefully at the video and you will conclude that, at the beginning of its boil-off phase, each cell was full of foam.


    (1) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBAIIZU6Oj8

    (2) http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Fleischmancalorimetra.pdf

    (3) FP's experiments discussion

  • Ascoli:


    "The only experimenter, that is considered to have been successful in replicating the F&P boil-off test was Lonchampt."


    Really? I mean - REALLY?


    Until 2009 there was 152 Peer-Reviewed papers with successful Excess Heat Events.


    After 2009 there number has grown further.


    See if you can a find a "few" more than Lonchampt below ;)


    “We have been skeptical about this [discovery] for five years” - M. Fleischmann 23.March 1989



    List 2. Peer-reviewed excess heat papers, from both databases


    1. Agelao, G. and M.C. Romano, Heat and helium production during exothermic reactions

    between gases through palladium geometrical elements loaded with hydrogen. Fusion

    Technol., 2000. 38: p. 224.

    2. Aoki, T., et al., Search for nuclear products of the D + D nuclear fusion. Int. J. Soc. Mat.

    Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 22.

    3. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of intense 'cold fusion' reaction. Kaku Yugo

    Kenkyu, 1989. 62: p. 398 (In Japanese).

    4. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of an intense cold fusion reaction. Fusion

    Technol., 1990. 18: p. 95.

    5. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of intense 'cold' fusion reaction. Proc. Jpn. Acad.,

    Ser. B, 1990. 66: p. 1.

    6. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Corroborating evidence for 'cold' fusion reaction. Proc. Jpn.

    Acad., Ser. B, 1990. 66(B): p. 110.

    7. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, 'Cold' fusion caused by a weak 'on-off effect'. Proc. Jpn. Acad.,

    Ser. B, 1992. 66: p. 33.

    8. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, 'Cold' fusion in deuterated complex cathode. Kaku Yugo

    Kenkyu, 1992. 67((5)): p. 432 (in Japanese).

    9. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Reproducible "Cold" Fusion Reaction Using A Complex

    Cathode. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 287.

    10. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Excess heat in a double structure deuterated cathode. Kaku

    Yugo Kenkyu, 1993. 69((8)): p. 963 (in Japanese).

    11. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy caused by "Spillover-deuterium". Proc. Jpn.

    Acad., Ser. B, 1994. 70 ser. B: p. 106.

    12. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy generated in DS-cathode with 'Pd-black'. Koon

    Gakkaishi, 1994. 20(4): p. 148 (in Japanese).

    13. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ("cold fusion").

    Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21((6)): p. 303 (in Japanese).

    14. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Deuterium nuclear reaction process within solid. Proc. Jpn.

    Acad., Ser. B, 1996. 72 Ser. B: p. 179.

    15. Arata, Y. and C. Zhang, Presence of helium (4/2He, 3/2He) confirmed in highly

    deuterated Pd-black by the new detecting methodology. J. High Temp. Soc., 1997. 23: p.

    110 (in Japanese).

    16. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Solid-state plasma fusion ('cold fusion'). J. High Temp. Soc.,

    1997. 23 (special volume): p. 1-56.

    17. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Observation of Anomalous Heat Release and Helium-4

    Production from Highly Deuterated Fine Particles. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1999. 38: p.

    L774.

    18. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Formation of Condensed Metallic Deuterium Lattice and

    Nuclear Fusion. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 2002. 78(Ser. B): p. 57.

    19. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang, The Establishment of Solid Nuclear Fusion Reactor. J. High

    Temp. Soc., 2008. 34(2): p. 85.

    20. Babu, K.S.C., et al., On the formation of palladium deuteride and its relationship to

    suspected cold fusion. Adv. Hydrogen Energy, 1990. 8 Hydrogen Energy Prog. VIII,

    Vol. 2),: p. 1051.

    19

    21. Battaglia, A., et al., Neutron emission in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A,

    1999. 112 A: p. 921.

    22. Belzner, A., et al., Two fast mixed-conductor systems: deuterium and hydrogen in

    palladium - thermal measurements and experimental considerations. J. Fusion Energy,

    1990. 9(2): p. 219.

    23. Belzner, A., et al., Recent results on mixed conductors containing hydrogen or deuterium.

    Solid State Ionics, 1990. 40/41: p. 519.

    24. Bertalot, L., et al., Study of deuterium charging in palladium by the electrolysis of heavy

    water: heat excess production. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1993. 15 D: p. 1435.

    25. Birgul, O., et al., Electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium using surface modified

    palladium electrodes. J. Eng. Env. Sci., 1990. 14(3): p. 373.

    26. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Search for the cold fusion d(d,(4)He) in electrolysis of D2O. Phys.

    Lett. A, 1990. 151(9): p. 543.

    27. Bush, B.F., et al., Helium production during the electrolysis of D2O in cold fusion

    experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 304: p. 271.

    28. Bush, R.T., A light water excess heat reaction suggests that 'cold fusion' may be 'alkalihydrogen

    fusion'. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 301.

    29. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, Evidence for Electrolytically Induced Transmutation and

    Radioactivity Correlated with Excess Heat in Electrolytic Cells with Light Water

    Rubidium Salt Electrolytes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 334.

    30. Celani, F., et al., Deuterium overloading of palladium wires by means of high power

    microsecond pulsed electrolysis and electromigration: suggestions of a "phase

    transition" and related excess heat. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 214: p. 1.

    31. Celani, F., et al., Reproducible D/Pd ratio > 1 and excess heat correlation by 1-microsecpulse,

    high-current electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 398.

    32. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman, Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of

    Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation

    With Excess Heat. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 299.

    33. Dufour, J., Cold fusion by sparking in hydrogen isotopes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p.

    205.

    34. Dufour, J., et al., Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium to measure

    the excess energy per atom for each isotope. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 198.

    35. Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and M. Hawkins, Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of

    deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 261: p. 301 and errata in Vol. 263.

    36. Fleischmann, M., et al., Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system. J.

    Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 293.

    37. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Some comments on the paper Analysis of experiments on

    the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O electrochemical cells, R.H. Wilson et al., J. Electroanal.

    Chem. 332 [1992] 1. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 332: p. 33.

    38. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from simplicity via

    complications to simplicity. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 176: p. 118.

    39. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Reply to the critique by Morrison entitled 'Comments on

    claims of excess enthalpy by Fleischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys.

    Lett. A, 1994. 187: p. 276.

    40. Focardi, S., R. Habel, and F. Piantelli, Anomalous heat production in Ni-H systems.

    Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107A: p. 163.

    20

    41. Focardi, S., et al., Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc.

    Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 111A: p. 1233.

    42. Gozzi, D., et al., Evidences for associated heat generation and nuclear products release

    in palladium heavy-water electrolysis. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 103: p.

    143.

    43. Gozzi, D., et al., Nuclear and thermal effects during electrolytic reduction of deuterium

    at palladium cathode. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 241.

    44. Gozzi, D., et al., Calorimetric and nuclear byproduct measurements in electrochemical

    confinement of deuterium in palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 91.

    45. Gozzi, D., et al., Quantitative measurements of helium-4 in the gas phase of Pd + D2O

    electrolysis. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 109.

    46. Gozzi, D., et al., X-ray, heat excess and 4He in the D/Pd system. J. Electroanal. Chem.,

    1998. 452: p. 251.

    47. Isagawa, S., Y. Kanda, and T. Suzuki, Present status of cold fusion experiment at KEK".

    Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 65(1): p. 60.

    48. Isobe, Y., et al., Search for multibody nuclear reactions in metal deuteride induced with

    ion beam and electrolysis methods. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2002. 41(part 1): p. 1546.

    49. Iwamura, Y., et al., Detection of anomalous elements, x-ray, and excess heat in a D2-Pd

    system and its interpretation by the electron-induced nuclear reaction model. Fusion

    Technol., 1998. 33: p. 476.

    50. Iyengar, P.K., et al., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre studies on cold fusion. Fusion

    Technol., 1990. 18: p. 32.

    51. Kainthla, R.C., et al., Eight chemical explanations of the Fleischmann-Pons effect. J.

    Hydrogen Energy, 1989. 14(11): p. 771.

    52. Kainthla, R.C., et al., Sporadic observation of the Fleischmann-Pons heat effect.

    Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1315.

    53. Kamada, K., H. Kinoshita, and H. Takahashi, Anomalous heat evolution of deuteriumimplanted

    Al upon electron bombardment. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1996. 35: p. 738.

    54. Kamada, K., Heating of deuteron implanted Al on electron bombardment and its possible

    relation to 'cold fusion' experiment. Fusion Eng. Des., 2001. 55: p. 541.

    55. Karabut, A.B., Y.R. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova. Cold Fusion Observation at GasDischarge

    Device Cathode. in Anniversary Specialist Conf. on Nucl. Power Eng. in

    Space. 1990. Obninsk, Russia.

    56. Karabut, A.B., Y.R. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, Nuclear reactions at the cathode in

    a gas discharge. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1990. 16(6): p. 463.

    57. Karabut, A.B., Y.R. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, The investigation of deuterium

    nuclei fusion at glow discharge cathode. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 924.

    58. Kirkinskii, V.A., V.A. Drebushchak, and A.I. Khmelnikov, Excess heat release during

    deuterium sorption-desorption by finely powdered palladium deuteride. Europhys. Lett.,

    2002. 58: p. 462.

    59. Kunimatsu, K., Current status of room-temperature nuclear fusion. Excess heat

    measurement. Petrotech. (Tokyo), 1994. 17(12): p. 998 (in Japanese).

    60. Kunimatsu, K., Surface modification of the cathode in the study of cold fusion. Hyomen

    Gijutsu, 1996. 47(3): p. 218 (in Japanese).

    61. Lewis, D. and K. Sk'ld, A phenomenological study of the Fleischmann-Pons effect. J.

    Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 294: p. 275.

    21

    62. Lewis, D., Some regularities and coincidences in thermal, electrochemical and radiation

    phenomena observed in experiments at Studsvik on the Fleischmann-Pons effect. J.

    Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 316: p. 353.

    63. Li, X.Z., A new approach towards nuclear fusion without strong nuclear radiation. Nucl.

    Fusion Plasma Phys., 1996. 16(2): p. 1 (in Chinese).

    64. Li, X.Z., et al., Correlation between abnormal deuterium flux and heat flow in a D/Pd

    system. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 2003. 36: p. 3095-3097.

    65. Liaw, B.Y., et al., Elevated-temperature excess heat production in a Pd + D system. J.

    Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 319: p. 161.

    66. Liaw, B.Y., P.L. Tao, and B.E. Liebert, Helium analysis of palladium electrodes after

    molten salt electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 92.

    67. Lin, G.H., et al., On electrochemical tritium production. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1990.

    15: p. 537.

    68. Lipson, A.G., et al., Generation of the products of DD nuclear fusion in high-temperature

    superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-deltaDy near the superconducting phase transition. Tech.

    Phys., 1995. 40: p. 839.

    69. Lipson, A.G., et al., The nature of excess energy liberated in a Pd/PdO heterostructure

    electrochemically saturated with hydrogen (deuterium). Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1995. 69:

    p. 1810.

    70. Lyakhov, B.F., et al., Anomalous heat release in the Pd/PdO system electrolytically

    saturated with hydrogen. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1993. 67: p. 491.

    71. Mathews, C.K., et al., On the possibility of nuclear fusion by the electrolysis of heavy

    water. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 229.

    72. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd and

    H/Pd Systems. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 55.

    73. Mengoli, G., et al., Absorption-desorption of deuterium at Pd95%-Rh5% alloy. I:

    Environment and temperature effects. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 390: p. 135.

    74. Mengoli, G., et al., Anomalous heat effects correlated with electrochemical hydriding of

    nickel. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 20 D: p. 331.

    75. Mengoli, G., et al., Calorimetry close to the boiling temperature of the D2O/Pd

    electrolytic system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 444: p. 155.

    76. Miao, B., Experimental exploration on the possible mechanism of D-D cold fusion in

    titanium lattice. Xibei Shifan Xuebao. Ziran Kexueban, 1994. 30(1): p. 39 (in Chinese).

    77. Miao, B., Experimental exploration on possible mechanism of D-D cold fusion in

    titanium lattice. Xibei Shifan Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban, 1994. 30: p. 44 (in

    Chinese).

    78. Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell, Electrochemical calorimetric evidence for cold

    fusion in the palladium-deuterium system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 296: p. 241.

    79. Miles, M., et al. Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Second

    Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, "The Science of Cold Fusion". 1991. Como, Italy:

    Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

    80. Miles, M., et al., Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and

    H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 346: p. 99.

    81. Miles, M., B.F. Bush, and J.J. Lagowski, Anomalous effects involving excess power,

    radiation, and helium production during D2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes.

    Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 478.

    22

    82. Miles, M., B.F. Bush, and D.E. Stilwell, Calorimetric principles and problems in

    measurements of excess power during Pd-D2O electrolysis. J. Phys. Chem., 1994. 98: p.

    1948.

    83. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush, Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium.

    Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 156.

    84. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush, Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium.

    Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 156.

    85. Miles, M., Reply to 'An assessment of claims of excess heat in cold fusion calorimetry'. J.

    Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3648.

    86. Miles, M., Reply to 'Examination of claims of Miles et al. in Pons-Fleischmann-type cold

    fusion experiments'. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3642.

    87. Miles, M., Calorimetric studies of Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis cells. J. Electroanal.

    Chem., 2000. 482: p. 56.

    88. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric analysis of a heavy water

    electrolysis experiment using a Pd-B alloy cathode. Proc. Electrochem. Soc., 2001.

    2001-23: p. 194.

    89. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric analysis of a heavy water

    electrolysis experiment using a Pd-B alloy cathode. Proc. Electrochem. Soc., 2001.

    2001-23: p. 194.

    90. Miley, G.H., et al., Electrolytic Cell with Multilayer Thin-Film Electrodes. Trans. Fusion

    Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 313.

    91. Mills, R.L. and P. Kneizys, Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous

    potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion. Fusion Technol.,

    1991. 20: p. 65.

    92. Mills, R.L., Reply to 'Comments on "Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an

    aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion"'. Fusion

    Technol., 1992. 21: p. 96.

    93. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous heat evolution from a solid-state electrolyte under

    alternating current in high-temperature D2 gas. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 385.

    94. Mizuno, T., et al., Production of Heat During Plasma Electrolysis. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A,

    2000. 39: p. 6055.

    95. Mizuno, T., et al., Hydrogen Evolution by Plasma Electrolysis in Aqueous Solution. Jpn.

    J. Appl. Phys. A, 2005. 44(1A): p. 396-401.

    96. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Pd/(n)H system: transport processes and

    development of thermal instabilities. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 577.

    97. Nakamura, K., T. Kawase, and I. Ogura, Possibility of element transmutation by arcing in

    water. Kinki Daigaku Genshiryoku Kenkyusho Nenpo, 1996. 33: p. 25 (in Japanese).

    98. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Determination of the excess energy obtained during

    the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 364.

    99. Noninski, V.C., Excess heat during the electrolysis of a light water solution of K2CO3

    with a nickel cathode. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 163.

    100. Notoya, R., Cold fusion by electrolysis in a light water-potassium carbonate solution

    with a nickel electrode. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 202.

    101. Notoya, R., Y. Noya, and T. Ohnishi, Tritium generation and large excess heat evolution

    by electrolysis in light and heavy water-potassium carbonate solutions with nickel

    electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 179.

    23

    102. Numata, H. and M. Fukuhara, Low-temperature elastic anomalies and heat generation of

    deuterated palladium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 300.

    103. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo, Excess heat evolution during electrolysis of H2O with nickel,

    gold, silver, and tin cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 293.

    104. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Nuclear transmutation occurring in the electrolysis on

    several metal electrodes. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 1997. 5: p. 37.

    105. Ohmori, T., et al., Transmutation in the electrolysis of lightwater - excess energy and

    iron production in a gold electrode. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 210.

    106. Ohmori, T., et al., Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system. Fusion

    Technol., 1998. 33: p. 367.

    107. Okamoto, M., et al., Excess Heat Generation, Voltage Deviation, and Neutron Emission

    in D2O-LiOD Systems. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 176.

    108. Okamoto, M., et al., Excess Heat Generation, Voltage Deviation, and Neutron Emission

    in D2O-LiOD Systems. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 176.

    109. Oriani, R.A., et al., Calorimetric measurements of excess power output during the

    cathodic charging of deuterium into palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 652.

    110. Oriani, R.A., An investigation of anomalous thermal power generation from a protonconducting

    oxide. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 281.

    111. Ota, K., H. Yoshitake, and N. Kamiya, Present status of cold fusion. Hyomen Kagaku,

    1993. 14(9): p. 570 (in Japanese).

    112. Ota, K. and T. Kobayashi, Cold fusion and calorimetry. Netsu Sokutei, 1997. 24(3): p.

    138 (Japan., Engl. abstr.).

    113. Ota, K., et al., Effect of boron for the heat production during the heavy water electrolysis

    using palladium cathode. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 26.

    114. Oyama, N., et al., Electrochemical calorimetry of D2O electrolysis using a palladium

    cathode - an undivided, open cell system -. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1990. 63: p. 2659.

    115. Oyama, N., et al., Probing absorption of deuterium into palladium cathodes during D2O

    electrolysis with an in situ electrochemical microbalance technique. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

    Part 2, 1990. 29(5): p. L818.

    116. Oyama, N. and O. Hatozaki, Present and future of cold fusion - nuclear fusion induced by

    electrochemical reaction. Oyo Butsuri, 1991. 60: p. 220 (in Japanese).

    117. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric measurements of the palladium/deuterium

    system: fact and fiction. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 669.

    118. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Etalonnage du systeme Pd-D2O: effets de protocole et

    feed-back positif. ["Calibration of the Pd-D2O system: protocol and positive feed-back

    effects"]. J. Chim. Phys., 1996. 93: p. 711 (in French).

    119. Preparata, G., M. Scorletti, and M. Verpelli, Isoperibolic calorimetry on modified

    Fleischmann-Pons cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 411: p. 9.

    120. Ray, M.K.S., et al., The Fleischmann-Pons phenomenon - a different perspective. Fusion

    Technol., 1992. 22: p. 395.

    121. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Electrochemically initiated cold fusion of deuterium. Indian J.

    Technol., 1989. 27: p. 175.

    122. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Excess enthalpy during electrolysis of D2O. Curr. Sci., 1989.

    58: p. 1139.

    123. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Nuclear reaction products detected at the cathode

    after a glow discharge in deuterium. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 63 (in Russian).

    24

    124. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Radioactivity of palladium cathodes after irradiation

    in a glow discharge. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 76 (in Russian).

    125. Scott, C.D., et al., Measurement of excess heat and apparent coincident increases in the

    neutron and gamma-ray count rates during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion

    Technol., 1990. 18: p. 103.

    126. Scott, C.D., et al., Preliminary Investigation of Possible Low-Temperature Fusion. J.

    Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 115.

    127. Shirai, O., et al., Some experimental results relating to cold nuclear fusion. Bull. Inst.

    Chem. Res., Kyoto Univ., 1991. 69: p. 550.

    128. Srinivasan, M., Nuclear fusion in an atomic lattice: An update on the international status

    of cold fusion research. Curr. Sci., 1991. 60: p. 417.

    129. Storms, E., Measurements of excess heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell

    using palladium sheet. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 230.

    130. Storms, E., Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the "Cold Fusion" Effect.

    Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 96.

    131. Storms, E., How to produce the Pons-Fleischmann effect. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p.

    261.

    132. Swartz, M.R., Codeposition of palladium and deuterium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p.

    126.

    133. Swartz, M.R., Consistency of the biphasic nature of excess enthalpy in solid-state

    anomalous phenomena with the quasi-one-dimensional model of isotope loading into a

    material. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 63.

    134. Szpak, S., et al., Electrochemical charging of Pd rods. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 309:

    p. 273.

    135. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of Pd deposited in the

    presence of evolving deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 302: p. 255.

    136. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber, Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of

    the interphase. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 337: p. 147.

    137. Szpak, S., et al., Cyclic voltammetry of Pd + D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995.

    380: p. 1.

    138. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Nuclear and Thermal Events Associated with Pd + D

    Codeposition. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 54.

    139. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D

    system: a response to Vigier's comments. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 221: p. 141.

    140. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of the cathodically

    polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiation. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 210: p. 382.

    141. Szpak, S., et al., On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium production.

    Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 38.

    142. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, On the release of n/1H from cathodically polarized

    palladium electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 273.

    143. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and M. Miles, Calorimetry of the Pd+D codeposition.

    Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 234.

    144. Szpak, S., et al., Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by codeposition.

    Thermochim. Acta, 2004. 410: p. 101.

    145. Szpak, S., et al., Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice. Naturwiss., 2005. 92(8):

    p. 394-397.

    25

    146. Takahashi, A., et al., Excess heat and nuclear products by D2O/Pd electrolysis and

    multibody fusion. Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mater., 1992. 3: p. 221.

    147. Takahashi, A., Cold fusion research: present status. Koon Gakkaishi, 1993. 19(5): p. 179

    (in Japanese).

    148. Takahashi, A., Production of neutron, tritium and excess heat. Oyo Butsuri, 1993. 62: p.

    707 (In Japanese).

    149. Takahashi, A., et al., Experimental study on correlation between excess heat and nuclear

    products by D2O/Pd electrolysis. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 4.

    150. Velev, O.A. and R.C. Kainthla, Heat flow calorimeter with a personal-computer-based

    data acquisition system. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 351.

    151. Yun, K.S., et al., Calorimetric observation of heat production during electrolysis of 0.1

    M LiOD + D2O solution. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 306: p. 279.

    152. Zhang, Q., et al., The excess heat experiments on cold fusion in titanium lattice. Chin. J.

  • Dear Oystla,


    A word of advice. Ascoli is quite precise in what he is saying. You do yourself, and your cause (if you consider showing F&P's paper to be good science your cause) no favours by replying away from the point.


    "The only experimenter, that is considered to have been successful in replicating the F&P boil-off test was Lonchampt."


    Really? I mean - REALLY?


    Until 2009 there was 152 Peer-Reviewed papers with successful Excess Heat Events.


    That is a non-sequitur. Ascoli is considering one aspect of the historically significant paper quoted by many here, and has shown in much more detail than I've seen before some issues in the calculation of open cell boil-off enthalpy therein. He is then addressing the matter of whether that phase of the experiment, with very large positive claimed results, has been replicated elsewhere. Other than Longchampt none of those papers are an F&P boil-off replication, or anything like.


    Please direct your arguments towards his criticism of F&P boil-off.


    Personally I find it somewhat cult-like that the flakiest part of a very badly documented (and, if Ascoli's arguments are correct, wrongly analysed) experiment should be defended with such tenacity, rather than, as scientists do, admit that the same stuff has been done with better documentation and under more controlled conditions by others, e.g. Mckubre.


    The lack of precise documentation of results in the F&P paper would make its contents of limited value even were there not question marks raised over its accuracy.


    THH

  • Acoli:


    "Anyway, inverting the relationship shown on page 16, we obtain k'R=9.09 x 10-9 WK-4. Can you find this specific value in the plethora of k values reported in the previous 15 pages?"


    OK, Try to invert the relationship one more time and see if you get another number ;)


    HINT: You are close, but not close ;)


    And then you may look for the K value in the paper.....and find it....as I did


    You see, very few chemists where better in math than Fleischmann ;)

  • Dear Huxley,


    Ascoli put forward a bold claim as I referred to…


    And I asked him “between the lines” if he really-really-REALLY where sure on his bold claim 😉


    You mean I should rather be Ascoli’s secretary and point to the other specific peer reviewed papers that showed heat burst events similar to F&P heat events?


    You mean he is excused from doing his own research into the matter?

  • Ascoli:


    "That accuracy was calculated by you, making some confusion with the numerical accuracy"


    Well, as have been said by people knowing him: Few chemists in the world where better in math than Fleischmann.


    i.e. when F&P stated approximately 22500 Joule, it means mathematically somewhere in the range 22451 to 22549 Joule.


    And therefore we also now the accuracy.