Leif Holmlid: Ultra-Dense Deuterium Fusion


  • You linked it here earlier on: Norront Fusion Energy AS


    Another fascinating paper from Professor Leif Holmlid (Norront Fusion + Gotheburg University) Alan Smith


    Neutral kaons formed by laser-induction in ultra- dense hydrogen H(0): decay timing and high-energy scintillator experiments detect 0 K L and 0 K S

    • January 2020


    Leif Holmlid preprint 2020.pdf

  • Alan Smith

    They have the same file size and last modified date—I think they are the same.


    Anyway, here are some personal quick notes from the paper, from last time I read it:


    • The cluster fragments HN(0) of ultra-dense matter H(0) with a typical size of only a few pm may resemble neutrons (sometimes called quasi-neutrons)
    • Pressure up to 100 mbar
    • In some experiments, small pieces of Ga metal were placed on the generator surface to increase the visible plasma size
    • Spontaneous signal decreases over weeks of time
    • Laser usage depletes the signal
    • Long-time preparation (a few days) in hydrogen gas gives large amount of ultra-dense hydrogen
    • Neutral kaon signal increases with amount of D(0) in generator, and increases with:
      • Heating the generator
      • D2 admission
      • Time (in the order of days) using D2 gas at many mbar pressure in the generator
    • Kaon signal is weakened by impact of laser on generator within minutes–hours
    • D(0) form which gives neutral kaons is formed by self-organization possibly inside the porous catalyst
      • However it's destroyed by the indirect effects of the laser, perhaps gamma emission from laser-induced nuclear processes
      • It might also be that the laser depletes the reactionable material by accelerating the spontaneous processes, but the signal does not immediately increase by the laser
      • Also possible different reaction routes with and without laser
    • In some experiments H2 and air mixture at about 20 mbar is used
    • High enegy neutral kaon signal not quenched by high pressure in the order of several mbar
      • Charged meson signal is, however
    • Addition of Ga metal gives strong white plasma
      • Liquid metal absorbs H(0) in larger amounts
    • Spontaneous signal >>10 MeV with metal converter close to generator
      • Spectra not constant, varies during experimental run
      • Starts low at the beginning of tests in the day, then increases
      • Gas pressure and history of H(0) deposition in generator are important factors
    • Neutral kaon production might require more particles and quarks than charged kaons
      • More easily formed when H(0) forms larger cluster => larger number of densely located nucleons
      • Laser might cleave clusters and decrease number of closely spaced nucleons
      • Superfluid long-range energy transport
    • Neutral kaons are not ionizing radiation, they only penetrate organic and inorganic materials
      • Explanation for low radiation levels in the experiments
  • LeBob

    Leif Holmlid does not use the H* naming.


    The related sentence on this latest paper seems to point that small ultra-dense hydrogen clusters, at a few pm of size may act as (or be viewed as) neutron analogues. From what I recall reading, they can be ejected from the existing ultra-dense layer at considerable (MeV?) energies. However in the review on the subject published a few months ago, he speculatively suggested something along what you've written (section 8.7):


    Quote

    [...] Since both p(0) and D(0) give similar results, it is concluded that the two interacting nuclei are protons in the ultra-dense hydrogen phase, with the electrons very close to the nuclei. When the spin state s = 1 is influenced by the laser pulse, a spin flip of one of the spins is possible so that the total spin of the two coupled electrons becomes zero so they can exist at very short relative distance. This may mean a transient configuration of the electrons between the protons, which will increase the probability of tunneling of the two protons. Alternatively, the electrons may get so close to the protons that transient 'quasi-neutrons' are formed which can take part in the quark transformation processes, forming kaons and pions from the two nucleons. [...]

  • I just did find an absolute exact model to show how the fusion of 4 protons to 4-He works. In fact, as a conclusion, we can say inside 4-He there are no longer neutrons. All charge mass has been transformed into magnetic flux. The remaining charge glue does as expected 5 rotations, what proves the core assumption of the SO(4) physics model.


    To sum up the Holmlid reaction 8 +1 protons form a resonant structure in the form a 8Be nucleus that is repulsive and decays into 2 * 4He and 2 kaons. The ninth proton takes over all fusion energy and splits. The 8 proton excess energy is 49.37MeV more than enough (49.08 needed) to from two neutral Kaons.

  • I just did find an absolute exact model to show how the fusion of 4 protons to 4-He works. In fact, as a conclusion, we can say inside 4-He there are no longer neutrons. All charge mass has been transformed into magnetic flux. The remaining charge glue does as expected 5 rotations, what proves the core assumption of the SO(4) physics model.


    To sum up the Holmlid reaction 8 +1 protons form a resonant structure in the form a 8Be nucleus that is repulsive and decays into 2 * 4He and 2 kaons. The ninth proton takes over all fusion energy and splits. The 8 proton excess energy is 49.37MeV more than enough (49.08 needed) to from two neutral Kaons.

    A very interesting result ! This generates easily several questions but without SO(4)-background the most natural of them is - what happens to the electrons of an atom ?

    I suppose the net-charge of He-nucleus is now 4 times a positive proton charge when the number of negative charge electrons is 2, at least in the traditional model.

    Maybe the sentence "charge mass has been transformed into magnetic flux" is the explanation ?

  • Maybe the sentence "charge mass has been transformed into magnetic flux" is the explanation ?


    The standard model as a potential only approach needs discrete units of charge. In "reality" all charge is generated by the topological mismatch in number of dimensions between mass/magnetic flux. There is always charge inside dense mass, that is needed for the strong force coupling. But the associated mass depends on the topology of the coupling. Higher order coupling is based on a charge that has a virtual mass only analogue to the energy in a field. A free neutron contains two charge mass equivalents what induces a small repulsive coupling. In 4-He we simply see the minimal charge needed to glue mass. This is also the reason why the modeling of the whole periodic table with alpha particle blocks was very successful.


    Simply counting charges by discreet numbers and mass units now looks like Kindergarten physics. (Do not forget that the quantum hall effect already did indicate that the classic charge can split in any integer fraction unit...)

  • ...

    Simply counting charges by discreet numbers and mass units now looks like Kindergarten physics. (Do not forget that the quantum hall effect already did indicate that the classic charge can split in any integer fraction unit...)


    So do you mean that in spite of the 4 protons in the nucleus the electrons around it see as an effective charge only 2*e+ ? Or is it necessary to generalize also the circulating electrons' mass/charge behaviour ?


    Sorry that i'm asking these questions but i hope that the answers could help also some other guys who have sometimes problems even with 3 dimensions.

  • So do you mean that in spite of the 4 protons in the nucleus the electrons around it see as an effective charge only 2*e+ ? Or is it necessary to generalize also the circulating electrons' mass/charge behaviour ?


    The concrete charge mass seems only be dependent of the number of couplings. The base chunks are always the same. A free electron has one unit of perturbative mass inside a neutron it has to share it. Inside 4-He it degenerates to two perturbative masses or the exact complement of it depending on the binding of a nucleus.

    In any mass formula for a nucleus the weight of the shell electrons is given by the weight of the binding potential. There are no classic relativistic effects in nuclear electron orbits as the main mass behaves like magnetic flux that is always at light speed.


    If you don't believe then try once to improve the Hydrogen model with relativity. I won't help much as it is simply not adequate.

  • [...] Interestingly enough there is (or was) a publicity-shy group of garage researchers in the USA who claimed to have made what they describe as 'stable Rydeberg hydrogen' a pale green liquid apparently stable at room temperature. I last heard from them in around 2016, and we had limited private correspondence in that period. Since then all emails have pinged back as undeliverable. They didn't seem interested in raising money, but rather were looking for advice on how to proceed, which was difficult for me, since they wouldn't discuss the process, but did send a short video with some interesting images. Advice was almost impossible, it would have been like trying to advise somebody on the care and nurturing of an alien child I had never even seen. An odd little episode , but then frontier science is full of them.


    Upping here this old comment from a different thread.


    I found that electrolysis at relatively high voltages through thin layers of molten KOH (potassium hydroxide) using mild steel electrodes gives a thick green liquid from the reaction with iron oxide formed at the anode. However once it solidifies and starts absorbing environmental moisture (in the atmosphere) it turns brown/red within a few minutes of time. I'm not sure if this is the same as what you mentioned above, but it is related in part to the process forming the catalysts used by Holmlid's group.