Metalized compounds that have free electrons covering the positive charges (holes) will be superconducting at high temperatures while the structure of the superconducting compound is maintained. In metalized hydrogen, all the holes are located in the center of the crystal(nanowire) and the electrons are orbiting on the outside of this positive core lattice. Highly compressed hydrogen holes and associated electron bonds lead to high temperature superconductivity,
Superconductivity is important in LENR because it directs how electric charge and magnetism behaves in LENR. One of the clues that bring us to that conclusion is some details that have slipped out of the normally secretive experimental observations from LENR experimentalists.
For example Fulvio Fabiani states:
"We have it all filmed, which still cannot be disclosed. We have photographs of creatures that emit pure light that have completely melted the reactor down, all in a very quiet way. You just turn off the stimuli system and the reaction is switched off. It’s impressive."
I would like to venture an opinion about what those balls of light are and how they are created and how they are destroyed. Those balls of light seem to be the origin or active agent in the Rossi reaction.
Another clue comes from the Rossi patent and that clue provides some insight into Rossi's potential control mechanism. The patent describes a set of electrodes that produce an electric field of 100,000 volts. Rossi is exposing his reaction to a very high electric field. The idea is that an electrostatic field produces these balls of light. I would like to venture some speculation about how that is done.
The next concept to introduce is "Hole Superconductivity"
This reference has more than 100 sub-references if you are interested.
"Hole Superconductivity" pushes out of the positive core of the crystal all electrons and magnetism to the surface of the crystal in a meissner effect.
Kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the origin of the Meissner effect, and the reductionist frontier
J. E. Hirsch
Now we get to the punch line, "The Tao effect"
Theorists succumb to Tao
Mysterious microscopic spheres could point towards an unconventional theory for superconductivity
From: the Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia US
Some 20 years ago physicists thought they understood almost everything about superconductivity. Below a certain temperature elements such as mercury suddenly lose all resistance to electric current due to electrons forming pairs, in accordance with the famous Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. But in 1986 the discovery of copper oxide materials that become superconducting at relatively high temperatures wrecked this view. Today, high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates still remains a puzzle, but could it be that our understanding of conventional superconductors is even beginning to show cracks? According to Jorge Hirsch of the University of California in San Diego, a phenomenon called the Tao effect cannot be explained by the conventional BCS theory, and instead requires an alternative electrodynamic description that applies to all superconductors (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 187001).
Superconducting surprise: The Tao effect was discovered in 1999 by the present author and co-workers at Southern Illinois University and Princeton University. To our complete surprise, when we applied a strong electric field to a group of superconducting microparticles we found that millions of them spontaneously aggregated into balls about a millimetre in size. Normal metallic particles either bounce between the two electrodes in a DC electric field or form chains in an AC electric field, so the field-induced formation of balls appears to be unique to superconductors.
The Tao effect was first observed with powders of high-temperature superconductors such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide. However, subsequent experiments performed in 2002 and 2003 with low-temperature superconducting powders, and also with magnesium diboride, confirmed that die effect occurs for all superconductors. The interaction between superconductors and an electric or magnetic field is an important topic in superconductivity. As early as 1935, more than 60 years before superconducting balls were first observed, Fritz London and his brother Heinz suggested that superconductors and normal conductors should respond differently to static electric fields. In particular, they predicted that a static electric field could penetrate into superconductors as far as a static magnetic field. In our initial experiments with low-temperature superconductors, we found that two critical values of electric field occurred as the strength of the field was increased. The first was the point at which the superconducting microparticles suddenly started to aggregate into stable balls, beyond which the size of the ball started to decrease until the second critical value was reached. At this point, the balls instantaneously disintegrated and flew onto the electrodes.
Yes, what Rossi is producing is "TAO balls" by applying a static charge to those electrodes. Just the optimum charge level produces the TAO balls but too much charge distroys them. Rossi is continually adjusting the charge on those electrodes to optimize his reaction. If Rossi adds to much charge, the balls disperse and the reaction stops.
In a bit of remembrance, DGT people told me privately, that they also saw balls of glowing light floating around inside their reaction chamber. They said that the color was proprietary information but when I guessed that the balls were blue, they said that I was not wrong. In some speculation, the very high electron density on the surface of the "TAO balls" must setup up a auroral ionization of the air around the balls where nitrogen and some oxygen produce colored light emission.
Contrary to most opinion, this sort of reaction insight leads be to beleive that DGT has something going, but that is only an opinion.
But what are the superconducting microparticles that the TAO balls are formed from?
Hydrogen gets absorbed into the occlusions formed in a flaws in the nickel metal where these hydrogen atoms accumulate and form superconducting metalized crystals of gas. The disrupted metal bonds in the nickel apply huge pressure as the hydrogen accumulates. So nickel with many flaws is good for LENR. These crystals have been determined to be superconducting by demonstrating the Meissner effect in experiments by by Miley and Holmlid(1). These crystals can leave the lattice and remain superconducting and structurally intact in a metastable state. It is the metal bonds strengthen by the imperfections in the metal lattice that compress the hydrogen together to form metalized hydrogen.
Ultrahigh-density deuterium of Rydberg matter clusters for inertial confinement fusion targets Leif Holmlid , Heinrich Hora, George Miley, and Xiaoling Yang
But what keeps these superconducting hydrogen crystal together over time, when the nickel bonds are gone what ties the hydrogen atoms together?
You are sitting in your chair right now because of the repulsive force that is produced by the electrons in your butt. In superconducting metalize hydrogen, EMF does not penetrate into the hydrogen crystal; this behavior is called the Meissner effect. In addition, electrons are repelled away from the surface of the hydrogen crystal. This EMF shield makes this crystal very tough. This EMF shell enables this crystal to withstand very high heat and pressure.
There is a charge amplification process that must somehow be going on to add strength to the metalized hydrogen EMF shield. We know that there are huge numbers of electrons being produced in the LENR reaction. Those electrons must contribute to the electric charge that accumulated on the surface of the metallized nanowires. This positive feedback loop in electron production must produce such strong EMF shielding that the nanowire become imperious to heat and pressure.
Mark LeClair says that the ability for cavitation to erode any substance including diamond is due to the shielding that superconductivity of metalized water provides. When a cavitation bubble collapses and the metalized water crystal jets forward at many times the speed of sound, the diamond gives way but not the charge on the surface of the water crystal. The accumulated negative charge of all the electrons at the tip of this water based nanowire points the nanowire forward to the solid surface of the material. So most of the electrons aggregate at the tip of the nanowire. Now we will understand how charge works both on metalized hydrogen and TAO balls.