Leif Holmlid: Ultra-Dense Deuterium Fusion

  • Nope, LENR can not and doesn't produce muons or even kaons - these particles are produced by excess of energy during brute force initiation of LENR by pulsed lasers,


    This is indeed a difference.


    Due to its low-dimensional negentropic nature, the pulsed lasers are most concentrated source of energy, even more than the giant colliders. It's not accidental, that most of antimatter has been produced just during laser pulses - not at LHC or somewhere else,


    The blue glow around discharge powered Ni-H reactors is attributed by Rossi to reaction between the first excited-state of Li-7 and a proton, followed by the breakdown of Be-8 into two alphas with high kinetic energy (but without gamma radiation).

  • The only question is, if just YOU can change your mind, when I explained you, that Holmlids experiments and muons and kaons have nothing to do with cold fusion mechanism.. ;-) If I remember well, I repeated it you at least six-times (1, 2, ..). Holmlid didn't change his mind - he knew about it from its very beginning - and you didn't believe him.


    No comment on the fact that the ultra-dense hydrogen is produced before laser activation? Do you think it's an inert material that serves no purpose in LENR experiments?


    MrSelfSustain wrote:
    A better question could be what is the penetrating power of a Kaon at the energy levels mentioned in the paper?


    They're more massive particles than muons and have somewhat less penetrating power for the same energy levels. Note that the range of hundred of meters of muons before decaying is in air, which is not a very dense material.


    I've found some hard to find tables for the range of charged kaons in different materials here, starting from page 155. By dividing the range in [g/cm2] by the density of the material in [g/cm3] you will obtain the range in matter in [cm].


    Holmlid mentions in the abstract of that paper particle energies up to 500 MeV/u, which is about 265 MeV in the case of kaons. It takes about 10.5 cm of lead to stop them. However it seems that the average particle energy is lower than this.

  • I'm a bit skeptical regarding the role of ultra-dense hydrogen stuff during laser pulses. The atoms of substrate will indeed collide and they will squash the hydrogen atoms between them - but why separate phase of hydrogen should form during it? The nuclear reaction would run much easier, if the protons would remain diluted during it. Not to say, Holmlid uses low pressure vacuum chamber with substrates, which are rather inert to hydrogen, like the "potassium-doped iron oxides". I don't understand, why the hydrogen should concentrate there for to form a new phase. The widening of spectra lines, which Holmlid attributes to dense hydrogen can be observed during all high pressure discharges (compare the white light of xenon lamps for IMAX theaters) and it's not specific to any phase of hydrogen. And if we reach the energy density for kaons and muons formation, then the state of electrons around hydrogen nuclei cannot matter very much - it's by many orders of magnitude higher energy density, which applies directly to nuclear matter.

  • The "potassium-doped iron oxides" are not inert to hydrogen. They're the active component in the hydrogen abstraction catalysts widely used in the petrochemical industry and are capable of easily dissociating molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. Holmlid observed that these surfaces (including the inner surfaces in the pores of the material) can also easily form excited atoms (Rydberg atoms), mainly thanks to the alkali promoter that they include. If conditions are just right these excited atoms can condense into a low density, long-lived state of matter composed of Rydberg atoms, called Rydberg matter. Finally, in recent years he also observed that this can spontaneously further condense into a much denser form that he dubs "ultra-dense hydrogen", which has several unusual, exotic properties.


    Holmlid makes hydrogen (protium or deuterium) flow through a tube containing samples of these catalysts (in the form of pellets) and ultra-dense hydrogen comes on the other end. If disturbed, the produced material can undergo a change of state which makes nuclear reactions occur rather easily. Holmlid uses a focused laser for this.


    This is a condensed explanation of what Holmlid does. Haven't you read about it before?

  • Quote
    Holmlid makes hydrogen (protium or deuterium) flow through a tube containing samples of these catalysts (in the form of pellets) and ultra-dense hydrogen comes on the other end.

    Is this supposed to mean, that "ultradense hydrogen" gets transported along tube like gas (analogy of hydrino) in free state? I.e. not adsorbed to any catalyst?

  • Is this supposed to mean, that "ultradense hydrogen" gets transported along tube like gas (analogy of hydrino) in free state? I.e. not adsorbed to any catalyst?


    While it's been reported to have a good affinity to metal surfaces and therefore at least part of it will get absorbed into these, at the temperatures of the apparati used by Holmlid the ultra-dense hydrogen is supposed to act like a fluid liquid (a superfluid as a matter of fact) rather than a gas so it should get transported (and/or creep) along the walls of the tube, and easily fall down from it by gravity, which is what seems to be happening in the experiment described the latest paper linked in this thread.

  • The significance of the theory that the Dutch theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde offers as an alternative to the dark matter particle idea has great import and application to the LENR paradigm.



    The basic idea behind Erik Verlinde theory is the gravity can be weakened when ambient matter in galaxies disrupts the entanglement that holds space time together. Impacting LENR, This Verlinde idea might well be extended to include the other fundamental forces.



    This ability for entanglement to affect the basic forces of nature is disruptive to the current science theories such as supersymmetry and general relativity. Science currently considers that the four fundamental forces only change in strength if substantial energy is added to those forces.



    In a nutshell, Erik Verlinde idea implies that when entanglement is added to space time, the forces of nature weaken, and when entanglement is increased, the fundamental forces are strengthened.



    The new theories of science attempting to unify general relativity to quantum mechanics develop the idea that entanglement is the basic mechanism in which space/time is built.



    http://www.nature.com/news/the…rce-of-space-time-1.18797


    quote:
    “Among the enthusiasts was Van Raamsdonk, who started his sabbatical by pondering one of the central unsolved questions posed by Maldacena’s discovery: exactly how does a quantum field on the boundary produce gravity in the bulk? There had already been hints that the answer might involve some sort of relation between geometry and entanglement”.



    From the standpoint of engineering, Superconductivity/Bose condensation enforces a state of maximum entanglement and when this state of Superconductivity is disrupted, then entanglement is reduced.



    A possible consequence for LENR engineering of this idea is that the strong force can be weakened if the superconductive state inside the proton and neutron is disrupted. Most everybody knows that magnetism and superconductivity do not mix. The mechanism can disrupt this condensed state in the space/time inside the nucleon is substantive magnetism. As the experiments of Holmlid shows, when the proton falls apart, energy and sub atomic particle creation will result. The laser light excited ultra-dense hydrogen that Holmlid creates is a concentrator of highly focused atomic level anisotropic magnetism that can enter the nucleon and rip it apart.

  • Axil,


    I am going to pay more attention to you, since you recently received some heavyweight endorsements on Vortex and EGOOUT. They said you were getting to the heart of the LENR theory. Surprised me actually. Could you put your theory in Wikipedia form...short, and to the point? Although I may not understand, I will try.


    Take care.

  • The "potassium-doped iron oxides" are not inert to hydrogen. They're the active component in the hydrogen abstraction catalysts widely used in the petrochemical industry and are capable of easily dissociating molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. Holmlid observed that these surfaces (including the inner surfaces in the pores of the material) can also easily form excited atoms (Rydberg atoms), mainly thanks to the alkali promoter that they include. If conditions are just right these excited atoms can condense into a low density, long-lived state of matter composed of Rydberg atoms, called Rydberg matter. Finally, in recent years he also observed that this can spontaneously further condense into a much denser form that he dubs "ultra-dense hydrogen", which has several unusual, exotic properties.


    Holmlid makes hydrogen (protium or deuterium) flow through a tube containing samples of these catalysts (in the form of pellets) and ultra-dense hydrogen comes on the other end. If disturbed, the produced material can undergo a change of state which makes nuclear reactions occur rather easily. Holmlid uses a focused laser for this.


    This is a condensed explanation of what Holmlid does. Haven't you read about it before?

    IMHO, ultra dense hydrogen (UDH) is produced by the catalyst and falls onto the collection foil. That foil is made of a noble metal: iridium, palladium, or platinum. What this metal is made of is important because that collection foil metal has a special optical property: it reflect high frequency laser light. The green laser light bounces between the collection foil and the hydrogen gas. This generates Surface Plasmon Polaritons, a boson, that are the entangled combination of the electrons on the surface of the ultra dense hydrogen spin wave and the photons from the laser light. These polaritons store the huge amounts of energy that the ultra dense hydrogen extracts from proton decay. This energy protects the UDH from temperature disruption because it functions as a magnetic shield. This enables the metastable existence(or shelf life) of the UDH that Holmlid has found in his experiments. Based on its energy content, the SPP covering on the UDH can last for weeks or months even if it is not recharge with more nuclear energy.

  • I seem to remember an old LENR truism that has come down over the years which remarks about how a shock is required before the LENR reaction starts. When I first began my studies of the LENR reaction so very long ago, I may have read this in regards to the work from perhaps the most famous Japanese cold fusion researcher: Yoshiaki Arata, from Osaka University, who claimed in a demonstration to produce excess heat when deuterium gas was introduced into a cell containing a mixture of palladium and zirconium oxide. But the LENR reaction did not begin unless the cell was shocked in any number of ways.


    Also from Brian S. Ahern patent (Amplification of energetic reactions

    US 20110233061 A1)


    Quote

    "Useful energy production can be obtained when deuterated/hydrated nanoparticles suspended in a dielectric medium are positioned interior to collapsing bubbles or dielectric discharges and their attendant shock waves. Highly self-focused shock waves have a sufficiently high energy density to induce a range of energetic reactions."


    This leads me to the conclusion that Ultra-dense hydrogen right out of the nanocavity is not LENR capable until it is initially charged with any variety of EMF energy. Once the SPP has been charged up and it has acquired enough magnetic power to initiate the positive feedback loop between the nucleons within it range of interaction does the LENR reaction begin. The SPP just needs a slight push to get the process going. Oftentimes a spark is enough to get the LENR reaction off the ground. But unless that energy spike is provided with enough power to get going, that UDH just sits there and waits.


    And that energy need not be provided in a onetime spike. In the famous F&P meltdown where their reactor was feed 1 watt of power over months, one day when enough charge was accumulated in those Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) formed on the surface of the UDH, the LENR reaction took off with a vengeance and burned through a lab bench and then through the reinforced concrete floor in their lab… rebar and all.


    We may think of the case of a pile of logs just waiting there in the fireplace waiting for the match to get their fire going, so too LENR waits for the spark that gets that energy feedback loop roiling.


    In the case of Holmlid’s experiment, the spark is the laser pulse. Once the laser fires, then the mesons come rolling forth.

  • Quote
    The basic idea behind Erik Verlinde theory is the gravity can be weakened when ambient matter in galaxies disrupts the entanglement that
    holds space time together. Impacting LENR, This Verlinde idea might well be extended to include the other fundamental forces.


    Where and how such an idea follows from Verlinde theory (link)? I know you did talk about it in connection with entanglement already and my suspicion is, you just invented this connection to the Verlinde theory. BTW This isn't basic idea, I know entropic gravity and its postulates well.


    Quote

    The new theories of science attempting to unify general relativity to quantum mechanics develop the idea that entanglement is the basic mechanism in which space/time is built.


    The entanglement of WHAT is supposed to form the space-time? Space-time isn't built from entanglement and you even cannot derive anything from this idea. It's just twaddling of AxilAxils-wanabes at universities. In addition, this idea has nothing to do with entropic gravity.


    Quote

    They said you were getting to the heart of the LENR theory. Surprised me actually.


    AxilAxil presented so many ideas (plasmons-polaritons, polyneutrons, monopoles, muons, axions, tachyons, strange matter, ultradense hydrogen, Rydberg matter or boson condensate - and I definitely missed something..) - that it would be surprising, if he didn't guess at least some artifact. Ironically neither one of these ideas is typical for LENR and the basic mechanism is still missing: it's hidden in answer of question, "how/why these stuffs emerged there"? BTW What makes theory a theory are testable predictions, not just fancy interpretations. When physicists have no explanation for something, they invent new artifact or effect for to give their confusion some name at least.

  • Quote

    Does anyone knows whether this is related to the approach to anti-matter catalyzed fusion?

    As I already noted above, the laser pulses are most intensive source of antimatter known so far. Not surprisingly, many other energy rich artifacts (kaons, mesons, muons, strange matter) get formed during it too. But this fact is also trap for theorists, once these artifacts occur during research of cold fusion: their emergence doesn't imply, that these effects are related to cold fusion.


    Such a conclusion would be the AxilAxil's associative / corelative way of thinking: but the corelation doesn't imply causation. For example, you can kill the ants on the stone with hammer and during it some sparks also emerge - but it doesn't mean, the ants get killed with these sparks. Actually Holmlid observed many effects during his laser experiments, except the cold fusion itself.

  • Quote
    gravity can be weakened when ambient matter in galaxies disrupts the entanglement that holds space time together


    In dense aether model exactly the opposite conclusion results: the gravity gets weakened, when the entanglement gets formed by arrangement of massive bodies along single line (the filament of dark matter will be formed there which dissolves the boundary between matter and space). It has been already observed (Tamarck mines, gravity weakening during eclipses). Actually on similar assumption you already based your explanation of cold fusion, where Coulomb forces get destroyed with entanglement. So if you need the entanglement for cold fusion, you wouldn't want to destroy it at the same moment - isn't it true? When you collect too many ambient ideas, you'll lose the coherent connections between them and you'll get the quantum chaos and confusion from it.

  • Note that Holmlid has many things in common with Randell Mills: he produces plenty of publications based on one singular idea (ultradense hydrogen versus hydrino) and both of them are still one man show without independent replications. Both of them extrapolate their ideas indirectly from experiments, which may be only tangentially related to them at the very end. No explicit evidence of both hydrino, both ultradense hydrogen has been given yet, quantitative characterization the less.

    Note also that ultradense hydrogen should exhibit the same Rydberg spherical orbitals, like the hydrino - except that electrons within hydrino occupy a subquantum levels. To be honest, I believe in both theories neither in similar way - IMO the truth will be somewhere inbetween.

  • These polaritons store the huge amounts of energy that the ultra dense hydrogen extracts from proton decay. This energy protects the UDH from temperature disruption because it functions as a magnetic shield. This enables the metastable existence(or shelf life) of the UDH that Holmlid has found in his experiments. Based on its energy content, the SPP covering on the UDH can last for weeks or months even if it is not recharge with more nuclear energy.



    Never heard more nonsense which sounds like the best Beatles tune...


    Bdw.: Do you know how much energy one polariton can store??


    And then try to make a relation to the energy of a Kaon.....


    .. and ask CERN how much energy it takes to smash a proton into Kanons....

  • Plasmon polaritons are essentially electron orbital stuff with energy range in units of electronvolts. The Rydberg orbitals of dense hydrogen should cover the bottom electron orbitals with ionization energy in range of tens-thousands electronvolts. The electron capture and neutron decay is already a nuclear matter stuff in range of kiloelectronvolts and higher. The nuclear reactions like the proton fusion would release energies in range of megaelectronvolts. The formation of pions (mesons) begins at the one hundreds of megaelectronvolts and the formation of muons (2nd generation of lepton) requires the gamma radiation of energy 1 GeV or above (i.e. the cosmic rays). The formation of strange quark based mesons like the kaons would require energies even at least one order of magnitude higher (LEP and Fermilab colliders) . So that once you're mixing the polaritons and kaons stuffs together in an effort to somehow integrate both concepts into your pet LENR theory, then you're off by some ten orders of magnitude.

    IWlA5t2.png

    The trick of laser light in Holmlid experiments is, it has very high effective temperature energy density due to extreme narrow spectral width, so that the pulsed infrared laser can initiate reactions well above the GeV scales. Even the common green-light laser pointer has an effective temperature of black body radiation in range of billion degrees of Centigrade, i.e. thousands of electronvolts, so it could initiate the cold fusion in principle.

  • Very interesting new paper from the master of condensed hydrogen science. (with apologies to Randy Mills.) Not quite LENR as we know it, but very promising nevertheless.


    Existing Source for Muon-Catalyzed Nuclear Fusion Can Give Megawatt Thermal Fusion Generator

    Leif Holmlid Published online: 24 Jan 2019.


    ABSTRACT — Fusion power generators employing muon-catalyzed nuclear fusion can be developed using

    a new type of laser-driven muon generator. Results using this generator have been published, and those data

    are now used to derive the possible fusion power using this generator. Muon-catalyzed fusion has been studied

    for 60 years, and the results found in such studies are used here to determine the possible power output. Since

    the muon source gives complex mixtures of mesons and leptons, which have very different interactions with the

    measuring equipment, the number of negative muons formed is not easily found exactly, but reasonable values

    based on numerous published experiments with different methods are used to predict the energy output. With

    deuterium-tritium as fuel, a fusion power generator employing the novel muon generator could give more than

    1 MW thermal power. The thermal power using pure deuterium as fuel may be up to 220 kW initially: It will

    increase with time up to over 1 MWdue to the production of tritium in one reaction branch. The power required

    for running a modern laser and the muon generator is estimated to be of the order of 100 W, thus giving a total

    energy gain of more than 10 000. The harmful radiation from such fusion power generators is mainly in the

    form of neutrons from the fusion reactions. Thus, thick radiation shields are necessary as for almost all other

    fusion concepts. This means that medium-scale thermal fusion power generators of the muon-catalyzed fusion

    type may become available within a relatively short time.