Patent possibly related with Rossi - claims Focardi performed some calculations

  • An interesting patent application was linked on the Cobraf forum on May 29 2016, 21:55. The inventor is a researcher called Giuseppe De Bellis, from Ferrara, Italy (which is where Rossi was located in 2011-2012). It's been noted that it has a canadian patent application with an applicant located in Cyprus and therefore that it might also be related with Defkalion people.


    It's possible that the patent might be describing something similar to early E-Cat devices.


    Full document from WIPO
    https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016026720&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCT+Biblio


    WO 2016026720 A1 On Google Patents


    Abstract:

    Quote

    An exothermic transmutation method for at least partially deactivating radioactive material, the method comprising the steps of: - Arranging a dusty compound comprising at least a transition metal in a chamber (7) of a reactor (1) outside a closed container; - Arranging the radioactive material in said chamber (7), the radioactive material being and staying encapsulated in said closed container; - Providing hydrogen in contact with the dusty compound and with the radioactive material at a pressure higher than the ambient pressure; - Generating an electric field in the chamber (7), the electric field being applied to the dusty compound and the radioactive material; - Energizing the dusty compound by heating, then generating a transmutation of said at least one transition metal into another transition metal and proton emission towards the radioactive material, said radioactive material being at least partially deactivated, - Removing thermal energy from the reactor (1).


    The patent is relatively detailed. It also claims that Sergio Focardi performed some calculations.


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    Theoretical calculations of energy productivity, carried out by Professor Sergio Focardi (Nuclear Physics, University of Bologna), offered a COP value equal to 463 (value significantly higher than that recorded during experiments, which are preliminary).


    There also are details like:


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    Attempts based on Ni62 in a copper tube with hydrogen have been made. The energy production was below expectation.

  • From the above patent:


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    [...] Generating an electric field in the chamber (7), the electric field being applied to the dusty compound and the radioactive material [...]


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    [...] The reactor 1 comprises an electric field generator. The electric field generator comprises an anode 13 and a cathode 14 arranged in the chamber 7. The anode 13 and the cathode 14 have facing surfaces [...]


    This might be related to the same system described in the provisional patent linked in Rossi's world patent application for his Fluid Heater patent.


    https://patentscope.wipo.int/s…621/PDOC/WO2016018851.pdf


  • The patent talks also of an ultrasonic waves source of 400~2000 W at a frequency between 250 and 600 kHz. What could it be ? Is the heating coil of the Rossi devices be able to do the trick by means of TRIAC and high dI/dt ? Ni is ferromagnetic, so the high dI/dt would stress the Ni lattice at temperature below Debye. But what will happen above the Debye temp?


    Is it what me356 has discovered with his IGBTs?


    From patent patentscope.wipo.int/search/do…621/PDOC/WO2016018851.pdf, it says neutron are released where we are speculating for protons instead. But the patent might not be right on this scientific aspect and we see in fact p+ with one e- in Rydberg orbit.

  • Arnaud wrote:

    The patent talks also of an ultrasonic waves source of 400~2000 W at a frequency between 250 and 600 kHz. What could it be ?


    It's a separate device or an array of devices probably similar to those used in ultrasonic cleaning (ultrasonic transducers).





    Quote

    The reactor 1 comprises an ultrasound generator 16. The ultrasound generator 16 is arranged in the concavity of the lower half shell of the insulation part 15 of the electric field generator. The ultrasound generator 16 is arranged between the lower electrode 13 and the lower plate 15c of the insulation part 15, along a vertical axis. The ultrasound generator 16 is surrounded by the lower cylindrical rim 15d of the insulation part 15, in a horizontal plane. The ultrasound generator 16 has a nominal electric power comprised between 400 and 2000 W. The power is the electric power needed by the generator. The ultrasound generator 16 has a frequency comprised between 250 and 600 kHz, for example 300 kHz. The frequency can be fixed.

  • Some more tidbits from the patent, hopefully this will pique the interest of others too.


    It's claimed that most transition metals, actinides and lanthanides work, but the main elements used appear to be Ni and Fe. Small amounts of Cu are good too.


    Quote

    In order to improve energy production and waste treatment, the inventor made long researches on the low energy transmutation assisted by transition metals. The following species has been identified as suitable to assist transmutation: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, lanthanides and actinides. They can be industrially pure or alloyed. A low presence of Cu within the compound of metal powder appears experimentally to be favorable. However, Cu is not a driver metal. Cu has a function of enhancing the transmutation.


    Quote

    In one embodiment, the dusty compound comprises Ni and Fe. The composition can be 50% to 95% Ni and 5% to 50% Fe in mass. The composition can be 70% to 90% Ni and 10%) to 30%) Fe in mass. Ni atoms are transmuted into Cu during the process.


    In one embodiment, the dusty compound comprises 1% to 10%> Cu in mass. In one embodiment, the dusty compound comprises 2 to 7% Cu in mass. Cu is part of the dusty compound while not being as such a driver of the transmutation reaction. Cu is also a product of the transmutation reaction from Ni. Dusty copper enhances the thermal conductivity of the dusty compound.


    Quote

    An addition of graphite may be done in the dusty compound. The dusty compound may comprise 25% to 40% graphite in mass, preferably 30 to 40 %. Graphite is useful when heating by micro-wave. Graphite may have particles of an average size not greater than 10 um.


    Simplified theory of operation:


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    Energy is provided to heat the hydrogen, the nuclear waste and the metallic driver at the beginning of the process. Heating can be provided by an electric heater and/or by a microwave generator and/or a laser. The electric field is polarizing the particles of nuclear waste and the metallic driver. Polarization enhances the transfer of protons from the nuclear waste to the metallic driver. The phenomenon involves the transfer of protons activated by ultrasound. After some time, heating is stopped and the process is exothermic.[...]


    It appears that the electric field generator is the main driver here. Switching it off or inverting its polarity damps the reaction.


    Quote

    In case the process should be interrupted, switching off the electric field generator causes a quick decrease of the transmutation. It is good to switch off the micro-wave generator, if any. It is also recommended to switch off the ultra- sound generator, if any. The electric heater or heaters may be switched off. Cooling is maintained. In other terms, any energy input into the reactor 1 is switched off. However, setting the electric field generator to an inverted electric field of absolute value significantly lower to the absolute value of the electric field during the deactivation phase is possible. Hydrogen may be removed from the chamber 7 by a nitrogen flush, preferably at low temperature.


    They don't claim generating magnetic fields voluntarily:


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    Generally, there is no voluntary generation of magnetic field.


    Transmutation of medical waste 60Co to 61Ni or 62Ni is mentioned. This reminds me of when Rossi claimed using a proprietary process for enriching 62Ni.


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    An experiment has been made to treat 60Co often present in medical wastes. The hypothesis of transmutation of 60Co into stable isotopes 61Ni or 62Ni is based on measurements. The level of emission of neutrons and of gamma rays of the treated material formerly containing 60Co is close to zero. [...]


    A spectral analysis of the treated material was made with a SEM EDAX instrument. The results are shown on figure 5. The spectrum shows the almost exclusive presence of Nickel evidenced by the three peaks designated "Ni". The position corresponding to Cobalt is indicated by "Co" and reveals a very low content of Co.

  • Replicators must try the electric field. It seems no one has done it except me356 with his plasma reactor. And he is the one who got success, no one else.


    Btw, what does "dusty" mean? Is it just the powder or is it some kind of particle suspension, like an Aerosol.

  • @Tarun: they seem to be using dry powder, not a slurry.


    Dusty might be in reference to dusty plasmas.


    It shouldn't remain dry for long with molten Li in it.
    If its really a plasma with Ni/Li nanoparticles suspended in it, then the claims of me356 look more plausible.


    Here is my hypothesis about the use of ultrasonic generator. What it does is lifts the Ni/Li nanoparticles in the gas (H2 here) and creates an aerosol. When HV is applied to the electrodes in the reactor, we get a discharge, turning the gas into a plasma (with suspended particles in it). Plasma is nothing but dissociated H2 (protons). This somehow results in a LENR going. To stop it you simply need to turn the HV and US waves off, and it should slowly settle down and H would revert to H2, stopping the reaction.


    I guess, there is a good chance of success if this is tried. I think @Alan Smith is ready with his plasma reactor and should add the US to it. A hammer stroke should also do the job of mixing the Ni dust into the plasma and setting is ablaze with LENR for a while (hint hint ;) )

  • There appears to be a reference to past attempts (by other researchers?) with Li and other metals, but the patent description and especially patent claims 9-15 (which I guess would be the ones that matter) are mostly referring to mixtures of Ni, Fe and Cu powder, with optionally C and/or Cr. In this case the mixture should be dry. They also claim using particles of size in the range of several µm.

  • I haven't read these applications through, but didn't someone explain that Etiam's patent is also based on electric fielld polarizing metal particles, thus initiating the reaction?
    Not saying these would be overlapping, but merely pointing to same direction for replicators to look for.

  • Tarun said

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    Here is my hypothesis about the use of ultrasonic generator. What it does is lifts the Ni/Li nanoparticles in the gas (H2 here) and creates an aerosol. When HV is applied to the electrodes in the reactor, we get a discharge, turning the gas into a plasma (with suspended particles in it). Plasma is nothing but dissociated H2 (protons). This somehow results in a LENR going. To stop it you simply need to turn the HV and US waves off, and it should slowly settle down and H would revert to H2, stopping the reaction.


    I think you are pretty much 'spot on.'

  • I think you are pretty much 'spot on.'


    I guess there will be a lot of RF noise there with so much "sparking" going on in the dusty plasma. So it can mess with your electronics and instruments. That explains why @me356 is getting RF. Not very sure about neutrons or other radiation.... can't see how we can have them without any nuclear reactions going.
    I hope your next experiment will throw more light on it. So all the best ! and keep us updated....

  • Both myself and Alan Smith (I think) have tried Rossi/Parkhomov style experiments with added "radioactive red" fiestaware added to the fuel mix with null results. It's still possible that the radioactive seed still could be beneficial in some way and we had some other key parameter missing. It did not appear to be the spark plug I was hoping for though.


    Do you have a writeup somewhere?

  • Again I would wonder whether your single null result rules out an interesting contribution from radioactive materials. If you had, like Edison, studied 1000 different possibilities, and nothing turned up, I would agree with your suggestion that radioactivity is not promising. That said, you're the experimenter here, and you have to follow whatever leads seem promising or interesting to you.

  • Point well taken and you might be right, but I think we would be better off following @me356 advice later in that thread:


    We are only doing blind tests without understanding. One day it could work, but we can start from the opposite side and study each part of the process separately. And especially see some actual results that can tell us if the development is going well.


    If you are trying to do 10 very specific operations without understanding, the luck must be enormously high to succeed.
    We should start with elemental things and then to handle each one. At the final step, to connect all the knowledge together.


    As replicators we've been trying to build the finished recipe without understanding each of the ingredients. We keep hoping that if we just add another ingredient, or stimulus that the finished recipe will work. I think we need to take a step back and look at the parts. We know (or believe) that Ni-H by itself can produce excess heat. Let's master that before we move on to the next ingredient.

  • We know (or believe) that Ni-H by itself can produce excess heat. Let's master that before we move on to the next ingredient.


    I guess for me that's a fundamental question — does NiH by itself work? I suspect it doesn't in a pure form, or if it does, the heat that is seen is only released at threshold levels, and that when people have gotten NiH to work in the past (e.g., Piantelli), it's because there's been something else there as well. But if someone can get a robust reaction out of a pure NiH system, that will be very interesting and useful information to have as well.


    A relevant detail here is that 58Ni can theoretically decay to 58Fe via double electron capture. Between electron capture, beta decay and alpha decay, electron capture will release the least amount of heat by a large margin. So the heat that is seen in a pure NiH system might go back to a threshold phenomenon such as this.


    Anyway, just food for thought.

  • As replicators we've been trying to build the finished recipe without understanding each of the ingredients.


    After studying some 100+ of the latest papers and following mfp I can draw the following conclusions which seem to work (for Ni,H/D reactions) in many cases:


    - LENR is a surface process (like chemistry). At least it starts near surface.
    - If you use H/D to produce (H/D)x compounds then it is much easier to generate them in a 'pressure release' cycle because this is a synchronous event and not a statistical behavior.
    - (H/D)x compounds can only be formed on highly regular surfaces or in well defined cavitations.
    - Cavitations are stimulated by ultrasonic waves. (see papers)
    - Surface (H/D)x must spin-align. Here, a homogenous E-field my help. A B-field is much more trickier as any metal on its path leads to a distortion (not in arc electrolysis!). At high temperature only cavitations will work (disturbance).
    - Rossi & others use super-waves (see papers) instead of ultrasonic waves.
    - The Japanese process with PdZrCuNi (+ Li,Ca) already runs below 300C. This would allow to place electrodes in an active reactor, which for a Rossi style E-cat would need high-tech knowledge.
    - The Japanese often use Ca as cavitation promoter - to disturb the crystal structure. It increases the reaction band of a standard (crystal-) cell by about 200eV! (This seems to be the magic input to start the D/D H/H Fusion reaction.)