LFH sees XSH - But is it LENR?

  • Radioactivity: release of trapped Radon or some other radioactive product where the apparent half-life is in fact dispersal. Arguments about radioactivity from Radon ave very complex because we have a chain of transmutations in which radioactive intermediates of different life-times can build up, so that activity measures at equilibrium have both physical and nuclear components.


    Although everything here might be true, there is an additional worm in this can that has been opened up: we might be seeing activity that is induced, above and beyond what natural activity there already ways. I do not know how this hypothesis might be tested in the present context, given all of the variables.

  • Couldn't the electrolysis concentrate the hydrogen peroxide within electrolyte, which would oxidize the rest of anode in some avalanche-like breakdown reaction? Also the oxygen absorbed within its pores could contribute to it. Anthracite isn't pure carbon, it still could contain unsaturated groups prone to oxidation.

  • @Zephir_AWT


    I'm well aware of the possibilities of such 'dirty' chemistry. There aren't a lot of volatiles in Anthracite, but with the ability of Carbonaceous material to absorb gases almost anything could be happening. That is what makes this particular experiment both interesting and fascinating.

  • First, I like it so congrats. Second I disagree with Jed as it contains some characteristics of a chemical battery (at least it is not clear to me that it does not). Third the aluminum "burning" is interesting so I would like to have a bubbler attached, electrical aluminum reactions may have some use down the road if the process is efficient.


    On the boil overs, I have a small segue with this and the thermacore experiment. If I may, since you have previously shot at thermite..... For both experiments why don't you consider putting this in a stainless steel pressure cooker and feed in hydrogen possibly buried in the middle of a field? It would be safer and may have quite a yield for the youtube ;)

  • Accident in the prototype of Russian Nuclear Reactor VVR 1200
    Megawatts at Novovoronezh emphazize the need for working LENR
    systems:


    Despite the current statement from Rosatom, and the Novovoronezh
    plant itself, that certain incidents are expected in the testing of
    their vaunted new reactor, the silence of both for a whole six days
    following the incident casts doubt on the veracity of official
    reports on what happened.


    The delay led to fearful speculation in a local online
    publication. On November 23, Bloknot Voronezh posted a
    report headlined “The consequences of the accident at the
    Novovoronezh NPP are unpredictable.”


    The publication cited an anonymous witness who called the incident
    “an extraordinary situation” and who talked about an explosion at
    plant’s turbine hall, and a burned out generator. The witness also
    mentioned burning electrical equipment and a telltale loud noise.


    An
    anonymous plant source was quoted by the site as saying the noise
    attributed to an explosion was actually steam pressure valves sharply
    snapping open.


    http://bloknot-voronezh.ru/new…-796964?sphrase_id=177286

  • It is certainly at some level a photocell. Actually I made a mistake when mentioning this to Jed, the evolved voltage for one of these cells in bright sunlight on a warm day is 1.2V. This particular cell had stainless electrodes btw. Which leads to interesting thoughts about the possibility of using carbon/sunlight as an additive (in some way) to reduce the breakdown voltage requirement for conventional electrolysis of water - a hybrid photocell as it were. Never have time to follow up all these potentially useful findings.

  • /* he lead used for both electrodes was 10x10 cms approx. I notice the patent describes mostly cells with disparate metals -Zinc/Lead, for example. */


    Note that Cravens spheres did also use active carbon mixed with metals.



    The bulk of the material inside the active sphere is activated charcoal (carbon). The charcoal has a mesh of between 1350 and 2000 (micro mesh screening of 6 to 10 microns) with some larger pieces. That was selected to match the 8.2 micron peak wavelength of black body radiation at 80°C [i.e., spectral radiance of about 0.02 W/(cm2 · sr· μm)]. The charcoal’s pores holding the metal alloy are nominally 9 nm. The metal alloy is palladium and gold.

  • Let me ask it a different way. Why does a "catalytic" system (in quotes as I do not believe yet that it is catalytic) have an advantage of electrolysis for hydrogen generation? It appears to me that this is just reaction of a reactive metal with water to generate hydrogen (we can discuss mechanisms later). On the surface this system is messier and uses-up the reactive metal producing solid waste. So I am not sure of the advantage.


    It reminded me of a concept that I had in the 70's to use waste aluminium cans plus acid to generate hydrogen to run cars (cans were not recycled then and we had a gas "crisis". Base would have been better than acid). Possible but completely unworkable because of recycling the solid waste and the amount of energy consumed. BTW: People are still pushing this concept (of metals as energy carriers) but it cannot be practical except under very limited scenarios where performance greatly overrides cost.


    Now if it produces more energy than chemical it could be connected to LENR by a number of common features and thus of interest rather than a way to make hydrogen.

  • @DAK


    Sorry for a somewhat terse reply. Been a difficult few days for me- bad health in the family -but past the crisis stage now. :/


    You said...'Why does a "catalytic" system (in quotes as I do not believe yet that it is catalytic) have an advantage of electrolysis for hydrogen generation?'


    First of all, this CC is truly a catalytic reaction. A whole large group have done many tests to prove this - it fulfills all the requirements of a true acceleration catalyst with a very high rate-constant. There are a number of advantages to using aluminium/CC rather than electrolysis, and a number of 'bum notes'.


    For example. Aluminium/CC works with very modest energy inputs and is in fact exothermic once the mix is heated past 70C. The hydrogen given off is very pure and does not require any post-treatment other than drying out excess moisture. In comparison, electrolysis requires constant and considerable electrical input to operate and there needs to be careful separation of H&O, Nafion or PD filtering and drying to avoid contamination.


    So Al/CC is less complex, and also less expensive in terms of construction (no plate stack etc.) You can make relatively pure hydrogen in a bucket if you wish.


    The system runs on scrap Al, Mg, Fe, in any mix as powder, filings, shavings or foil. If you only use Aluminium the waste by-product is aluminium hydroxide mixed with a little carbon. This (or very similar) material is actually used as an additive/improver when arc-smelting bauxite to make virgin aluminium. So the waste is actually sale-able to smelters if you use the right inputs. No alkalis/acids are required to make the system work.


    Here you see the by-products are in the case of aluminium/CC neutral grey sludge requiring no special handling. Scrap chipped aluminium from cabling was (last time I looked) £750-800 ($820-874) per tonne. The market price of 'clean' aluminium Hydroxide varies much more, but seems to be around $500/tonne. Low grade is around $ 100/150/tonne.


    Since the reaction looks like this 2Al + 6H2O = 2Al(OH)3 +3H2 you can see that 60 grams of Al give you 6 grams of hydrogen, and as a by product just over 160 grams of hydroxide. If we up the scale a little, you can see that 1 tonne of aluminum scrap costing $850 would yield 100kgs of H2,and something like 2.5 tonnes of smutty hydroxide worth at least $250 to a smelter. So the hydrogen element costs around $6/kg in material cocts- which is stinking cheap!


    I'm sure you have more questions, but I have run out of answering energy for the moment. But...tomorrow is (usually) another day.

  • How does this cost for aluminium hydroxide (I assume that you will get it to Alumina for aluminium production but that is an assumption) compare to purifying Bauxite via the Bayer process? In the US Bauxite is <$30/ton and 30-60% Alumina. Of course the purification increases the cost dramatically and makes lots of waste (mostly iron sludge that is basic (if I remember correctly)). They had issues with the waste in Europe a few years ago. One would think that you could sell it as fertilizer in the proper context like Milgornite or Ironite (which I never have used) is marketed.


    If you are looking for projects, have you considered isolation of alumina from fly ash? It is a rich source that is essentially free. In fact may have a negative cost for reuse. "Only" need to get rid of the silica.


    I do not understand the chemistry yet because aluminium forms a protective layer of oxide. This layer can be breached with base or acid but you need a continual input of either one.


    As an aside, have you measured the pH of your catalyst just suspended in water?

  • Tried with lead electrodes, 500 mL tap water and some NaOH to get about 15V, 0.7A, 11W. The lead anode oxidized a lot, but seems to be rather stable now (oxidation prevents total dissolution?). I'm getting about 40 C temp, and it is either stable or maybe heating up less than 1 degree per day. Some water has to be added daily. The resistance of the system increases each day (i'm not running it at night) due to anode breaking/oxidising i guess. Maybe platinum anode would be better? Tried to swap electrodes at start to get some oxide mess on cathode too, but it is now cowered in plated lead. The electrolyte is brownish from lead oxides i guess.

  • If you are looking for projects, have you considered isolation of alumina from fly ash? It is a rich source that is essentially free. In fact may have a negative cost for reuse. "Only" need to get rid of the silica.


    We have no way of using the fused/partially fused alumina found in fly ash. But group members are working on ways to use CC to separate hydrogen from water in other ways- no need for fuel. Looking promising.


    [/quote] I do not understand the chemistry yet because aluminium forms a protective layer of oxide. This layer can be breached with base or acid but you need a continual input of either one. [/quote]


    Indeed Aluminium does oxidise readily in air. But the oxide coat is probably not perfect and the process seems to readily work through the cracks/voids which are present. The chemistry is at the most elementary level as in the formula I gave in a post just above. At a 'why so?' level I suspect that electrolysing carbon makes it into what I call a 'pseudo polar oxide'. Also the electrochemistry of (for example) carbon/aluminium/salt batteries makes me think that there are some strong electrical charge phenomena which promote the reaction- even in the absence of strong acids or bases.


    [/quote]As an aside, have you measured the pH of your catalyst just suspended in water?[/quote]


    It is normally very mildly alkaline when freshly made- probably due to retained carbonate electrolyte. This can be rinsed/soaked away till you are close to neutral. Makes no difference to the reaction.

  • I was just guessing that you or some group members were looking for a source of alumina for business purposes. Thus, the suggestion of fly ash. It was not to make hydrogen but recycle some sort of waste into sellable products, if the chemistry can be developed.


    I will investigate the chemistry in more detail.