High Temperature Superconductivity and LENR

  • Metalized compounds that have free electrons covering the positive charges (holes) will be superconducting at high temperatures while the structure of the superconducting compound is maintained. In metalized hydrogen, all the holes are located in the center of the crystal(nanowire) and the electrons are orbiting on the outside of this positive core lattice. Highly compressed hydrogen holes and associated electron bonds lead to high temperature superconductivity,





    Superconductivity is important in LENR because it directs how electric charge and magnetism behaves in LENR. One of the clues that bring us to that conclusion is some details that have slipped out of the normally secretive experimental observations from LENR experimentalists.


    For example Fulvio Fabiani states:


    Quote

    "We have it all filmed, which still cannot be disclosed. We have photographs of creatures that emit pure light that have completely melted the reactor down, all in a very quiet way. You just turn off the stimuli system and the reaction is switched off. It’s impressive."


    I would like to venture an opinion about what those balls of light are and how they are created and how they are destroyed. Those balls of light seem to be the origin or active agent in the Rossi reaction.


    Another clue comes from the Rossi patent and that clue provides some insight into Rossi's potential control mechanism. The patent describes a set of electrodes that produce an electric field of 100,000 volts. Rossi is exposing his reaction to a very high electric field. The idea is that an electrostatic field produces these balls of light. I would like to venture some speculation about how that is done.


    The next concept to introduce is "Hole Superconductivity"


    Quote

    http://sdphln.ucsd.edu/~jorge/hole.html
    This reference has more than 100 sub-references if you are interested.


    "Hole Superconductivity" pushes out of the positive core of the crystal all electrons and magnetism to the surface of the crystal in a meissner effect.


    Quote

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1103.3912.pdf


    Kinetic energy driven superconductivity, the origin of the Meissner effect, and the reductionist frontier
    J. E. Hirsch


    Now we get to the punch line, "The Tao effect"



    Yes, what Rossi is producing is "TAO balls" by applying a static charge to those electrodes. Just the optimum charge level produces the TAO balls but too much charge distroys them. Rossi is continually adjusting the charge on those electrodes to optimize his reaction. If Rossi adds to much charge, the balls disperse and the reaction stops.


    In a bit of remembrance, DGT people told me privately, that they also saw balls of glowing light floating around inside their reaction chamber. They said that the color was proprietary information but when I guessed that the balls were blue, they said that I was not wrong. In some speculation, the very high electron density on the surface of the "TAO balls" must setup up a auroral ionization of the air around the balls where nitrogen and some oxygen produce colored light emission.


    Contrary to most opinion, this sort of reaction insight leads be to beleive that DGT has something going, but that is only an opinion.


    But what are the superconducting microparticles that the TAO balls are formed from?


    Hydrogen gets absorbed into the occlusions formed in a flaws in the nickel metal where these hydrogen atoms accumulate and form superconducting metalized crystals of gas. The disrupted metal bonds in the nickel apply huge pressure as the hydrogen accumulates. So nickel with many flaws is good for LENR. These crystals have been determined to be superconducting by demonstrating the Meissner effect in experiments by by Miley and Holmlid(1). These crystals can leave the lattice and remain superconducting and structurally intact in a metastable state. It is the metal bonds strengthen by the imperfections in the metal lattice that compress the hydrogen together to form metalized hydrogen.


    Quote

    1- http://phys.unsw.edu.au/STAFF/VISITING_FELLOWS&PROFESSORS/pdf/MileyClusterRydbLPBsing.pdf


    Ultrahigh-density deuterium of Rydberg matter clusters for inertial confinement fusion targets Leif Holmlid , Heinrich Hora, George Miley, and Xiaoling Yang



    But what keeps these superconducting hydrogen crystal together over time, when the nickel bonds are gone what ties the hydrogen atoms together?


    You are sitting in your chair right now because of the repulsive force that is produced by the electrons in your butt. In superconducting metalize hydrogen, EMF does not penetrate into the hydrogen crystal; this behavior is called the Meissner effect. In addition, electrons are repelled away from the surface of the hydrogen crystal. This EMF shield makes this crystal very tough. This EMF shell enables this crystal to withstand very high heat and pressure.


    There is a charge amplification process that must somehow be going on to add strength to the metalized hydrogen EMF shield. We know that there are huge numbers of electrons being produced in the LENR reaction. Those electrons must contribute to the electric charge that accumulated on the surface of the metallized nanowires. This positive feedback loop in electron production must produce such strong EMF shielding that the nanowire become imperious to heat and pressure.


    Mark LeClair says that the ability for cavitation to erode any substance including diamond is due to the shielding that superconductivity of metalized water provides. When a cavitation bubble collapses and the metalized water crystal jets forward at many times the speed of sound, the diamond gives way but not the charge on the surface of the water crystal. The accumulated negative charge of all the electrons at the tip of this water based nanowire points the nanowire forward to the solid surface of the material. So most of the electrons aggregate at the tip of the nanowire. Now we will understand how charge works both on metalized hydrogen and TAO balls.

  • Axil -
    I have been reading about high temperature S.C. and solitions explaining dark matter. I can not help but think you are on the right track.
    It just that high temperature is a bit misleading as most equate it with room temperature.

  • Metalized compounds that have free electrons covering the positive charges (holes) will be superconducting at high temperatures while the structure of the superconducting compound is maintained. In metalized hydrogen, all the holes are located in the center of the crystal(nanowire) and the electrons are orbiting on the outside of this positive core lattice. Highly compressed hydrogen holes and associated electron bonds lead to high temperature superconductivity,


    Whether a material is superconducting or just a very, very good conductor can only be determined in a laboratory environment.
    Some believe that also Ball lightening is phenomena of SC. It's separate research topic since decades. For about ten years now, there are known ways to reproduce light balls in the laboratory environment.


    We know that the following holds: On the atomic level electrons in the ground state travel with no resistance. But we cannot talk about superconductivity because SC is defined in relation with a physically fictive notion of time. Once inited in a SC: dQ/dt = constant => the flow of charge does never change what defines a superconductor. But for an atom in ground state there exists no time!!! Time driven behavior of an electron only starts, when it accepts an additional quantum of energy!


    We face two main questions:
    1) Do individual electrons (BCS-pairs) in superconductors accept additional energy quantum's? (stay in SC mode but behave differently) Then SC it is a macroscopic phenomena.
    2) Is HTSC just the absence of disturbance on any charge movement?


    The authors also discuss whether the speed of the carriers in SC's increases or decreases, what is only relevant if You are interested in the maximal load a SC can withstand. Thus SC carrier speed cannot not be used to explain the basic reason of the phenomena.


    I expect that the notion of time is the biggest hurdle for theorists. As long as they believe that a uniform single dimensional time arc can be used to describe basic matter they will never reach the goal...


    Now we must face the final question: Do we see (in LENR, light balls etc.) “timeless” phenomenas of basic matter at a macroscopic scale?

  • There are undoubtedly common points, because in my theory the cold fusion arises when the atom nuclei collide along long chains. And the high temperature superconductivity arises, when the electrons get compressed and constrained in their motion along hole stripes. Both these are anomalous low-dimensional effects. The high level of compression of particles along chains also leads into their massive entanglement and establishing of charge wave transport along chains. The formation of exotic Dirac/Weyl/Majorana solitons and monopoles is also promoted here in this way.


    But which useful predictions we could deduce from this analogy? In this moment I don't see any - it's all just a matter of postdictions, i.e. vague analogies, interpretations and explanations rather than predictions.


    Edit: The formation of Tao balls is not so surprising, if we imagine, that electric field can induce quite large eddy currents across superconductive particles, which therefore behave like any other magnetized ferromagnetic dust. There exist another less or more esoteric explanations, but this one is quite straightforward.

  • BTW The famous researchers in cold fusion were also involved in superconductivity research.
    For example Francesco Celani started to study Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (Ni-Pb; T=4.2K) and he found
    intriguing results using thick junctions on 1985. One of these were contaminated (by chance) from several other elements and showed
    behaviour similar to superconductivity even at temperature as large as 77K (Ln2). It was stated a multi-disciplinary commission in order to
    clarify the origin of this effect. Unfortunately the results were rejected, because in disagreement with the BCS model/theory (for which
    the max. temperature of superconductivity stated at 32K).


    One year later Bednorz and Muller (from IBM, Zurich), independently (and starting from different points of view), found similar results in Cuprate oxides mixed with rare-hearts and got Nobel Prize for it.

  • Yes, what Rossi is producing is "TAO balls" by applying a static charge to those electrodes


    I don't see any substance behind this claim. Everything what we have from Rossi about high voltage experiments is this intentionally blurred picture



  • Axil,


    1. These Tao Balls reminded me of ball lightning.
    2. One question: why these TAO balls would be needed in a LENR reactor? More in detail: I understand that your opinion is that superconductive clusters of metalized hydrogen are created in the cavities of an imperfect metal lattice. But why do they need to agglomerate into balls?

  • Axil,


    1. These Tao Balls reminded me of ball lightning.
    2. One question: why these TAO balls would be needed in a LENR reactor? More in detail: I understand that your opinion is that superconductive clusters of metalized hydrogen are created in the cavities of an imperfect metal lattice. But why do they need to agglomerate into balls?


    IMHO, TAE balls are ball lightning. Why is TAE balls formation important? I don't know...it might be a power density issue where the power density of the condensate structure increases as the size of the Bose structure increases.


    The first level of condensation and superconductivity is the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). Next, this primary level structure aggregates on the surface of the metalized hydride nanoparticles. This secondary level structure then finally aggregates into a TAO ball forming a third level of aggregation.


    Each level of Bose aggregation increases the power density of the Bose condinsate complex with a corresponding increase in the COP produce by the condinsate.


    When the TAO stimulus is turned off, the power density of the Bose condinsate drops below the power level for the LENR reaction to be effective. That is, each level of aggregation increases the COP of the LENR reaction, for example, from 1.2 to 200.


    This might mean that once a metalized hydride is formed an loaded with energy, it remains LENR capable for a long time.


    The quark runs at a temperature that is beyond the melting point of nickel. This means that initially, the nickel particles produce metalized hydride nanoparticles. But then the nickel melts and becomes incapable of producing more metalized hydrides. But the metalized hydrides that have already been produced stay LENR capable since the Quark can be turned off and on at will by applying the electrostatic stimulus.


    I would not want to breathe those metalized nanoparticles in. They still might be active at a low level. Holmlid mentions that he observes muons produced long after the laser stimulation is turned off. Also John Fisher sees particles floating in the air above the open electrolytic reactor producing alpha particles. Fisher also sees particles blown by a fan producing alpha particles at a considerable distance from the open reactor.

  • The speculations about role of superconductivity in LENR suffer with the same lack of causality, like for example the role of Cooper pairs in classical BCS theory of superconductivity. At best it illustrates, HOW the system behaves, but it doesn't explain, WHY it behaves so. For example, the Cooper pairs based theory doesn't explain, why these Cooper pairs emerge just in niobium (which has nothing very much of conductive electrons), but not in sodium (which has more than enough of free electrons for pairing). In analogy with it, the superconductivity based theories don't actually explain, where their superconductivity comes from and where we should look at it. This is just the difference between descriptive and explanatory reasoning, which goes after the actual substance of things.


    In both cases the main precursor of superconductivity is the strong squeezing of charge carriers and their confinement in narrow space (preferably unidimensional). And the formation of this state is necessary to explain first.

  • In the middle of the 1990s, I wrote a paper about HT superconductivity and plasmoids: "Considerations about Plasmoid Phenomena and Superconductivity Phenomena" http://padrak.com/ine/ELEWIS5.html


    I think the concept of plasmoids can explain two kinds of superconductivity. I also explained about this in this video if I remember correctly. 20140213 – Ed Lewis, The Plasmoid Paradigm and the Current Depression Period


    Ken Shoulders wrote or published a short paper about superconductivity by using plasmoids in the decade of the 2000s. I think atoms change state from dormant atoms to active plasmoid atoms but can remain in situ in a material. The atoms in a plasmoid state can superconduct electricity if conditions are right and they are the right state. I think there are various states of atomic plasmoids because bigger micro plasmoids state shift between black and white states and maybe grey states.


    This plasmoid state of matter concept also helps us to understand superfluidity.

  • In the middle of the 1990s, I wrote a paper about HT superconductivity and plasmoids: "Considerations about Plasmoid Phenomena and Superconductivity Phenomena" http://padrak.com/ine/ELEWIS5.html


    The analysis in that web page of superconductivity appears not to include known information about how superconductivity works, or show how plasmoids fit into that. Specifically, that it is when a large set of bosonic particles or quasi-particles are stuck in coherent ground state due to some forbidden transitions, or just temperature low enough that it is not sufficient to induce transitions from ground state.


    This picture covers all known superconducting materials, including HTS. While the exact details are speculative, there are many experimental tie-ins with the overall picture that give it credence. Also, in many cases, the exact details are understood, so further giving this picture of a mechanism for superconductivity more credibility. Work on understanding HTS has gone very well since it was first discovered.


    I see no reference to these facts in your suggestions, so for me they don't explain what is known, let alone give insight into things not yet fully understood.


    Perhaps the page you referenced did not do justice to the totality of your work? I think you'd need a lot more direct references to existing work to get others on your side with something new. "standing on the shoulders of giants..."


    Best wishes, THH

  • https://physicsworld.com/a/cou…perature-superconductors/


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    Both Eremet’s group’s result and Hemley and colleagues’ still need to be independently confirmed, however, says Jorge Hirsch of the University of California at San Diego, who was not involved in either study. “We have to be careful not to place too high a confidence in experimental results obtained under very difficult experimental conditions when they appear to agree with predictions of BCS theory, and perhaps consider the possibility of experimental artifacts,” he comments.


    Jorge Hirsch is the guy that Holmlid gets his Hole superconductivity theory from. Superconductors using Ultra dense hydrides could support both Holmlid and LENR long lived energy storage processes,