The general cold fusion theory aka the broad view of LENR

  • If someone would help me with translation of my Czenglish into a more widely recognized language, I could write a broader picture of cold fusion as I missunderstand it by now. My basic picture is, the LENR is not a single well defined nuclear process, but mechanism of acceleration of whole spectrum of nuclear reactions, which are often already known from colliders and nuclear reactors. The LENR can accelerate the true fusion (like the 3Li(7) + p > 4Be(8)* > 2 He(4)) in the same way, like the decay of 4Be(7) + e → 3Li(7) + ν or electron capture in potassium. Once it gets involved, it does favor the nuclear transmutations into account of free particle formation, because the energy gets released in form of heat instead of fast moving fragments. In this way it's analogous to action of catalyst, which also promote the formation of less equilibrium i.e. negentropic mixture of products.

    For example, if we heat the water, it will decompose into hydrogen and oxygen. But once we use a catalyst, then the oxygen may get released in form of hydrogen peroxide, i.e. more complex product, than the water itself. How we can achieve it? Well, we must compress the water with radiowaves into aform of water clusters, which will get subsequently released fast, so that thermodynamically metastable mixture of hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide will remain preserved. And similar process applies during LENR: multiple atom nuclei compressed into single one will balance their energy content smoothly and when this metastable system gets released again, the resulting energy is distributed across many nuclei, so no tiny fragments (i.e. ionizing charged particles) are released into outside. In this way the cold fusion not only enables to merge & combine the atom nuclei faster, but it also helps to utilize the resulting energy in a form of clean heat - in this sense it's a double gift of Nature, rather than single one.

    My point is, such a temporal condensation of atom nuclei occurs during low-dimensional collisions, when multiple atom nuclei collide against each other along long stacks, which is just enabled by perfect lining of atoms within metal lattices. The thermodynamics get broken the more, the more distant the system is from random arrangement. Just the factor of geometric regularity is what violates the thermodynamical probability of Coulombic barrier breaking, which is based on solely random arrangement of particles instead. In layman terms, the probability of regular crystal arrangement inside the hot plasma is as improbable, as the fusion of hydrogen in this plasma by Lawson criterions - so that inside the metal lattice these two extremely low probabilities cancel each other mutually. Other than that, the high yield of LENR is a product of synergy of many other contributing factors, which are also widely ignored during calculation of yield of plasma fusion - but the above one is dominant.

  • For discussion of these factors we should understand first, how the energy gets generated during fusion. The general principle is, the atom nuclei are stable only at certain size: once they get smaller, they have tendency for merging i.e. fusion and when they get larger, they have a tendency for fission. In this sense they behave in similar way, like the mercury droplets at the vibrating plate: at certain frequency of vibrations the equilibrium distribution of droplet sizes will establish itself. At the case of atom nuclei, the source of omnipresent background vibrations are the quantum fluctuations of vacuum and the force responsible for their merging is strong nuclear force, i.e. the surface tension of atom nuclei.

    But the same force which merges the atom nuclei together is also responsible for generally slow speed of nuclear transforms, which can be imagined easily with droplet model again. The merging of droplets will require a temporal formation of thin neck of strongly negative curvature, i.e. the opposite one which is holding the atoms together. This local negative curvature will lead into a strongly repulsive force, which is close to electroweak nuclear force. And this force will prohibit nuclei in their immediate merging and fusion, which will therefore delay possible release of energy, which could occur there.

    As you may guess, this negative curvature will get the higher, the smaller diameter the atom nuclei already have. From this reason the tiny mercury droplets resist their merging, whereas these larger ones with flat surface will coalesce and merge rather willingly. By shaking of bit of mercury inside the close vial we could prepare the thin black dust, which is composed of myriads of very tiny droplets, which will remain stable for years. You may think about this dust like about pocket model of observable matter composed of atom nuclei, which are in otherwise metastable state waiting for its merging or fusion into a black holes. If we cover mercury dust with proper inert liquid, which will decrease their surface tension, then all these tiny droplets will suddenly collapse into a single original droplet and the energy introduced by shaking into this mixture will be released back. Well, the cold fusion works like such a catalyst.

    But the memo of the above rant is in point, that the activation barrier against fusion gets higher at the case of small atom nuclei (typically hydrogen or lithium), but once we combine them with larger droplets (nickel or another transition metals), then these large and otherwise inert atom nuclei will act in similar way like the inert fluid from above experiment with mercury and barrier of activation energy against their merging will get lowered with it. This also explains, why the fusion of proton with nickel nuclei would run much smoothly than the fusion of two tiny protons, which would require much higher activation energy, pressure and temperature.

  • The LENR can accelerate the true fusion (like the 3Li(7) + p > 4Be(8)* > 2 He(4)) in the same way, like the decay of 4Be(7) + e → 3Li(7) + ν or electron capture in potassium.

    Exactly this is a classical claim...

    What we know from diverse NiLi xy ashes is that Li7 --> Li6 is the reality. Li7 is a donor! It's not a bravo reaction!

  • Another significant factor contributing to success of cold fusion is the shielding effect of electrons. Which is something which has been neglected by mainstream physics completely, because this physics remains focused of brute force approach to fusion, consisting of merging of nuclei inside the deuterium or tritium plasma. The atoms of deuterium or tritium are tiny and they have only single electron around it. Such a single electron can be easily removed, because it's held within atom only by attractive force of lone proton. Due to easy ionization of electrons withing deuterium or tritium plasma the shielding effect of electrons can be completely neglected, because such an electrons are safely separated from their parent nuclei at the hot fusion conditions.

    At the case of cold fusion the situation is completely different. The electrons are bound to atom nuclei the better, the more protons it contains and the strength of this binding (as expressed by ionization energy) increases with number of protons in geometric way. From this reason the stripping of first two electrons from nickel nuclei is as easy, as the separation of electron from hydrogen proton (or even easier). But with removing another and another electron this difficulty increases fast and the complete removal of all electrons from nickel nuclei would require hard X-ray radiation or energetic head-head collisions of nickel atoms. These collisions must be so hard, it will break the nickel nuclei itself under formation of many fragments. As we can see, the electrons at the bottom of atom orbital live in energetic continuum, the energy density of which is not so different from energy density of the atom nuclei itself. These electrons are lightweight, but heavily compressed there with upper electrons, so that they're squeezed into form of condensate, which is moving collectively. The moving of single electron at the bottom layer of nickel orbitals would therefore require the subsequent motion of dozens of another electrons and the inertia exerted increases.

    The point therefore is, the shielding effect of electrons at the bottom orbitals of heavy atom nuclei cannot be neglected anymore, because its density and collective motion acts like the negative barrier which is compensating the repulsive effect of protons within atom nuclei. Under certain frequencies the surface and bulk waves of electrons around atom orbitals may get into a mutual resonance, which will act like the dipole shielding the Coulomb force, which would enable or at least promote the smooth merging of atom nuclei, not to say about electron capture by their neutrons. The fact that deuterium consist of neutrons, which are only weakly bound to proton would undoubtedly contribute to cold fusion observed with deuterons.

  • Another factor contributing to high yield of heat during LENR are the quantum effects, similar to quantum entanglement and boson condensate formation. As most of you probably know, the fast motion of particles induces a de-Broglie pilot wave of undulated vacuum around them, which makes the vacuum more dense and the propagation of light slower in such a way, its speed is not affected with speed of particle itself.

    But during fast collinear collisions of long chains of atom nuclei this effect becomes very significant and it will create a cylindrical area of dense vacuum around collision line of these nuclei. This dense tube will both merge and entangle the atom nuclei into a collective motion and undulations, both will make their merging easier, because it will decrease the tension at the surface of atom nuclei just at the place of their mutual contact. The collective motion of atom nuclei will mediate and share their energy with longitudinal waves like the superconductor or liquid helium, which also mediates the heat waves well - so that the energy produced by fusion at some point will be redistributed along whole line of colliding atoms fast and as such thermalized.

    Most importantly, if some lightweight fragment like the single neutron will be released from atom nuclei as a result of collision, this volume area of dense vacuum will act like the waveguide for it and it will reflect it back in similar way, like the photon gets trapped with refraction index gradient of optical waveguide. As the result, the neutrons will be forced to move along connection line of colliding atom nuclei and they will get reabsorbed, which will contribute to the high efficiency of cold fusion and the general lack of neutrons during it. These neutrons will move very slowly in this environment, despite their energy will remain low and once the entangled line of atoms will decay, they will be reabsorbed with one of atom nuclei, so no energy will be released in form of ionizing radiation.

    As you may guess, with increasing temperature of reaction the atom nuclei will move wildly and their ability to form stable entangled condensate lines will decrease, so that some neutrons may be still released during thermal runaways of LENR reactors. Now you can understand in more detail, why it is so...

  • The formation of long condensate tubes may also explain various esoteric phenomena connected with cold fusion, like the formation of spiral-like beams and particle jets or magnetic monopole field observed during cold fusion experiments occasionally, because these chains of ionized atoms decay faster, than the lines of electric field (which is propagating rather slowly inside the condensate) can be completed. It may lead into emanation of various transition states of EM field from these fragments: like the scalar waves, magnetic monopoles and high spin photons, which all have close connection to dark matter physics in my theories and the cold fusion could have practical meaning into their preparation at higher density. Best of all, if we would succeed in rectifying of these scalar wave streams, we could also achieve the direct conversion of LENR into a "reaction-less" force, similar to one responsible for EMDrive and another antigravity drives.

  • The experimental motivation/confirmation for the above theory is rather straighforward and it follows the recent experiments consisting of shotting of deuterons into a surface of molten lithium, during which the huge evolution of heat and stream of deuterons is generated - i.e. the classical fusion runs there…iva2:52651/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    What makes these experiments spectacular isn't just the fact, that the accelerating voltage bellow 4 kV is able to initiate the cold fusion in high yield, because the calculations show, that due to halo character of deuterium nuclei the activation energy of deuterium fusion (~ 2 MeV) can be effectively lowered to few hundreds kVolts. But what is really fascinating is the observation, that the fusion runs only in very narrow range of temperature few dozen degrees above melting point of lithium (which would indeed make the practical utilization of such reaction a bit problematic). Which is really something: we can control the nuclear reaction releasing 20 MeV just be temperature changes in few milielectronvolt regime. Who would think of that?!

    Under such a flagrant situation is not already difficult to realize, what is going on: the surface of molten lithium is composed of lattice of lithium semicrystalline phase of atoms arranged by surface tension (a very similar effect is responsible for many water surface anomalies as studied by Dr. Gerald Pollack from Washington University), which enables the linear collisions of lithium atoms under impact of deuterons, which are followed by astroblaster effect and momentum magnification. Once this lattice gets destroyed by heating or by contamination of surface by lithium deuteride crust, then this mechanism cannot apply furthermore and the whole cold fusion reaction stops.

    But this is not the only analogy of cold fusion with water physics, as it has its rather straightforward counterpart in famous experiments of John Kanzius with radiolysis of water with polarized radiowaves. The ratio of activation of energy to energy introduced here is in range 10^8:1, i.e. nearly as high as the cold fusion initiated by electrolysis or heating - which also implies that a very similar underlying physical mechanism is in work there.

  • There are undoubtedly many other factors, contributing to success of cold fusion, like the formation of hydrides, which not only increases the concentration of protons inside the metal lattice but it also decreases their distance from atom nuclei (as Foccardi pointed out). The collective collisions of atoms also greatly increase the time interval required with Lawson criterion, i.e. the time which the atoms remain in intimate contact. You can imagine it with Newton cradle - the boundary atoms will bounce fast, but the central atoms remain attached each other. This delay is important thing, which doesn't and cannot apply to hot fusion, which considers binary collisions only. Recently we talked about fractal nature of lattice collisions, when the resonance at multiple scale applies The Superwave and so on.

    The characteristic for cold fusion is, it requires at least two or three above factors fulfilled and the remaining ones can be combined freely or simply replaced with brute force and wasteful approach. Today we also already know, that the transition of conditions from cold fusion to hot fusion can be quite smooth and that the cold fusion can run at multiple energy scales: from metal lattice (Fleischmann-Pons/Piantelli) over emergent Wigner crystals of water (LeClair) to degenerated laser-induced plasma (Holmlid), which is already close to normal laser fusion at NIF - but the low-dimensional character of collisions is always the necessary condition, as it makes fundamental distinction from high-dimensional collisions during the hot fusion.

    We can also perceive the apparent connection of cold fusion to another breakthrough physics, which is routinely based on low-dimensional negentropic phenomena driven by high-dimensional longitudinal waves (room temperature superconductivity, water clusters physics, antigravity drives and another scalar wave effects). Which is also the reason, why these phenomena are still collectively ignored by contemporary physics, which is focusing on deterministic phenomena described with transverse wave models.

  • The experimental motivation/confirmation for the above theory is rather straighforward and it follows the recent experiments consisting of shotting of deuterons into a surface of molten lithium, during which the huge evolution of heat and stream of deuterons is generated - i.e. the classical fusion runs there

    You cited again and old hot fusion paper - of 2001, we already discussed before. The ignition energy proposed is several 10k, what was known to work since roughly a century.

    What was new in the Ikegami experiment, contrary to the silly ITER kinetic fusion try, is the LENR knowledge about so called “sweet spots”. (The calculated COP – 690 – is the theoretical maximum and thus very optimistic...)

    Up to date experiments report sweet spots down to 200eV. Also most other more promising hot fusion experiments, like Boron-Fusion, use sweet spots.

    But keep in mind: Hot fusion experiment are of kinetic nature and thus time bound! You always get a trail of byproducts you really won't like.
    LENR fusion in contrary is space bound, what enables matter to settle in the most stable arrangement. So we virtually see “no byproducts” (very few).

  • /* You cited again and old hot fusion paper - of 2001, we already discussed before. The ignition energy proposed is several 10k, what was known to work since roughly a century. */

    The energy threshold reported in original Minari's experiments was even lower, about 300 eVolts. The more strange is, these experiments were ignored, because they enable to replicate the cold fusion effects in very reliable and reproducible way with changing voltage as a driving factor. What makes these experiments cold fusion is the low temperature threshold of onset of nuclear reaction (180 - 230 °C). My theory considers, that the accelerating fields in 10 keV range could be comfortably generated in situ by collective collisions (extremely low-dimensional Mossbauer effect) inside the metal lattice and whiskers. As I already said, the difference between hot and cold fusion is as sharp as the distinction between hot and cold superconductivity. The cold fusion is actually hot in essence, just hot in very local and low-dimensional way. Of course, we could get way deeper into history with it - for example to experiments with exploding wires of Wendt and Irion in 1923, which were boycotted by Ernst Rutherford already..

  • /* Hot fusion experiment are of kinetic nature and thus time bound! You always get a trail of byproducts you really won't like */

    The rather gradualist transition is possible here: the Holmlid experiments run at high energy density, but this density is already localized to a 2D plane with directional laser beam. As a result they lead to byproducts of fusion, which can be observed neither during classical cold fusion, neither hot fusion. In certain aspects they're even hotter than the classical hot fusion from tokamaks and IMO it's the first example of "cold hadron reaction" i.e.the proton fission - not just nuclear one. But the formation of surprisingly intensive bunch of antimatter has been observed before some time already during laser experiments. IMO the directional effects of laser applied there too...…matter-created-laboratory

    The cold fusion is something like the dual version of hot superconductivity: the atom nuclei travel a fuse easier, because their motion gets constrained into a low dimension in similar way, like the motion of electrons within high temperature superconductors. Both effects shouldn't be here according to mainstream theories, which consider 3D motion of particles only.

  • The rather gradualist transition is possible here: the Holmlid experiments run at high energy density, but this density is already localized to a 2D plane with directional laser beam.

    In a Tokamak or a torus fusion is not only kinetically induced it's also based on raw statistics. In Holmlids experiment Fusion is quasi local, fixed in time/space and the energydensity in units of time/space is possibly even higher than in any CERN experiment.
    I dont remember, did Holmlid calculate a T-equivalent?

  • /* In this patent Li-fusion is induced by 223eV radiation */

    IMO the portion of static voltage can be replaced by surface resonance effects. Also, during AC discharge the protons or deuterons are crashing the surface of lithium repeatedly million-times per second again and again. If some of them doesn't succeed during one period, it will undoubtedly succeed later. Therefore if for example during DC 1 kV voltage only one proton from thirty millions can succeed with fusion, the during 1 MHz discharge has already 1/30 chance for fusion. The key therefore is the usage of AC field with DC component.

    Such an discharge has also an advantage, it reduces the surface of lithium with electrons which keeps it clean and free from oxides and nitrides, so that the reactor doesn't require vacuum tight & expensive setup. Personally, I wouldn't even try to replicate the Parkhomov-like setup without electric discharge in amateur conditions, as the chance for success is very low there: the hot lithium reacts with nearly every oxide material (ceramic) and it will get consumed fast by side reactions.

  • Yeah, it seems like what is being passed around is energy. When the energy arrives inside the nucleus, it condenses into a neutron.

    Axil raised a question about energy transfer in LENR and I tried to outline how it could work.

    This is nothing new Axil e=mc2 is a very old statement!

    The question is what is behind "m" ? Not the high energy "Quark view" of matter is of interest, what we must find out is, how is matter promoted in space without the notion of time! Time is just an lower/upper measurement limit to look at a result of a "mass-flow".

    In other posts I mentioned sweet spots – energy levels - which allow a nuclear promotion - near the well known quantum tunnel effects levels. As a thought model, I propose the following: As a consequence of a sweet spot event (typically around 200 eV are used), the nucleus exists in an entangled form where the eigenstates of each compound (p,n) are free to rearrange. As time (for a very short moment) is inexistent, there is physically no longer a distance between adjacent nucleons.
    As time returns the (re-)condensation looks for a minimum state. Interestingly enough, in LENR reactions the entropy, like in chemistry, increases and usually energy is released!

    The questions are:
    - How is the rearrangement coupled to the space (ether) structure? Here the dimensionality of the event must be questioned.
    - Is the rearrangement of nuclei a multistep process? (not in time of course!!)
    - For complex nuclei: Will sweet spots only affect the most outer shell?
    - Is there a relation between relaxation time e.g. 2x(2xH ->D) + Ni58 → Ni62 and the sweet spot energy (??) needed to start the process?

  • /* The question is what is behind "m" ? */

    In dense aether theory the "m" is the measure of the curvature of space-time in a given volume of vacuum. When we introduce an energy into vacuum, then the vacuum becomes deformed and undulating. The vacuum is behaving like the soap foam, which gets the more dense, the more it is shaken. You can play with this effect at the Java applet here. Therefore the introduction of energy into vacuum creates an obstacle for waves of energy, as the deformed vacuum becomes more dense and it slows down down these waves proportionally to energy introduced. This is the way, in which I understand the E=mc^2 relation.

    /* the nucleus exists in an entangled form where the eigenstates of each compound (p,n) are free to rearrange. As time (for a very short moment) is inexistent, there is physically no longer a distance between adjacent nucleons */

    In quantum physics all objects in motion are surrounded with deBroglie wave of vacuum, which is behaving in similar way, like the wake wave around boat at the surface of river. The intensity of this wave is proportional to the relative speed of particle and also its acceleration and higher derivations (jerk, cusp, etc.) Therefore the atom nuclei colliding along line during cold fusion are surrounded with particularly strong density wave of vacuum, which makes the vacuum around them more dense and which also forces these nuclei to move in synchrony with this wave in phase. I.e. in similar way like the electrons along charge stripes within superconductors, when the so-called charge wave applies. The speed of charge propagation is faster than the motion of individual electrons and it gets independent on it. It's similar effect like during motion of railcars attached tightly in train: these railcars move only slowly, but their density wave propagates much faster. Therefore the atom nuclei packed during cold fusion collisions move like the entangled wave, being driven by volume area of dense vacuum around them.

  • Your claim is a miss-interpretation of the paper. But may be You remembered the following which will satisfy You claim!

    In this patent Li-fusion is induced by 223eV radiation...

    Yes, this is the Lipinski's patent, and the particularly informative WIPO application linked here:…il.jsf?docId=WO2014189799

    It is denied by them to relate to CF or LENR (clever by half to evade USPTO rejection, methinks). Their WIPO application there is particularly informative from a practical standpoint, at least.

    Note in their last 50 pages or so of very detailed methods, materials and results description it becomes clear that many of the higher yielding results are seen when the target is positively voltage biased. This might be contrary to any expectation of direct proton fusion, but becomes completely expected if the mobile fusing entity is actually neutral or even better, negatively charged. So, with that hint, we can assume that the mobile entity may be a hydride negative ion. It can be unstable and induce reformation of H2, but if it is formed in the context of the target, by say a coincident beam of H radicals (neutral hydrogen atoms) meeting near the target surface with a coincident electron beam, then voila H minus atomic entities ready for a low voltage impact and coulomb favorable transit (?).

    Another feature of the Lipinski's patent is the use of square wave switching for biasing the target. This is of course often seen or discussed in the efforts of Parkhomov / Rossi replicators, and rightly so. This allows the occasional hydride to target "hit" without monumental energies. As discussed in this thread, but with another slightly different emphasis.

    Something I would also concur on, and make a little clearer..... phoNonic stimulation of reactions can be quite distinct from and hence completely distinct from electronic or EM stimulus. That is essentially the fields are orthogonal, a "plasma wave" is a longitudinal and essentially phononic event, whereas EM propagation is a transverse wave and essentially phoTonic. The first is in the direction of the propagation, the second is orthogonal to that.

    Yet another variable to manipulate here in terms of field oscillations that might have unexpectedly high coincident energies, is the use of SPR surface plasmon resonance. Sometime ridiculed, but nevertheless capable of moving objects in a lab setting, the field strengths and directionalities are possibly adjustable to once again add orthogonally to the other two just mentioned. Yet another gradient that can be superimposed at the reactive surface of say a metal / insulator transition.

    Which brings us to the "first" F & P effect, where electrolysis or simple "overvoltage" can be yet another strong gradient at a reactive surface.

    Finally, NAE may also be added to such surface phenomena. This is simply a nanostructural artifact that apparently allows a stack of collinear hydrides to orient and react unexpectedly (in my humble interpretation). However, NAE becomes difficult in some of the Lipinski setups, since the whole, or much of the reactive manifold is often described in a plasma state, or so it appears.

    Overview: We have many related and yet distinct possibilities to enhance CF / LENR. They may all be operative, or maybe only some...

  • Hello Peter

    While scalping an onion, I had the following thought's, by repeating your claim:

    If X-rays of some keV can induce transmutations and other nuclear reactions, than there must be a common base with LENR.
    IF we look at the scattering of X-rays, we soon notice that most of them are deflected long before they penetrate an inner shell of a nucleus.
    What is the difference of X-Rays and LENR or the sweet-spot reaction (proton) with Lithium?

    This needs two steps: A sweet-spot reaction is still caused by a kinetic event. But the kinetic energy is +- equivalent to SPP energy peaks.
    But “LENR” happens without obvious external impact.

    What is the common divider?
    Question one: How much energy of e.g. 4keV X-Ray is transported into a inner shell of a nucleus? How much is lost during the penetration phase?
    Could it be that the remaining energy is close to the roughly 200eV needed?

    What “final” shape has the X-Ray wave after it has successfully passed one or two electron shell layers??

    A surface SPP wave has an E field that is radial (pointing to the center of a nucleus) an Xray e-field is in tangential direction (assume a central hit). So if it should become equivalent then the X-ray must induce a secondary field!

    Further on: An SPP wave (peak up to 600eV) has virtually no or only a small radial velocity. Thus it will cause less inductive disturbance. The same holds for a very slow proton which represents a very small current.

    Last speculative thought: Could it be that only more or less tangential X-rays cause transmutations? (secondary fields works?)

  • The picture bellow comes from this study and it illustrates the Astroblaster mechanism, which I talked above with surface plasmons, i.e. transverse waves spreading along metals surface. But the surface plasmons are quite subtle and slow waves - what initiates the cold fusion are Astroblaster-like collisions of atom nuclei itself mediated with much faster longitudinal waves which are spreading in all directions within materials, preferably perpendicularly to surface, i.e. the polarons.

    Under certain conditions the attenuation of energy can be observed with surface plasmons too. But the plasmons are surface waves, which cannot collide in similar way, like the transverse waves of light. But the surface vortices (a compound particles of plasmons and polaron, so called the polaritons) behave like the particles in similar way, like the vortex rings and they can already collide and interact under astroblaster-like amplification of energy of collisions, because they can be formed in different size..

    Note also that the plasmon tornadoes must collide in low-dimensional fashion along single line. This explains why contact between particles produce EMF amplification. Naive collectors of links like Axil therefore push the idea, that the surface plasmons are behind cold fusion without realizing, that what amplifies the energy here aren't plasmons, but their longitudinal artifacts, so called the polaritons. In general the plasmon amplification effects are rather weak, because it requires to form polaritons first and they can hardly explain the cold fusion.