I have finally gotten a handle on the Dennis Cravens Golden Ball reaction. The Cravens system is unlike any other LENR system. It is a real conundrum. I have struggled to connect this outlier LENR reactor to other LENR processes for a long time. I think that I have solved this puzzle.
The material inside the ball is cold. Heat does not figure in the production of electron motion so the LENR reaction is inherent to the nature of the material itself and not produced by electron or photon motion.
Regarding the material, from the reference:
“So a large sample and a magnetic field is good. To assure a strong magnetic field in the active material the spheres contain a ground samarium cobalt (Sm2Co7) magnet, which stays magnetized at higher temperatures. This was powdered and the powder is mostly random but it should provide a strong magnetic field within the sample”
The key to the reaction is the SmCo magnet dust.
IMHO, it is the crystal structure of the material that makes a molecule LENR active. That structure and placement of the rare earth atoms in the crystal formats the spin of the cobalt atoms to project in an anisotropic direction to concentrate and organize the spin of the cobalt atoms in a concentrated direction...forward axially normal to the radius. Spin does not leak out radially from the sides of this type of magnet and the North Pole is more intense than the South Pole.
SmCo is an anisotropic magnetic material. The magnetic beam energy is concentrated in a preferred direction.
Calculation of magnetic anisotropy energy in SmCo5
The shape of the magnetic field seems to be the critical determinate to LENR activity. The straightness of the magnetic field lines seem to be determinate for LENR activity.
There are other types of micro and nano particles with the same magnetic anisotropic properties and once the atomic spins and/or surface charge is magnetically energized, become LENR active. They share the hexagonal or trigonal crystal structure and through that structure project magnetism in a straight beam.
Other references where SmCo magnets play a part.
Dana Rotegard, Mark Hugo (Irish Holdings, Ltd., S. St.
Paul), "Excess Heat from Deuterated Rare Earth Magnet
SmCo5 Used in Low Budget Home Experiment," presented
in poster session at ICCF-5, Monaco, 9-13 April 1995.
NEW PULSE GAS LOADING
COLD FUSION TECHNOLOGY
K. B. Chukanov
In the last few years the shadow of a new limitless and
nonpolluting source of energy has begun to trouble the mind of
scientists in the world - energy torn out from hypothetical "BLACK
HOLES" and "PHYSICAL VACUUM", energy produced by so-called "Cold
Fusion" and energy from "Ball Lighting". In the early 1980's my
theoretical investigations begun to show me that some exotic
objects exist in nature which do not obey the familiar laws of
physics'. These exotic objects are liquid helium II, Cosmic rays,
superconductivity, super rarified solutions, "dark" matter in the
universe, quasars, ball lightning, Pons-Fleischmann effect and etc.
In this paper I am going to report on Space Energy ("Cold Fusion"
would not be the right name for this phenomenon) theory,
measurements and some practical applications.
Experiments were carried out on one Space Energy active material:
magnet alloy SmCo 5 . My preliminary investigations have shown me
that this alloy is best (point of view energy production) among
other rare earth magnetic alloys.
Many scientists have investigated hydrogen absorption and thermal
effects in rare earth metals and metal alloys'''. However no one
has ever carried out circumstantial thermal investigations on this
field. But precisely these thermal measurements (change in the
temperature of the metal alloys, calorimetry) are crucial in
discovery of a new phenomenon "Space Energy".
About this demo from Russ George who witnessed it:
What about the demo of Chukanov at the ICCF meeting in Hawaii many years ago. In large cylinders crushed and powdered SmCo5, magnetic metal, was cycled with hydrogen loading and deloading and produced kilowatts of apparent excess heat!
I had the privilege of standing in the parking lot of the hotel where Chukanov had his demo running for several hours in the company of Martin Fleischmann fusing some of our little grey cells over that device. Chukanov answered or at least responded to every single question we posed to him and we sent many his way. It was a fascinating and captivating demo. Martin was the kind of man who had insatiable curiosity and not a mean molecule in his body and showed it in his sincere interest and professorial manner. Chukanov sent us both away with several large chunks of his metal.
Meanwhile the hundreds of ICCF conference attendees almost entirely shunned the ‘parking lot demo’ and Chukanov, especially the self-appointed high priest insiders of cold fusion. There was little but derision and snide attacks behind Chukanov’s back at the meeting.
After a couple hours in hot afternoon sun with Chukanov and his machine Martin and I adjorned to the beach and floated for a long time like basking whales chatting about this and that.
Somewhere in my collection of ‘cold fusion’ holy treasures I have some of
Chukanov’s SmCo5 metal. I think I will dig it out and see if some of the recent ‘activation’ ideas make it work even better!