Fusion-physics

  • Hi,


    I Think I have found the answer on Fusion. If it's Cold or Hot, doesn't seem to make any difference. It seems to me, that Fusion is always endothermic process.
    This means that "cold fusion" is a real thing. But it, or hot fusion can't never produce energy.


    I have a new Idea about the conditions where the fusion of matter in big scale could be reached. If there is some ongoing research, I would like to join.


    My thoughts are based on observations; I think these "forest rings" are a sign of cold fusion on Earth;
    http://www.bldgblog.com/2016/01/rings/
    Here's more technical paper about them available;
    https://www.researchgate.net/p…f_forest_rings_in_Ontario


    There is "hotter" version of this fusion visible in Venus;
    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancake_Dome


    Here's m own papers;
    https://www.researchgate.net/p…/QED-Theory-of-everything


    They are quite difficult to approach, as the way which lead to me to this idea about Fusion was quite long.
    If I have figured this our correctly, the research of LENR is not qoing to bring us solution to energy problems. It would just complete our understanding of physics. The only concrete new thing which I see possible to be revealed through further research is superconductivity. The most of other results will be just closing out the stuff like antimatter, Dark energy and black holes.


    I think the best information about Fusion is provided in Thermosphere, or more precisely the 85-120 km height above Earth. Here's one teaser picture about my observations;


    regs,


    Jouni Jokela

  • Yep. My real name is Jokela. And though I laugh on a lot of things, I am not Joking here.


    I wasn't seaking this answer; "Fusion->Endothermic, Fission->Exothermic", but it just came on sight while I went forward following the Idea.


    It was actually pretty depressing to notice that the so called "Fusion-bombs", which are actually the only widely recognized experiments of "man made fusion" were nothing but Lithium-7 Fission bombs.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Bravo#High_yield


    So, pls study that case a bit more carefully. And notice that how the Unexpected +300% power was explained by Endothermic Lithium fission;
    n + Li-7 → T-3 + He-4 + n – 2.467 MeV


    And then this Tritium "just fusions" with a lot of energy, though this has never been been achieved in lab as an Exothermic process.


    So, I think that the "cold-fusion heat" experienced by the Fleischmann & Pons might have been Palladium losing neutrons under electrolysis, and these neutrons then produce Tritium from the already existing Deuterium.


    If this was really so, could be even verified, if Silver (Ag-109) is created. This would be even measurable within a reasonable time
    Pd-110 - n → Pd-109 which goes β− decay to Ag-109m within 13.7 hours, and this isomer then releases 88 keV energy in just 39.6 seconds.


    I hope the next comment has a bit more content than the one from THHuxley.

  • I hope the next comment has a bit more content than the one from THHuxley.

    Hope in vain, thread and posts Not Even Wrong.


    I have seen people with far more knowledge than "Jokela" come up with their own cold fusion theories, that seem completely reasonable to them, but there is one problem: the theory doesn't match experimental results, all it does is to dream up a way that a reaction might occur, as if that were the problem. The problem is finding an "explanation" that not only allows a nuclear reaction to occur under the conditions of the FP experiment, but that also generates the known effects, would operates under the known conditions, and that does not predict effects that have been tested for and that do not occur, as well as being testable.


    But I'll toss a bone. Jokela asserts the the FP experiment generates tritium, and he has probably read somewhere that tritium is reported. Because this often was not a part of the reports, he could easily overlook it. Tritium is reported, all right, and rather widely, but tritium is extremely easy to detect so it can be measured at tiny levels. It's difficult to get precise data on this, but it appears that the levels of tritium found are on the order of a million times down from helium, the apparent main product. In terms of understanding the basic effect, tritium is almost useless. Slow neutrons would also generate many transmutations, not just tritium, and there has been extensive search for these. They do apparently occur, but, again, at very low levels, as with tritium. These have never been shown and confirmed to be correlated with the heat, and are thus likely side-reactions or secondary reactions or the like. Tritium, in particular, may vary with the H/D ratio in the heavy water used in these experiments, Storms posits this, and it's plausible.

  • all it does is to dream up a way that a reaction might occur, as if that were the problem. The problem is finding an "explanation" that not only allows a nuclear reaction to occur under the conditions of the FP experiment, but that also generates the known effects, would operates under the known conditions, and that does not predict effects that have been tested for and that do not occur, as well as being testable.


    Thank you for the bone.
    -I think I mainly wrote "Tritium-fusion" in contest of Castle Bravo nuclear bomb test.
    -I also agree completely that the Tritium in FP experiment is not the source of any heat, If my idea is correct, the D+n=T fusion would even be endothermic.


    But I can easily leave the FP experiment to those who know more. I am not trying to chanllenge it. The Idea's I have got from other sources just supports, that these observed LENR is possible.


    I have verified my own ideas mainly by observations from nature. One of my first proposal how to detect if LEN-Reaction is happening in these forest rings was to detect helium. But because that's difficult in forest, my second proposal was to seek Si-32. But for few unfortunate issues, I couldn't participate to the planned exploration in August.


    But the main source from my observation is still Thermosphere. The picture I allready posted shows relative amounts. But If you look the absolute amounts, more interesting stuff becomes visible. Ie. the Peak of H is at 84 km height. And This seems to be consuming the free Oxygen atoms, "O" (Burning is not possible in those temperatures) the amount of these peaks at about 98 km height. Free Nitrogen atoms "N" peaks at the height of 196 km. Now, the problem with this is, that where does these came from? The Space is ofcourse full Hydrogen and Helium, so that's not a problem. But why these atom amounts peaks at these heights?


    Please note that in atmosphere they exist in N2 and O2 molecules, and if their source is lower atmosphere, these molecules should be split to get these atoms free. The temperatures are definetly not supporting this view. The coldest point of Earth (173 K) is between the Peak amounts of H and O, at 90 km height.


    I skip the complex story behind my thoughts, and just point out that Noctilucent clouds are exactly on that hight too;
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noctilucent_cloud
    And I make a short claim; O can't be produced by collision from "hot" O2-molecules, as the heat of thermosphere is above 200 km height.
    So this must new matter produced by fusion. This fusion, can obviously happen even temperatures of just 173 K and it cool down this region of atmosphere,
    Temperature drops from ~1100 K to ~173 K


    Why this Oxygen must be new matter? As when it reacts with hydrogen, it forms water molecules, which further condesates to visible solid frozen ice which is seen as these clouds. And this particles must fall down to earth. There is no mechanism that this water could have been rise through stratosphere.


    So these observations in Thermosphere have indeed given me an idea about the conditions which are needed for a fusion to happen. And this would be quite easy to test.


    So does this forum has no meat-on-the-bones what it comes to LENR?

  • The energy source for LENR is proton and neutron decay. That decay produces 1 GeV of energy. The fusion results from the catalytic effects of muons in muonium atoms. Muon catalyzed fusion is an exothermic reaction.

  • The energy source for LENR is proton and neutron decay. That decay produces 1 GeV of energy. The fusion results from the catalytic effects of muons in muonium atoms. Muon catalyzed fusion is an exothermic reaction.


    Now we are talking, Thanks! This is what I came seeking here.
    You know, I just started to study the nature of radioactivity about a year ago. I was lead to this theme while following my idea about gravity. I started study QED 1.5 year ago, and as I noted that it has nothing which doesn't fit, I proceeded to Radioactivity. I was working on this, and I found supporting stuff from other planets. But then I googled if I could find this stuff also in Earth. (crater/circular formations) And I found these Forst rings from Canada. Though they were "wrongly" located at that point I had gone through so much supporting stuff, that I was too convinced that these are also signs of natural fission. But as I contacted Stew Hamilton, and received the papers, it wasn't supporting anymore. It seemed as such, but things were totally turned around. Then I remembered the hype with Cold fusion, (which I knew nothing about) and i started to study if this all is about fusion.


    My first (worst) problem with Fusion was that my Idea predicts it's always endothermic. And though this is supported by the experiments made with "Tokamak", the hydrogen/fusion-bomb was a real thing. Pretty soon it came obvious, that the whole high-yield of these "Fusion" bombs can be explained with Lithium Fission. - a reaction which is currently expected to be endothermic.
    Up to that point my new ideas had brought nothing new or revolutional, It had just removed the mystical stuff like Dark Matter. But realizing that We have build stuff like Tsar Bomb;
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsar_Bomba
    Without properly understanding what is going on, is just pretty depressive. We are currently using nuclear power, though we dont even quite know what we are doing. And the current research stand
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_fusion#Current_research
    is very unsatisfying. The unknown is not researched, but the known stuff is just defined up to the 20th digit.


    So; "LENR = Proton&neutron decay" -I agree.
    "Muon catalyzed fusion is an exothermic reaction." - Agree,
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon-catalyzed_fusion
    ... as this is again "just";

    Quote

    Each exothermic d-t nuclear fusion releases about 17.6 MeV of energy in the form of a "very fast" neutron having a kinetic energy of about 14.1 MeV and an alpha particle α (a helium-4 nucleus) with a kinetic energy of about 3.5 MeV.

  • I dont know if Deuterium is easily available on some of your labs. But I have a proposal for very simple experiment;


    D + D -> He
    In
    Pressure; <50 Pa
    Temperature ~ 300 K


    The process should be Energetic neutral. The temperature will though fall, but this comes from Ideal gas law.


    If some one has the lab possibilities here in Central Europe to do this, I would like to participate on costs and work.


    Regs,


    Jouni Jokela

  • Quote

    It seems to me, that Fusion is always endothermic process. This means that "cold fusion" is a real thing. But it, or hot fusion can't never produce energy.


    The fusion is something like the spontaneous merging of mercury droplets - the energy is released by decreasing of the surface tension of the resulting atom nuclei. Why do you think the opposite?

  • Why do you think the opposite?


    Because this is what you can actually observe in nature. ie;
    - Coronal heating problem. -> The energy is "gravitational", means it comes outside the sun, thus it's also hotter in the sun.
    - Thermospheres of planets -the problem is universal.
    - Noctilucent clouds. -> The water can't come from earth. It's just physically impossible that it raises from 15 km to ~ 80 km. As after Tropopause there is nothing which would force it to go up and Stratosphere just doesn't have any convections. And if you study the gas derivates at mesopause;
    https://www.researchgate.net/p…1_Mesopause_gas_derivates
    It's like obvious that Hydrogen ions are oxidized to water. But this means that the Oxygen must come from space, and again we are on the opposite.
    - Hydrogen bomb Li-7 was creating the opposite result to that predicted.


    etc.etc.
    But it doesn't really matter what are my thoughts, first IF


    D + D -> He
    In Pressure; <50 Pa
    Temperature ~ 300 K


    happens as is predicted by my thoughts (against your expectations), then it just is so.
    In any case it doesn't matter. The nature remains as it is, and as it has always been. It's just our understanding which has developed, but as this (understanding) is also only Personal issue, it doesn't matter too much either.

  • Quote

    Coronal heating problem. -> The energy is "gravitational", means it comes outside the sun, thus it's also hotter in the sun

    The corona isn't hotter than the center of Sun. IMO it's heated with neutrinos and scalar waves escaping from nuclear reactions at its core. The scalar waves preferentially interact with / heat the free plasma particles. The same applies to upper atmosphere of large planets and also the interstellar gas in the galactic bulges and eliptic galaxies, which are rich of dark matter.

  • 1. The corona isn't hotter than the center of Sun.
    2. The scalar waves preferentially interact with / heat the free plasma particles.
    3. which are rich of dark matter


    1. & 3. You don't have any observation about these. Instead you have an observation for sun, that the core of the Sun could be solid, atleast it rotate with fixed speed.
    (Quelle; http://www.geo.de/magazine/geo…6-die-heilkraft-der-sonne )
    2. Have you calculated the scale? It's not even in correct order! I have; (page 23, 4.2.2)
    https://www.researchgate.net/p…vity_Theory_of_Everything

  • The scale of what?


    OK, how can you explain, that most of solar neutrinos are generated within small volume in its center? The physicists calculated, it's because only at the core of Sun the temperature and pressure are high enough for to initiate nuclear reaction spontaneously. The physical state of the core plays no role here: the Sun core can be solid and it still could generate all the heat of Sun.


  • The scale of what?


    OK, how can you explain, that most of solar neutrinos are generated within small volume in its center?


    The scale of "2.";

    Quote

    scalar waves preferentially interact with / heat the free plasma particles.


    Just according to plain thermodynamics.


    About Neutrinos. They are merely detected;
    https://www.scientificamerican…trinos-detected-borexino/

    Quote

    That is how the Borexino experiment at Italy’s Gran Sasso National Laboratory found them. Its detection of so-called pp neutrinos—neutrinos created by the fusion of two protons in the sun—was a feat far from guaranteed. “Their existence was not in question, but whether some group was capable of building such an exquisitely pristine detector to see these low-energy neutrinos in real time, event by event, was,” says Wick Haxton, a physicist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the experiment. “Borexino accomplished this through a long campaign to reduce and understand background events.”


    If you study this "detection" more closely, you notice that it's 99.99% about "understanding background events".
    Well, I just doubt that they have understood it at all. Most propable explanation is just securing the future funding in Italian way.


    I don't find obligated to explain ferrytales. If you have some solid observation which is verifed though three (3) independet parties, I most propably can explain it.

  • This post continues the ideas worked here in my own post;
    RIP Dr. Michel Buxerolle - suppressed research


    It just added two new piece to my ideas, and this might be about completing the puzzle.
    My previous hypothesis for fusion has been;
    1. Low pressure
    2. Equal masses
    3. Adequate particle velocity (=temperature, > 200 K)


    And the post just added the turbulence, or rather Lack of it;
    4. Laminar conditions.
    There is a thread (I've had no time to read it , but already the title) which supports this idea; "bose condensation as a force multiplier"
    AND
    5. Ionizing (with electricity)


    Now the 3. and 4. are actually total contradictions, and this might be the reason for the need of low pressure (1.)


    I've already spoken out my experiment-idea (somewhere, here? don't remember), that the fusion might occure simply at low pressure when the particles has equal masses, but low pressure is bad for power density, and it's difficult to measure the results. But until now, I've have problem about electrons. As I think they prevent and shield the atoms about being fusioned/fissioned.

    Adding all aspects in, brings me to the following experimental proposal;


    Single isotope material (doesn't matter too much which) is cooled down to very low temperature. .....Sorry, my ADHD..... I come back later, just got an idea about the condesation etc. want to do some excel now.


  • I'm probably being a bit stupid (again) - but could you clarify what you mean by 'equal masses'?


    No! It's a perfect question. A honest one. I actually don't even mean "masses", I rather mean "Kinetic Force" but as "force" is "F=m*a", I actually doensn't even mean Force, but something like "Strength"; In turbomachinery this is denoted with "Y" Specific pressure head. And in the case of particles, this would be Y=a*l, and the unit is m2/s2, which basic form must be c2. This might be near the concept of "Field", but again, If I talk about Specific field of a particle, there wont be too much dialogue.


    So the main problem in Physics, is actually that the whole science is messed up with a pseudo thing called mass. But total mass of universe is ZERO. You actually can sit down and found this answer from the Newton's 3rd.
    But Let's get back to Fusion.


    What I mean with "Equal masses" is simply similar mass number. And your question actually just delivered me the explanation for Lithium and Boron abundance. I actually don't have time to explain this now Throughly, but It's already written here, page 4.
    So, I just write clean that hand written paper; (Stupid answer; Ink don't disturb your thoughts whilst writing.)

    Quote

    Fusion through collision
    Synthesizing isotopes is mostly done with some Target-projectile combinations, which has a 3...5/1 -ratioin atomic mass. Ie. 292Lv was made with 238U as a target, and 54Cr as a projectile. This kind of Fusions most propably doesn't happen in nature, where both of these particles are moving in random directions, causing huge variations in impact energy. This variation would lead to fission and fusion simultaniously, and would thus be too random process, to be able to ever synthesize heavier isotopes.
    The basic Newtonian physics offers here a simple solution. If two objects of same mass and velocity(1) collides in space, after the collision they both will have the same direction and velocity(2), regardless from the collision angle. -When the collision is not elastic. This means, that the collision energy is high enough to over come the strong nuclei Force. (Potential wall) But small enough to be unable to split the Nuclei. -Or the nuclei must be as strong as Possible, but it must have the smallest possible potential wall. All this leads to an optimal case with similar masses on "target" and "projectile"(3)


    I note that few points might need some more explanations;
    (1) velocity = temperature, This is same if the (gas/plasma) particles are in same temperature. -> Similar mass and same temperature is thus equally correct said.
    (2) The important aspect not said,(propably said somewhere in my linked paper) is that the particles remains together, in the same location. And if they are not disturbed this metastable Isomer can go through "Isomeric Transition" and form a Stabile nuclei. This is the reason for need to have low pressure. Low pressure is nothing else than more time between collisions. (google "Mean free path")
    (3) This talk about "Target" and "projectile" comes from the synthesized isotopes, which are also nothing else than "fusion". Searching some "silver bullet"-combination can get your(lab/uni/location) name to periodic table.


    Hope this helped to follow my thoughts (which are not necessarily correct)... -This answer is far from being complete.

  • So the main problem in Physics, is actually that the whole science is messed up with a pseudo thing called mass. But total mass of universe is ZERO. You actually can sit down and found this answer from the Newton's 3rd.


    Reading this paper posted by Alan Smith, this very same issue is actually allready said in page 65;
    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/BiberianJPjcondensedt.pdf


    Quote

    The solution also confirms that a positive mass M in the conjugate metric is seen as a negative mass M from
    its gravitational effect felt on our side.


    And even on page 64;

    Quote

    no more black hole!


    and further on Page 66... But why should we implement some new "Dark Gravity"? Of course we can do it, and it would provide better theory than the existing one, but it still keeps the stuff more complicated. It's all much more simple If the whole mass is left away.
    Even for the Pioneer effect he has made the same conlutions.


    Thanks Alan Smith for posting this!




    This exactly the same what I mean. This just more complicated, and is only a theoretical approach.

  • Without going into the devilish details they shone a laser beam onto some already condensed hydrogen making it condense even more and voila out came an abundance of muons.


    Does anyone have anymore info about this? I tried to google, and read the article.In the article were btw. very interesingly written between the lines, that there are no killing-gamma-rays in these processes.


    @Zephir_AWT Your video-picture in the same chain is nice, and the whole thing is explained here;


    This Aspect is relevant to the question of Alan Smith about my claim of the need of equal masses. I mean atomic nuclei doesn't work that way. A single proton have no possiblity to know what is the atom number of the molecule it is a part of. It means the collision is always happening between the smaller nuclei and a similar size part of the bigger nuclei, which then transfers the collision energy to the rest of the nuclei, -if this is possible. In the case of Lithium (6,7), Beryllium (9) and Boron (10,11) this is not possible.
    The first enough stabile construction able to hold under a collision of single high speed proton/neutron needs atleast 12 units. (Carbon)


    YES! :) I just looked the abundances of Lithium and Beryllium, and though production of all known isotopes could be produced through this nucleosynthesis idea;
    https://www.researchgate.net/p…187_Nucleosynthesis_chain
    I allready see how the math of the natural abundances will also fit perfectly after calculating this through this newest idea from today!
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…_elements_in_the_Universe
    ... I think I work this to an Excel now..

  • Does anyone have anymore info about this? I tried to google, and read the article.In the article were btw. very interesingly written between the lines, that there are no killing-gamma-rays in these processes.


    Don't fear.. the gammas occur much later, when the muons induce secondary radiation... May be close to the event might be the best place to stay...

  • Yes, the Muon-Gammas,,, That would also need a wider discussion.


    I just found the energy to complete this Thermosphere-analysis which have been on my desk since 20.9.2016. Just posted this update to Researschgate;


    https://www.researchgate.net/p…UTC_2191998_gas_derivates


    The results were the same as in this first quick study from September. But now, as I fist analysed the exact time to study, the data brought a very clearly anomaly on sight. Pls. look the thick Blue Hydrogen-line at the first diagram. It shows how Hydrogen is disappearing somewhere! The same happens to Helium too.
    Page 6 shows the comparison from both; 05 and 09 lines, and it makes clear that also the mass (density) is growing. (N2 and Mass are practically the same lines.)
    Further the Temperature drops too.


    I see fusion happening in Thermosphere, Peaking at 118 km height at that diagram, and It seems to be Endothermic.

  • So here's few pictures from what I am talking about;


    The Thick Blue Hydrogen line is the one to look at. The Green dashed line shows the line shape just "4 hours later". The time presents the sun location 12, all curves are from the same moment.



    At this picture above, the Temperatures are shown.The scale is on the Radius. Various lines presents the temperature in different heights (106 -125 km). The position 0-24 is the "local" time, and presents the relative location to sun, similarily as in previous picture the 05 and 09. This picture and data is the same 21.9.1998, 19 UTC data which I have chosen as an interesting point to study because it's near equinox and the LOD (Length Of Day) variation gave expectations that here might be found this kind of stuff.



    This third picture shows, how the Pressure varies; lower pressure above >190 km height generates a higher pressure (and density) to height 80-190 km.
    This makes me to predict, that Fusion might be achieved as simply as placing Helium-4 to a pressure of 0.01-0.001 Pa and to a temperature of 200-400 K (ie. room temperature of 300 K would be quite ok). It should not be forgotten, that at space there is electron flow, so additionally a voltage should be implemented to ionize the gas.

  • This makes me to predict, that Fusion might be achieved as simply as placing Helium-4 to a pressure of 0.01-0.001 Pa and to a temperature of 200-400 K (ie. room temperature of 300 K would be quite ok). It should not be forgotten, that at space there is electron flow, so additionally a voltage should be implemented to ionize the gas.


    ....Not so quickly! The size of the vessel where this is done, is also relevant because of the mean free path. Because the velocity of a particle is Dependant from atomic mass and from Temperature, this means that Helium has easily 28/4 = 7 times higher velocity than Air which is mostly N2 and has thus 28 "mass" compared to Helium's "mass" 4.


    I looked the most optimum conditions at the data presented in picture, and it seems to be at 116 km height in "05" curve. The pressure is ~0.003 Pa and the temperature is 290 K. In room temperature the Free mean path is approx (wiki link above) ~10 m in this pressure. (did I calculate this correct?) so the Helium might need a tank of 70 m, -in radius! (it's not very prectical to think that the collision happens exactly at the wall and travel the longest free path through center on other side) This is structurally quite Problematic and makes the testing very expensive. Luckily the Mean free path can be reduced by lowering the temperature. So were back in trying to calculate the correct temperature. ... back to excel....

  • ... back to excel....


    WOW! -BANG! I just found a thing I wasn't even searching!!!!!


    I mean in this paper;
    https://www.researchgate.net/p…ything_-THE_MATH_07102016
    I show how The Boltzmann constant and Planck constant can be calculated from the Speed of light -Only!
    Well, this was based on the idea, that the Atom diameter is 1/c [m] when it's on Condensating point. (State of matter; Gas-> Solid/liquid) And while I was working with that paper, I already thougth, that IF this logic is correct, then also the gas-Plasma transition must be able to be drawn from the speed of light. (Solid/liquid cant, but thats a long story)


    AND NOW I FOUND IT. Thanks Alan Smith! :) Thanks Wyttenbach! :) (...Fuck you Zephir_AWT :P -But ofcourse this is not ment personally- there is a LOT like you. Majority, I would say :zz(: )


    ...Well maybe I made some mistake, but I just found the first sight!! The difference between PLASMA and GAS -states is the Mean free Path TIME, limit being 1/c [seconds]


    Atleast ie. the Helium "absorbtion limit" at 63 km height gives exactly this result.
    Also the Hydrogen disappears to unmeasurable amount, at 68 km (the measures actually ends allready at 72 km, but this where the curve is going), Anyhow, the result is very close 1/c [seconds]
    And also for Oxygen (O not O2); my sample ends at 60 km height, and the data ends at 72 km too, but it's 1.106 x 1/c at 60 km height, So I expect that it hits the 1/c at 57-58 km height, and this just reminds me that where does the Ozon layer start at?,,, well it begins at ~55 km!


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…ution_in_the_stratosphere


    Oh, and I also calculated the needed vessel-size. It seems that some reasonable tank size is enough. There must have been some mistake on the free-path calculation in my prev. message. Now my excel shows that about ~5-10 cm radius might be enough.

  • Oh, and I also calculated the needed vessel-size. It seems that some reasonable tank size is enough. There must have been some mistake on the free-path calculation in my prev. message. Now my excel shows that about ~5-10 cm radius might be enough.


    @Jokala: A muon penetrates about 200-300 an atomic arbit before it dies and becomes an simple electron. I would first calculate the probabilty how often such (after "fusion") highly kinetic nucleous hits the needed (for fusion) other one. This is classical cold fusion - main-stream accepted and there are many papers availlable, also about the muon frequency (hits/m2) in orbit.


  • A muon penetrates about 200-300 an atomic arbit before it dies and becomes an simple electron.


    Yes. These muons are one issue. But not directly the issue of the vessel-size like I ment. The mean Free path is basically only dependent of two things;
    1. How long is the path.
    2. What is the travelling speed.


    The path-lenght = particle density = pressure
    The travelling speed = ~temperature (~ because it also depends on the "mass". <- I hate this word.)


    I think the muons are produced by the collisions in gas /plasma which destroys protons/neutrons. Thus "10 000 muons reaches every square meter of earth a minute."
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon#Muon_sources
    And I think they also mostly decay very fast; (456 m is said) But the reason why they reach Earth can be merely a chain reaction like in newtons-cradle. For the Muons this is like a "relay race" combined with "musical chairs". At least I could calculate that the Muon rate ratio +/- ; 1.27 fits exactly to the proton/neuton model I which simply comes out from the Fusion idea, when calculated from the measured Hydrogen (proton) and Helium (alpha-radiation) amounts. But this I haven't put on paper yet.


  • Atleast ie. the Helium "absorbtion limit" at 63 km height gives exactly this result. Also the Hydrogen disappears to unmeasurable amount, at 68 km (the measures actually ends allready at 72 km, but this where the curve is going), Anyhow, the result is very close 1/c [seconds]And also for Oxygen (O not O2); my sample ends at 60 km height, and the data ends at 72 km too, but it's 1.106 x 1/c at 60 km height, So I expect that it hits the 1/c at 57-58 km height, and this just reminds me that where does the Ozon layer start at?,,, well it begins at ~55 km!


    Yep. The data which I used provided this limit to be as follows;
    Ar 54 km
    N2, O2, 55 km, (This is also the temperature Turning point; "derivate max", Peak temperature was 47 km)
    O, N, 58 km,
    He, 63 km
    H, 68 km,


    This defines clearly the Stratopause.


    I also found the reason for Mesopause; At 85 km height the Hydrogen is burning (or rather oxidizing, because of temperature).
    This produces water, and the noctilucent clouds, (76- 85 km) and This water starts to absorb heat from the sun, which causes the mild temperature rise on mesosphere.


    The idea of Turbopause was familiar to me also before. The answer was just impossible to be said loud; This is the point where the Fusion ends, height ~100 km. Here you can even found traces of metal. Sodium (Na) can be found in Hights of 80-100 km;

    Quote

    The thermosphere contains an appreciable concentration of elemental sodium located in a 10-km thick band that occurs at the edge of the mesosphere, 80 to 100 km above Earth's surface. The sodium has an average concentration of 400,000 atoms per cubic centimeter.


    So the Fusion-zone is from 100 km - 300 km.


    For completion, I also define the Tropopause.
    It's the region where the "True surface" of the Earth occasionally rises. "The wave tops" of the fluid surface. The calm "true" fluid surface lies on approx 550 m height above the sea surface. It's the base of Cumulus clouds, but it can be lifted through mountains etc. up to 2400 m.


    This all can be seen on the existing data. Two key notions;
    1. The Water of the Noctilucent clouds comes from space. Hydrogen is not a problem, but how would the oxygen be created? If there would be no new oxygen production, it all would have rained down long ago.
    2. From where does the Sodium (Na) came from? It's metal! (btw. It's also the main component on Mercury's atmosphere.)


    Everything very coherent and simple, starting from the very basics; from the speed of light.
    What made me now to grab on this? I saw this video;


    And combined the Red colour at the edge at ie. 0:00-0:07 to the Lithium burning colour;


    So, it's LENR under your eyes. The only thing which needs to be done, is just to replicate the Nature in the lab.

  • [quote='Jokela','https://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/Thread/4455-Fusion-physics/?postID=45384#post45384'] A muon penetrates about 200-300 an atomic arbit before it dies and becomes an simple electron. I would first calculate the probabilty how often such (after "fusion") highly kinetic nucleous hits the needed (for fusion) other one. This is classical cold fusion - main-stream accepted and there any many papers availlable, also about the muon frequency (hits/m2) in orbit.


    I have postulated that LENR is caused by nuclear decay catalyzed by an amplified weak force.


    The weak force is carried by a number of weak force bosons that appear out of the vacuum. An amplified weak force would increase the rate of formation of these bosons appearing out of the vacuum so the rate of decay of the nuclear matter in the volume of intensified weak force activity is greatly increased,


    But the vacuum tends to produce a net zero energy density whereby any increase in vacuum particle creation is offset in another section of the vacuum producing less virtual particle formation.


    It might be reasonable to assume that once the muon leaves the zone of positive weak force activity, the muon might enter a volume of compensatory negative weak for activity. In this negative weak force activity, the muon may require a very long time to decay which would be inversely proportional to the shortened time that radioactivity is accelerated in the LENR zone.