Edmund Storms: Q&A ON THE NAE

  • Where can I find more information (structure, properties, etc.) on this Hydroton postulated by Storms?

    Look at the work of Leif Holmlid. Other names for the Hydroton is rydberg matter, and metallic hydrogen. Follow the links on wikipedia for more reference links. Ionic clusters are in the same family as metallic hydrogen. This term for hydrogen species is hydogen ion cluster.

  • Here Ed Storm is just saying that "Temperature determines how fast D can get to the NAE by diffusion from its site in the surrounding lattice". But from perspective of my theory the temperature dependence cannot be so monotonous at all. The hotter the lattice is, the more wildly the atom nuclei wiggle against each other and the more frequently they occasionally collide. But the probability, that multiple atoms will collide along a single line in the same direction will decrease with increasing temperature too.

    ...


    You mention in your theory:


    Another factor contributing to high yield of heat during LENR are the quantum effects, similar to quantum entanglement and boson condensate formation. As most of you probably know, the fast motion of particles induces a de-Broglie pilot wave of undulated vacuum around them, which makes the vacuum more dense and the propagation of light slower in such a way, its speed is not affected with speed of particle itself.


    But during fast collinear collisions of long chains of atom nuclei this effect becomes very significant and it will create a cylindrical area of dense vacuum around collision line of these nuclei. This dense tube will both merge and entangle the atom nuclei into a collective motion and undulations, both will make their merging easier, because it will decrease the tension at the surface of atom nuclei just at the place of their mutual contact. The collective motion of atom nuclei will mediate and share their energy with longitudinal waves like the superconductor or liquid helium, which also mediates the heat waves well - so that the energy produced by fusion at some point will be redistributed along whole line of colliding atoms fast and as such thermalized.

    ...

    As you may guess, with increasing temperature of reaction the atom nuclei will move wildly and their ability to form stable entangled condensate lines will decrease, so that some neutrons may be still released during thermal runaways of LENR reactors.


    Now one interesting question is how this chain-formation of atoms fits in the plasma electrolysis type of LENR ?

    And which are the effective elements then , K, C, O or W ? E.g in here:


    http://jlnlabs.online.fr/cfr/html/cfr30.htm


  • By the time I finished skimming through the first paper - which was mostly about the NAE - you've added other ones which I haven't got time to read right now, but from what I've read he does seem to believe that the Hydroton responsible for the reaction is a linear chain cluster composed of covalently bonded (metallic) hydrogen. There's not too much detail about it yet, but he compares it to a "Rydberg molecule" citing one of Holmlid's papers. Apparently, future papers by Storms will be written to describe its formation. Some excerpts below.


  • Cracks don't survive molten metal, that is normal,

    Good. Now how do you explain the observation of approximately circular hot spots where metal has melted? Hint: Jacques Ruer has shown that it takes at least tens of thousands of localized nuclear reactions to create a molten hot spot.

  • Both Ed Storm's and Holmlid believes that metallic hydrogen is the active agent in Cold Fusion. But there is a critical difference between Ed Storm's view of metallic hydrogen and how it behaves and that of Leif Holmlid. Ed Storms says that metallic hydrogen fuses immediately after it is formed whereas Holmlid produces MH and then excites it with light to activate the LENR reaction.


    The important point is "can metallic hydrogen exist for long periods of time without fusing"? Or is an activating trigger required to get the cold fusion process going.


    There is clear experimental evidence that shows that an activation trigger is required to state the LENR reaction.


    When I first began my studies of the LENR reaction so very long ago, I may have read this in regards to the work from perhaps the most famous Japanese cold fusion researcher: Yoshiaki Arata, from Osaka University, who claimed in a demonstration to produce excess heat when deuterium gas was introduced into a cell containing a mixture of palladium and zirconium oxide. But the LENR reaction did not begin unless the cell was shocked in any number of ways.


    Also from Brian S. Ahern patent (Amplification of energetic reactions US 20110233061 A1)

    Quote:


    Quote

    "Useful energy production can be obtained when deuterated/hydrated nanoparticles suspended in a dielectric medium are positioned interior to collapsing bubbles or dielectric discharges and their attendant shock waves. Highly self-focused shock waves have a sufficiently high energy density to induce a range of energetic reactions."


    And that energy need not be provided in a one time spike. In the famous F&P meltdown where their reactor was feed 1 watt of power over months, one day when enough charge was accumulated in those Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) formed on the surface of the UDH, the LENR reaction took off with a vengeance and burned through a lab bench and then through the reinforced concrete floor in their lab…rebar and all.


    We may think of the case of a pile of logs just waiting there in the fireplace waiting for the match to get their fire going, so too LENR waits for the spark that gets that energy feedback loop roiling.


    In the case of Holmlid’s experiment, the spark is the laser pulse. Once the laser fires, then the mesons come rolling forth.


    Rossi applies heat to the metallic hydrogen before the LENR reaction begins.


    The next connection to be made is "how does the trigger mechanism work in terms of the structure of the metallic hydrogen"? There is a big difference between the way Holmlid views the structure of metallic hydrogen and the way that Ed Storms does. This structure is all important. Holmlid looks to a theory based on a theoretical description by J.E. Hirsch for his insights. How can light trigger the MH into reacting? If Ed Storms wants to understand this trigger, he needs to look into nanoplasmonics and continue down the connection tree.

  • Good. Now how do you explain the observation of approximately circular hot spots where metal has melted? Hint: Jacques Ruer has shown that it takes at least tens of thousands of localized nuclear reactions to create a molten hot spot.


    I have seen these for myself. Is it unreasonable to assume that when a nanocrack gets hot enough it will melt the metal around it? And if the crack extends below the surface it might get hot enough to vapourise some of the surrounding metal and 'blow a bubble' - pretty much like those you seen in hot muddy pools in Yellowstone.

  • Good. Now how do you explain the observation of approximately circular hot spots where metal has melted? Hint: Jacques Ruer has shown that it takes at least tens of thousands of localized nuclear reactions to create a molten hot spot.

    The metallic hydrogen can survive the heat produced by the melted metal. The way this happens is connected to the structure of metallic hydrogen. The MH can produce and survive at least tens of thousands of localized nuclear reactions and still continue on.


    MH produces reactions at a distance. This was shown in the exploding wire experiments where uranium was fissioned in a separate chamber isolated from the exploding wire by a glass wall.


    Sounds like the MH produces muons, doesn't it?

  • The first question Ed Storms wrote: “If NAE are nanocracks – why is there a limit for their number/density? What is the limiting factor?”


    When we make a nice object of palladium we can wait year after year without observing any crack at the surface. So the cracks are the result of the adsorbed hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms. When we lower the temperature of the palladium lattice (e.g. to 150 degrees Kelvin) we observe more, wider and larger cracks. Thus the ability of palladium to adsorb so much hydrogen atoms must be related to the dimensional properties of the Pd lattice and the size of single hydrogen atoms. In other words: there is no magical origin of the cracks.


    Of course there are more reasons why palladium can adsorb so much hydrogen at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The electron configuration of palladium has no empty spots in an inner shell (configuration is 2, 8, 18, 18) or an odd configuration in the outermost shell. The electronegativity of palladium is 2.20 (Pauling scale) and the electronegativity of hydrogen is also 2.20. In other words: the environment of a hydrogen atom inside a palladium lattice is like a hydrogen atom within an ultra dense “cloud” of other solitary hydrogen atoms.


    However, when we establish cold fusion with the help of palladium and electromagnetic stimulation there is no evaporation of the palladium lattice. The reason is not only the frequency of the nuclear radiation but also the big difference in atomic mass between palladium and hydrogen. Heavy atoms can survive most of the LENR radiation and heavy atoms are more suitable to prevent the enclosed hydrogen atoms to move.


    Summarized:

    The nano cracks are an indication that the hydrogen atoms are closely locked within the lattice. So there is hardly any freedom of movement when we stimulate the hydrogen atoms within the metal lattice with the help of dense electromagnetic waves. Bigger cracks cannot lock the hydrogen atoms. There are no other hidden phenomena or hypothetical “particles” involved before the nuclear reaction starts!


    So the question is: “Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?”

  • Quote
    The electron configuration of palladium has no empty spots in an inner shell (configuration is 2, 8, 18, 18) or an odd configuration in the outermost shell. The electronegativity of palladium is 2.20 (Pauling scale) and the electronegativity of hydrogen is also 2.20.


    The hydrogen gets partially ionized in palladium. According to Focardi the formation of hydride anions enables the hydrogen approach to positively charged atom nuclei. According to Frank Znidarscic the affinity of metals to hydrogen is given by resonance condition of standing and longitudinal waves for proton floating inside the metal orbitals (which can be considered as an elastic continuum). The same resonance also allows the approaching of atom nuclei each other during fusion, which would explain why just the metals absorbing hydrogen catalyze the fusion the most.


    Quote
    The nano cracks are an indication that the hydrogen atoms are closely locked within the lattice. So there is hardly any freedom of movement when we stimulate the hydrogen atoms Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?


    This is a good point but I already answered it above. BTW We should put a serious question, what meaningful we could expect from discussion, where each person considers only few previous posts? Everyone wants to be heard and nobody is willing to read the others. Are we here just for twaddling or for getting somewhere?

  • The nano cracks are an indication that the hydrogen atoms are closely locked within the lattice. So there is hardly any freedom of movement when we stimulate the hydrogen atoms within the metal lattice with the help of dense electromagnetic waves. Bigger cracks cannot lock the hydrogen atoms. There are no other hidden phenomena or hypothetical “particles” involved before the nuclear reaction starts!


    So the question is: “Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?”

    The locking of the hydrogen atom on a metal lattice imparts a huge amount of energy onto that hydrogen atom(s) as they accumulate because of the distance/ momentum uncertainty principle. The lattice moves that energy away from the hydogen accumulation site thereby cooling the accumulating hydrogen deposit. This cooling produces a superconductive state in the hydrogen as verified by experiment by George Miley which includes the meissner effect. This effect expels all the electrons and photons from the positive core of the hydrogen and forms a electron spin wave on the surface of the hydrogen crystal. This condition forms an ideal mirror from which polaritons form on the magnon spin wave on the outside of the metallic hydrogen crystal. This spin wave produces a polariton based monopole magnetic field that projects forward from the head of the hydrogen crystal which disrupts the protons and/or neutrons in the nearby nuclei; this energy of proton decay generates mesons as seen in Holmlid's experiments which induce fusion as a secondary reaction in the far field away from the metallic hydrogen.


    Regarding the EMF trigger to activate LENR fusion, polaritons store EMF (light, heat, gamma) energy on the surface of the spin wave that covers the surface of the superconducting metallic hydrogen. When enough energy is accumulated, the metallic hydrogen produces mesons which catalyze pion and muon fusion and fission.

  • Quote
    This cooling produces a superconductive state in the hydrogen as verified by experiment by George Miley which includes the meissner effect

    George Miley observed superconductivity of palladium, not hydrogen.
    BTW What cooling are you talking about? Miley observed superconductivity at 77 K only. Cold fusion requires heating instead.


    Quote

    When enough energy is accumulated, the metallic hydrogen produces mesons which catalyze pion and muon fusion and fission.


    Pions are itself mesons, pions and muons don't fuse, neither split.

  • George Miley observed superconductivity of palladium, not hydrogen.
    BTW What cooling are you talking about? Miley observed superconductivity at 77 K only. Cold fusion requires heating instead.



    Pions are itself mesons, pions and muons don't fuse, neither split.

    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MileyGHcondensedm.pdf


    Fig-1-Color-online-Cluster-with-more-than-100-hydrogen-atoms-squeezed-in-palladium_small.png


    Quote

    Miley et al. , 2007, 2008) is important. For surface states on metal oxides, the measurement of the ultrahigh ion densities Rydberg matter was predicted and measured in gases where a of 10 29 cm 2 3 was directly evident from the ion and neutral static clustering of protons or deuterons to comparably high densities is generated with densities up to 10 23 cm 2 3 emission by laser probing. These surface states were produced involving catalytic techniques (Badiei et al. , 2009). (Badiei & Holmlid, 2006). In contrast to gases, the appear- The distance d between the deuterons was measured to be ance of ultrahigh density clusters of crystal defects in solids were observed in several experiments, where such con- d 1⁄4 2 : 3 + 0 : 1 pm, (1) figurations of very high density hydrogen states could be detected from SQUID measurements of magnetic response and conductivity (Lipson et al. , 2005), indicating a special compared with the theoretical value of 2.5 pm derived from state with superconducting properties. These high density the properties of inverted Rydberg matter. The energy release clusters have a long life and with the bosonic nature of of the deuterons from the surface layer was measured as deuterons—in contrast to protons—should be in a state of 630 + 30 eV. The difference between protons and deuterons Bose-Einstein-Condensation at room temperature (Miley was directly observed and the deuteron state called D(-1) et al. , 2009). indicate well the bosonic property against the fermionic While these clusters were measured in metals at the inter- protons. face against covering oxides (Lipson et al. , 2005), the gener- The material used in the experiments (Badiei et al. , 2009) ation of these states within the whole volume of a metal as a catalyst for producing the ultradense deuterium is a (palladium, lithium, etc.) with crystal defects (Fig. 1; highly porous iron oxide material similar to Fe 2 O 3 doped with K, Ca, and other atoms. Thus, the number of defects or adsorption sites is very high relative to a metal


    https://www.researchgate.net/p…1_at_Field_Strength_005_T


    Search for Superconductivity in Ultra-dense Deuterium D(−1) at Room Temperature: Depletion of D(−1) at Field Strength >0.05 T

  • Axil, you're again confusing and mixing the results of experiments done at low temperatures with experiments done at elevated temperatures and finally with Holmlid experiments, which were done with pulsed laser under conditions, when even the strange quarks and antimatter gets formed.

  • Zephir_AWT ,


    Of course there are ionized hydrogen atoms within the palladium lattice. There always will be and not only during the flow of the electric current at the cathode. However, there is enough space between the palladium atoms for not-ionized hydrogen atoms. Don’t you realize that a palladium cube – filled with hydrogen nuclei – will explode? You cannot concentrated huge amounts of positive charged nuclei within a small volume.


    Be aware that a lot of the scientific papers are highly speculative. So if you cannot judge them by yourself, you have a problem.


    @to all,


    There is still that question: “Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?”


    Ed Storms wants to know the answer! He don’t ask all of you for all kinds of imaginary “spook particles” and other fantasies. He is a scientist and understands the situation inside the palladium lattice very, very well (he is a member of The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science). So don’t try to suggest he is unable to evaluate the theoretical possibilities (or with the help of other members of the ISCMNS like Peter Hagelstein).


    However, he still cannot imagine how locked hydrogen atoms can fuse with the help of dense electromagnetic waves. So if you don’t know the answer, you only have to write: “Sorry, skip the first question of Ed Storms because I don’t know the answer.”

  • @H.G. Of course that palladium lattice will expand - quite recently Alan linked a nice illustrations of it. But I didn't understand your point - i.e. why you're telling me this.


    Quote
    he still cannot imagine how locked hydrogen atoms can fuse with the help of dense electromagnetic waves

    Because the dense electromagnetic waves don't actually help there. What collides there are the atom nuclei itself, being accelerated by each other mutually. The dislocation just serves as a rail for them, naively speaking.


    AxilAxil is right in the point, that constraining the nuclei in motion in two dimensions would increase their fluctuations and as such energy of collisions in the remaining direction/dimension (because the energy of ZPE fluctuations which keeps the atoms in motion remains unchanged). But this effect doesn't require (the formation of) superconductive phase - as it applies from its very beginning. As many other effects (which Axill considers important for cold fusion mechanism) the establishing of superconductivity serves as an indicator of the quantum chaos of the electrons only, not the atom nuclei itself. You should observe and prove the proton superconductivity for being sure it has something to do with cold fusion.

  • This effect expels all the electrons and photons from the positive core of the hydrogen and forms a electron spin wave on the surface of the hydrogen crystal.


    axil : There is just one electron (in average) orbiting a proton. The further it stays away from the proton the less momentum (E-kin) it carries away... (The energy - E-pot - goes back to the central field)


    Try at least to understand some physical facts!

  • So the question is:“Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when adense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannotmove?”


    I would start with the assumption that LENR involves fusion. It might not, and my assumption is that it doesn't. There are other possibilities for nuclear levels of energy release: fragmentation, fission and (improbably) isomeric transitions. My hunch is that fission of isotopes heavier than palladium to medium/light isotopes such as zinc, carbon, aluminum, etc., is what is going on. Other people think that exotic neutral particles which behave a little like neutrons might be leading to fragmentation of heavier isotopes to lighter ones.


    The whole business of the energy/4He correlation deduced by Miles, McKubre, Apicella et al., etc., is an interesting discussion, but there are many reactions equally as improbable as d+d → 4He + 23.8 MeV (or d + e- + d) that those studies did not rule out.