Palladium-Deuterium and Nickel-Hydrogen fusion takes place between hydrogen atoms and sometimes nearby lattice metal atoms in "spaces" that are described by many different names. Cavities, pores, tubules, clusters, super abundant vacancies, intragranular hydrogen bubbles, defects, nano-voids: these terms all describe spaces that can be filled with hydrogen. During the process of filling these spaces or later during thermal-shocking procedures, the hydrogen can become "ultra-dense" or be transformed into an exotic form with unique properties. This stuff -- which is highly susceptible to undergoing nuclear reactions - makes cold fusion happen.
But what came first: these many-named "spaces" or the hydrogen that must fill them?
The answer is amazingly complex and simple at the same time: either or both!
- The absorption of hydrogen into nickel or other transition metals at various temperatures and pressures can create these "spaces."
- The lattice of the particles of many commercially available metal powders already have *some* number of pre-existing spaces - even if the number may usually be low.
- Once hydrogen is in the metal, performing various thermal and/or pressure cycles to force the gas to be absorbed/desorbed can create more, "spaces."
- However, there are a load of ways and possibilities to use sophisticated yet currently available technologies to produce "spaces" of whatever size, shape, and structure you desire!
After reading more of George Miley's research along with the papers of other researchers, I'm thinking one aspect of the conflict between IH and Andrea Rossi revolves around the creation of these spaces that are so important to the production of massive excess heat. We seem to have two lines of thinking in how to create these "nuclear active environments." On one hand, Andrea Rossi doesn't seem to have used the most sophisticated of systems and technologies. To maximize the creation of these "spaces" he used ordinary, simple techniques to maximize hydrogen absorption: mixing in various catalysts composed of hydrogen spillover materials (palladium/copper), using electropositive catalytic promoters, and other pre-processing techniques we don't even know about yet. Basically, he seemed -- unless I'm mistaken which is possible - to desire to kill two birds with one stone. He combined creating the spaces and filling them with hydrogen!
IH, on the other hand, via the acquisition of George Miley's patent portfolio, may possibly - although this is a guess and speculation - consider Rossi's technique of producing these NAE's as crude, imprecise, inefficient, and perhaps even less than effective. If they really "know" that the Rossi Effect works as he describes or even if they don't think he's ever produced a watt, they could very well think they have the know how to go about producing their own systems in a much more advanced manner. Via thin films, various types of deposition of materials, sputtering, and a whole host of techniques, they can create as many internal "spaces" as they desire and optimize them in a number of different ways: precisely controlling the octane rating, so to speak, of their fuel.
My personal opinion is that utilizing Rossi's "space" creating philosophy and less sophisticated techniques, more NAEs can be created than modern materials can handle due to the massive energy production. Producing the spaces this way without extensive experience and knowledge is probably very tricky but doable. To produce the first few generations of high temperature, self sustaining LENR commercial systems, more exotic and sophisticated methods of producing dislocations/defects/voids/cavities are not required. Of course, over time, these techniques will obviously be adopted to optimize the reactors in a whole number of different ways. But when it comes to high output -- at a level that most modern materials cannot withstand -- Rossi's methods of getting the hydrogen in the nickel and creating the "spaces" at the same time is adequate.
So there is a war taking place beyond the legal battle over what happened in Doral. Basically, I consider it to be like having two men (from 1950 and 2016) both build a hot rod race car with an internal combustion engine powered by gasoline. One will obviously be more advanced than the other in a number of different ways. Likely, it will be more fuel efficient, have a little more power, and produce fewer emissions. In addition it would have a ton of other cool features: GPS, Bluetooth, loads of sensors, cameras, etc. However, both of the cars will be capable of moving far faster than any posted speed limit! If both of these vehicles can go 100 miles an hour (even if one can go 150 a little more fuel efficiently) is there really much different for the "average" person who would buy one?
The Hydrogen Games are starting and there are many different players -- all with different ideas of how to go about creating the critical "spaces" in the lattice and how to fill them with hydrogen. The first player on the market will have an advantage, but soon he or she will be swamped with competitors. Once these games -- in the marketplace -- begin, nothing will be the same.