There is now a video uploaded with the 'Mills Protocol' ultrasonic fuel preparation.
Alan let the Nickel slurry simmer for about 14 hours and the first batch of powder is now ready for testing.
Yes- We are aware that over-long sonication is problematic, in that H ad/absorption levels slow down. However, the term 'coking' is a new one for me. I think that since the US system we have is relatively low-power we have a fairly generous time-window before that becomes a problem -even assuming the system is sufficiently energetic to break down Hexane.
The ECCO reactor's fuel is treated by ultrasonic 4.5KW for 200 hours. But I am puzzled, after consulting a lot of literature, high power ultrasonic and too long ultrasonic processing time will lead to powder sintering and destruction of holes. Who is right?
Who knows? Sintering would I suspect only be problematic when using high boiling point carrier fluids like Decane (BP174C) - the effect is certainly temperature related. Also the would be a relationship between frequency and the volume/shape of the container which affects how much energy is actually accepted by the Ni slurry. The literature on the improvement of Ni catalyst powders does in in general suggest that too much is bad. The problem lies in establishing 'how much is too much'.
I believe the ultrasonic treatment used by Suhas is an ultrasonic milling process. He begins with large 80-100 micron Ti and Ni particles that are probably more like "shot", and mills them in the ultrasound. Tungsten balls are added to the mill mix to enhance the milling. The Ti and Ni particles come out about 1-2 microns. This process of comminution of the large particles exposes chemically fresh surfaces. Because of the high ultrasound intensity, the water in which the particles are suspended is completely de-gassed, and in particular, de-oxygenated. Thus, the chemically fresh surfaces remain unoxidized until the powder slurry is spray dried.
Thanks for that Bob. And of course, he is using water as a carrier fluid. That might well be critical, most studies I have read use an Alkane as medium.
I think the important thing to realize about the water is that oxidation of the metals occurs from the dissolved oxygen gas - not the H2O itself. Water can be de-gassed by boiling (mostly gone), and then sonication (for further reduction). In Suhas' case, he is using such high power ultrasound that the water will be immediately de-gassed to 100 ppB or better. Raney Ni is frequently supplied in a de-gassed water slurry to prevent oxidation and pyrophoric burning when handling.
I agree Bob, The Oxygen problem is, I suspect, why a lot of the studies done into the effect of US on hydrogen adsorption/absorbtion into Ni was done using Alkane hydrocarbons.
What do you know about the ability of the alkane hydrocarbons ability to have dissolved gas?
However, they are very easy to degass under vacuum because of their low boiling point..
IMHO, LENR experiments should move forward to extremely high temperature glow discharge types of LENR experiments. From what Rossi says about the QuarkX, there is no fuel processing involved. Only Nickel Aluminum hydride is involved with nickel electrodes. The reactor starts up in seconds; there is no days of heating and ramp ups needed. The COP involved is unambiguous and easy to detect because when the reactor works the COP is huge and easy to detect.
Both Mills and Rossi are committed to a glow discharge type of tractor now and have move away from the Lugano type of reactor. So why is it in the interest of the LENR experimenter to become fixated on a magenial LENR reactor approach?
A post that might hold some insights as follows:
April 23, 2017 at 3:37 PM
seems that to activate the E-Cat you need heat, does the QuarkX need heat to be activated?
Best regards, Giuseppe
- Andrea Rossi
April 23, 2017 at 3:48 PM
Not exactly. The mechanism is much more complex and is based on electromagnetic fields.
The nature of the LENR reaction has evolved when the gas envelope is in the plasma state to depend solely on optical mechanisms. An EMF trigger is the factor can gets the LENR reaction going. not heat. As stated in the Rossi patent, very high voltage electrostatic potential is that trigger. The name of the triggering effect is "kerr effect". The minimum voltage at which the kerr effect is triggered is 30,000 volts.
This trigger applies to both Rossi's low temperature reactions and his plasma based reactions.
Kerr electro-optic effect
The Kerr electro-optic effect, or DC Kerr effect, is the special case in which a slowly varying external electric field is applied by, for instance, a voltage on electrodes across the sample material. Under this influence, the sample becomes birefringent, with different indices of refraction for light polarized parallel to or perpendicular to the applied field. The difference in index of refraction is controlled by the strength of the applied electric field.
Birefringence modifies how light behaves inside a whispering gallery wave.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. These optically anisotropic materials are said to be birefringent (or birefractive). The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference between refractive indices exhibited by the material. Crystals with non-cubic crystal structures are often birefringent, as are plastics under mechanical stress.
The kerr effect produces a change in stated of the optical properties that underpin the LENR reaction. Research should be directed at finding where that change of state sets in.
As in Holmlid's experiments, a laser can produce the kerr effect
Optical Kerr effect
The optical Kerr effect, or AC Kerr effect is the case in which the electric field is due to the light itself. This causes a variation in index of refraction which is proportional to the local irradiance of the light. This refractive index variation is responsible for the nonlinear optical effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation and modulational instability, and is the basis for Kerr-lens modelocking. This effect only becomes significant with very intense beams such as those from lasers. The optical Kerr effect has also been observed to dynamically alter the mode-coupling properties in multimode fibre, a technique that has potential applications for all-optical switching mechanisms.
- Giuseppe April 23, 2017 at 3:37 PM
Robert Bryant said "A lot more bubble bubble toil and trouble in Mumbai making rough surface nickel foils"
there appear to be fairy sprites rather than witches making the fuel.. Bob and Georgy in Mumbai