Edmund Storms: Q&A ON THE NAE

  • AlainCo has dropped Ed Storms questions so I presume that we have to think about these questions and try to answer them. Not by searching the internet to offer the opinion of other people, but with the help of our knowledge and insight of (nuclear) physics. (Ed Storms isn’t handicapped, so believe me, he can search the internet too.)


    First of all, I have numbered Ed Storms questions so it is easier to find our way. However, question 6 and 7 are related to partly unknown experiments so none of us can give an adequate answer.

    1. If NAE are nanocracks – why is there a limit for their number/density? What is the limiting factor?

    2. Are those active cracks special in some way or is it only a problem of size?

    3. If temperature is a factor, how?

    4. Will the processes at 70, 400, 800, 12000 C be qualitatively the same, or will be some changes in the mechanism?

    5. How and why do the NAE resist and survive the nuclear process?

    6. Piantelli said he had excess heat for months. The Rossi heat effect seems to be OK for 6 months. Why is the duration of the PdD excess heat a problem?

    7. What do you think and which factors play a role for the claimed greater density of NAE in NiH then in PdD – metallurgy, morphology? Perhaps we have to consider that Pd D works with deuterium and NiH with protium.

    I have figured the problem about Question 1 in a post before (#33).

    Ed Storms knows everything about the fractures at the surface of hydrogen loaded palladium. But because the origin of the fusion is a mystery, he has formulated the question about the cracks in small steps. He is just curious about answers that can open a new concept to evaluate the phenomenon of the cracks. Personally, I don’t think that anyone can describe “new physics” that can elucidate the origin of these cracks. The “old physics” is good enough.


    Question 2 is nearly identical to question 1. The only reliable answer is the degree of freedom of the enclosed hydrogen atoms. Macro cracks show the local damage of the palladium lattice so there cannot be any doubt about the consequences: the hydrogen atoms are no longer forced within a small volume inside the palladium lattice.


    Question 3 is another question that shows how carefully Ed Storms tries to avoid every uncertainty in the search for the unknown mechanism of cold fusion. His question isn’t related to the size of the cracks, he wants to know if temperature is a dominant condition to start nuclear fusion.


    So the answer must be: yes and no. “Yes” because the temperature influences the freedom of the enclosed hydrogen atoms (nano cracks). “No” because of the water (heavy water) that surrounds the palladium cathode. There cannot be a local spot of high thermal energy at the surface of the cathode as long as the cathode is under the water level. The wavelength of thermal radiation is simply too long to “force” it.


    Question 4 is a bit vague. In my opinion there are 2 interpretations. First, the question includes a nickel lattice too. Second, it is only about palladium and there is fusion.


    I skip the first interpretation because there is no information about the reactor.

    The second interpretation about the meaning of the question is manageable. Fusion will deliver an enormous amount of electromagnetic radiation so the fusion will not stop, despite of the raise of temperature (more freedom for the enclosed hydrogen atoms). However, palladium becomes a semiconductor at higher densities of hydrogen. So I cannot imagine that the nuclear fusion starts when the palladium lattice is 100% loaded with hydrogen atoms (probably it starts near the end of the alpha-phase/beginning of the beta-phase). The consequence will be local shortcomings of hydrogen atoms inside the palladium lattice so the fusion will stop. It cannot start again before the palladium lattice is cooled down.


    Maybe Ed Storms can explain/confirm this with the help of the palladium experiments he has done before.


    Question 5 is the most helpful question in relation to the unknown nuclear mechanism.

    The nuclear radiation of cold fusion has another frequency in relation to hot fusion. The cause behind this “relational phenomenon” is known. The wave length of electromagnetic radiation depends on the volume (boundary) of the source of the radiation.


    Now we can conclude that the boundary of the fusion process has a volume that is “enormous” in relation to the boundary of a hydrogen nucleus (hot fusion). I haven’t read anything about the wave length of cold fusion radiation but I assume that it will be somewhere in the range of electron emitted photons (maybe near the ultra violet range).


    Now try to imagine the fusion of 2 hydrogen nuclei. What can we conclude when the boundary of the fusion process has nearly the size of a single hydrogen atom (electron orbit in the ground state)? Well, there is any – or only a negligible amount – of the Coulomb force present within the boundary of the fusion process.


    So there is still Question 1: “Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?”



    max Nozin,


    I cannot remember that paper very well but I thought that it has not much to do with palladium based fusion.

  • Is it unreasonable to assume that when a nanocrack gets hot enough it will melt the metal around it?

    Yes. First it would melt and remove the source of heat. But if the source of heat could survive melting you would and we do see melted hot spots, usually circular in shape suggesting that the heat source is near the centre. This is what we observe. Consequently we can conclude that the site of heat production is localized, but it is NOT a chemical or physical structure that would be destroyed my melting. I'd be happy to hear any alternative explanations. (N.B. The fact that most of the heat does not cause melting is irrelevant.)

  • but it is NOT a chemical or physical structure that would be destroyed my melting

    I disagree. It is possible that the reaction is so fast that melting happens later...

    the destroyed NAE is replaced by another somewhere else, why not created by the damage created by the craters... This is just a possibility, to study..


    In the latest paper I cited there is the study of the way energy is dissipated. Ed conclude that it cannot be phonons or the lattice would be instantly destroyed, but it can be energetic photons that are absorbed far from the NAE, or energetic electrons... of course, it seems that when heat is accumulated not far from the NAE, the NAE can be destroyed, but later. later at the timescale of the reaction, why not nanoseconds....


    Many things are open. We have not to close any possibly open door, or we will miss it , or like some do, invent a magical door where there is nothing.

    I even judge that Ed may have closed some doors by proposing hydroton, which is a precise mechanism...

    Maybe a 2D defect, rare enough, a 2D rydberg crystal...


    ideas that metal participate the reaction is interesting, even if He4 is the PdD ash, and there is seldom transmutations beside He4...

    Mixing theories may be required.


    My big personal question, assuming basic hydroton theory, is how the slow fusion happens.

    I imagine this requires interaction of electrons with nucleus, but slightly at the keV level.

    Then I remind that the great key is the collective effect... what if a 1keV e-p interaction is absorbing some of p-p strong force, dissipating it as kinetic energy or X-ray laser, but synchronously on 24000 atoms, in a schrodinger cat box, and when you get the cat out of the box, one hydrogen have fused with another, with no classical way to explain it (no trajectory).

    What can be that keV interaction ? deep orbit ? rydberg matter ? relativistic effects ? interaction with the heavy metal nucleus around and it's deep orbits?


    Key to Ed theory is the fact that the NAE is an insulated coherent object... a schrodinger cat box, with only few meow getting out, and one baby kitten born from who know who?


    EDIT: just remember some comments by Ed about possible X-ray laser effect...


    imagine that the hydroton (maybe involving the metal) get so insulated from outside that it become a schrodinger cat box... Now it loose energy by X-ray quantum, with a laser effect... thousands of x-ray photons, coherently emited.

    the cause of the x-ray emission is a state superposition reconfiguration with no physical equivalent...

    it goes down to an energy state that is compatible with fusion of two nucleus somewhere in the chain.... and then the cat get out of the box with a fused baby.


    the error of many theories is still to think by few bodies....

    This is the new frontier of LENR, the reason why theorist did not find the solution.

    it is too hard to imagine.


    The LENR theory have not be found, not because nobody though about it, because it is unthinkable.

  • https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua-ions

    A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev


    The object of this post is to use this experiment to provide insights into the structure of the LENR reaction through a structural breakdown of the individual LENR mechanisms.


    Laser stimulation of gold nanoparticles is a standard nanoplasmonic research method. This method produces Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP). This method also does not generate metallic hydrogen as compared to the compression of hydrogen in cracks. The SPPs are formed in the spaces between the gold nanoparticles when the nanoparticles are close together and on the surfaces of standalone gold nanoparticles.


    The storage of high volumes of energy in electromagnetic knots called SPP has a major impact on the LENR process.


    The SPPs reformat the laser light energy into a monopole magnetic bean that produces nuclear effects in the atoms in solution that surround the nanoparticles but these knots of mostly light energy also store the nuclear energy that come from the reactions produced by LENR.


    The results of this experiment show how the basic LENR reaction works and how the SPP operates within it.


    The experiment does produce x-ray and gamma radiation as a result of the Limited energy storage provided by the individual SPP. Gamma rays from thorium fission are downshifted inside the SPP through self-interference processes inherent in the long term energy storage process. The SPP stores the energy produced by the fission of thorium and gradually releases it primarily as X-rays with a lesser percentage of energy released as weak gamma rays.


    Even when the laser light is turned off, energy is released in decreasing amounts until all the stored energy is gone.


    No long term radioactive isotopes are produced by this reaction showing that the weak force is amplified stabilizing these resultant radioactive isotopes.


    In comparison with experiments producing metallic hydrogen, energy storage is much greater because a Bose condensate of SPPs is able to absorb giga electron volts of nuclear power. This increase storage capacity enables the production of mesons as the preferred format of the radiation generated by the energy release process. Because SPP condensate energy storage capacity is so large, no gamma radiation is released by the SPP condensate with almost all of the nuclear radiation preferably going into meson creation.


    Delayed production of mesons over days indicates a huge amount of nuclear energy storage capacity in the SPP condensate is available that is not present when only single SPPs manage nuclear energy release.

  • I'm not a physicist, and I'm not about to discuss the various sub-types of exotic hydrogen species that can be created in a metal lattice. But what I am willing to do is read papers, study them, and try to come up with tentative conclusions that seem logical to myself. The following is pretty much a short summation of my thoughts on this thread.


    First of all, I'm assuming that one or more varieties of cold fusion or LENR take place inside the lattice, inside of small structures with various differences described by a dozen different names. I do not consider these "cracks" that are exposed to the surface of the nickel particle. However, my understanding is most of them are very near the surface and can be found in far greater densities around cracks, grain boundries, cavities, and other structures on the surface.


    Secondly, I'm assuming these structures do not induce LENR by themselves. They need to be filled with hydrogen in some form or species.


    Third, if to produce LENR we need to fill "spaces" inside the bulk of the nickel with hydrogen, then we need to get hydrogen to penetrate the surface of the nickel and go inside.


    Fourth, since we are using nickel, we have to realize that it is much more challenging to load with hydrogen. Hydrogen does not quickly penetrate the surface like with palladium. Conversely, hydrogen (as far as I know) doesn't desorb out as rapidly either. Because it is so difficult, we need to take drastic measures to enhance the hydrogen absorption.


    - Making sure the surface is clean of nickel oxide and oxygen from the start is the obvious start. There are lots of ways to do this. I think ultrasound irradiation in a hydrocarbon slurry is a good way, but it could be combined with other techniques such as hydrogen reduction and/or acid etching.


    - There are trapped gases that are NOT hydrogen inside the nickel lattice. We need to get these gases out so hydrogen can get inside. The obvious solution, although it can be long and tedious, is the application of heat and vacuum. This process can take days or longer to fully degas the nickel.


    - If we have the contaminants on the inside and outside removed, we need to look at how to best pre-hydrogenate. High temperature and high pressure hydrogen exposure is probably optimal in the active reactor. However, if we don't want the fuel to sinter together and form into lumps which reduces surface area and catalytic activity (which will happen even more rapidly to nickel with an oxide free surface) we will be forced to use lower temperatures. However, hydrogen absorption slows down at low temperatures, so we will need to use the highest pressures possible.


    - If using ultra clean nickel and high pressures (at moderate temperatures that will prevent sintering) does not result in enough hydrogen absorption to allow for significant quantities of excess heat to be produced, we need to look at additional ways to enhance absorption.


    Fifth, there are many ways to add atomic hydrogen to the reactor. I think it is possible Rossi used palladium as a reverse spillover catalyst in his earliest systems to maximize hydrogen absorption. Palladium and platinum are both elements that rapidly split hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. A particle of nickel surrounded by other particles of palladium would have atomic hydrogen spilling onto it. The direct application of atomic hydrogen bypasses the adsorption and disassociation stage which is the rate limiting stage for hydrogen absorption. To be blunt, from the papers I have read, atomic hydrogen penetrates the surface of nickel rapidly. Although there are other ways to produce atomic hydrogen, I like the idea of this method, because the atomic hydrogen is created very close to the nickel and does not have to travel far to be absorbed by the nickel.


    Sixth, my instinct is that if you have achieved an adequate level of hydrogen absorption with an adequate number of created defects that have been filled with high pressure hydrogen species, you can then proceed onward to stimulation once the fuel has been added to the active reactor with a source of hydrogen. Thermal shocks are a proven method of stimulation in some LENR systems. Varying the pressure is yet another way of providing stimulation. Also, people have used the application of high voltage and other methods. Rossi seems to be using high voltage AC square waves at resonance with his resistor coil to produce highly powerful sharp spikes of current and EMF. This is something that could be tried, but I think if enough of the hydrogen filled cavities are created that a simple thermal shock (a rapid increase in temperature) is enough to induce excess heat.


    I think that the main difference between palladium-deuterium LENR and nickel-hydrogen LENR is in the MAJOR WORK it takes to achieve sufficient hydrogenation. However, if you can achieve adequate hydrogenation, the greater tensile strength of nickel may somehow be involved in allowing the reactions to be more energetic. Basically, I think you can increase the pressure further without destroying the structure. Also, if lithium is used, there can be an interaction between the emissions of the nickel and the lithium that produces even more excess heat.


    The problem we have is that that the bulk of LENR researchers are still testing and working on Pd systems, and relatively few people are testing Ni-H systems. Interestingly, I think 95% of replicators who have tried to reproduce the Rossi Effect have done little to maximize pre-hydrogenation. I also think most of them are using substandard LiAlH4.

  • https://www.sciencedaily.com/r…/2017/01/170126142854.htm


    Metallic hydrogen, once theory, becomes reality

    Physicists succeed in creating 'the holy grail of high-pressure physics


    Quote

    Nearly a century after it was theorized, scientists have succeeded in creating metallic hydrogen. In addition to helping scientists answer fundamental questions about the nature of matter, the material is theorized to have a wide range of applications, including as a room-temperature superconductor.


    In addition to helping scientists answer fundamental questions about the nature of matter, the material is theorized to have a wide range of applications, including as a room-temperature superconductor.


    "One prediction that's very important is metallic hydrogen is predicted to be meta-stable," Silvera said. "That means if you take the pressure off, it will stay metallic, similar to the way diamonds form from graphite under intense heat and pressure, but remains a diamond when that pressure and heat is removed."

  • One error not to do in considerin Edmunt Storm's theory is to criticize it to the details to refute it totally.

    It is not an upfront theory like many theory I've read.

    It is just an experimentator, looking ate data, eliminating what is impossible, refuted, not observed, to propose a narrow corridor of possible theories...


    Metallic hydrogen is just proposal... it maybe something else.

    What his approach produced is the proposal that :

    • reaction happens in a rare structure in the metal, near the surface the NAE
    • reaction involve hydrogen , and a metallic lattice where the improbable NAE is hosted
    • this NAE structure is insulated from the chemical environment
    • the reaction involve collective phenomenons with many bodies
    • energy is dissipated by nuymerous x-rays or keV accelerated charged particle


    Hydroton, metallic hydrogen, cracks are just one imagined solutions...

    Why not twin crystal defets, 2D rydberg matter structure...


    Our modern way to make science is sadly inspired by the way we educate people in physics.

    we state the laws and people derive results. It is like doing criminal science in a tribunal with attorneys.


    Here we have an experimentalist approach, like Sherlock Holmes, Agatha Christie (or CSI), where common sens is stated, and after removing the impossible, only remains the improbable .

  • Quote

    Metallic hydrogen is just proposal... it maybe something else... Hydroton, metallic hydrogen, cracks are just one imagined solutions... Why not twin crystal defets, 2D rydberg matter structure... Our modern way to make science is sadly inspired by the way we educate people in physics.

    we state the laws and people derive results. It is like doing criminal science in a tribunal with attorneys.


    This is exactly my feeling too: the orientation to results instead of their research is still sadly lacking in the cold fusion research, not to say about mainstream physics research.
    It's all focused to keeping grants and jobs of researchers, not to production of usable results.

    Therefore the primary problem for practical implementation of cold fusion isn't the state of matter as such - but HOW to achieve it.

    In this respect the further discussion has no much meaning without attempt for replication of experiments of Piantelli with nickel whiskers.

    The palladium fusion is of academic interest only due to cost of palladium. I'd like to have cheap cold fusion reactors working - just after then we could make basic research with more exotic systems.
    Personally I don't give a sh*t, if the nickel based fusion doesn't exhibit superconductivity, metal hydrogen, magnetic monopoles and/or muons - if only it's producing enough of heat on demand.


    This is why we all are doing or discussing it here.

  • Zephir_AWT : That is very much the engineering approach, which I for one am strongly in favor of. After all, if you have a system that works, it works. Theory in its current state of evolution can provide us with only the sketchiest of route maps. Happily, I have found that quite a few of the funded and practicing researchers in the field follow the same approach, I quote. 'Armchair physics is all very well, but it's only when your equipment blows up for the third time you really begin to get some ideas about what might be going on.'

  • Metallic hydrogen, once theory, becomes reality

    Physicists succeed in creating 'the holy grail of high-pressure physics



    axil : All other scientists relevant for this field, call this claim a fraud. Further on: Hydrogen is not a condensed matter atom like 4Helium (the first real atom) . It's a special case of two orbiting elementary particles.


    Looking for metallic hydrogen is just dreamwork physics...

  • axil : All other scientists relevant for this field, call this claim a fraud. Further on: Hydrogen is not a condensed matter atom like 4Helium (the first real atom) . It's a special case of two orbiting elementary particles.


    Looking for metallic hydrogen is just dreamwork physics...

    That phase that Wyttenback attributes to Axil, actually comes from the referenced article. Science has been postulating about metallic hydrogen for a century, persuading themselves that it must exist, theorizing about the wonderful properties that it must have. Now through experiment, science has confirmed that such a wonder can be created. Now science intends to produce metallic hydrogen by the ton, to implement superconducting wires and powerful rocket fuel, but little do they suspect that this wonder material also has powers far beyond anything that they can imagine, the power to unlock clean and abundant nuclear power.

  • Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?” (Question 1)


    I visited LENR-forum.com for the first time some 15 month ago. I tried to understand the topics but I couldn’t find scientific descriptions of LENR (it was all quarrelling about Rossi). However, after some weeks I read some plain sentences about a LENR reactor and that was enough to understand the LENR mechanism (cold fusion is really, really easy when you are familiar with research in the field of the foundations of physics). So I will explain to Ed Storms why there is nuclear fusion (in a simple way so everyone can understand the explanation).


    There is nuclear fusion when we stimulate hydrogen atoms locked within a palladium lattice because of the main law in physics: the conservation of energy. That’s a bit too abstract so I translate the main law into more detail: all the quanta transfer within the structure of the quantum fields is conserved.


    First some background information.


    About a century ago physicists discovered the atomic constituents: mainly protons, neutrons and electrons. So they thought that the properties of a particle – like the strong force – was created by the distinct particle itself. Just like a beam of light that’s created by a flash-light. Most people in the world (layman) are still convinced that this concept is “ultimate reality”.


    Nowadays physicists have the conviction there is only a structure of quantum fields that fills the whole universe. Particles – like protons – emerge from these fields. So everything around us is a manifestation of the interactions within/between the structure of these fields (a combination of scalar and vector fields). That’s not a surprise because Max Planck discovered the discreet property of thermal radiation (E = h v), Albert Einstein’s equation E = mc2 showed the transformation of mass into electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanics (QM) proved the wave-particle duality.


    So everything in our universe is a local configuration of energy, formed by the properties of the “underlying” quantum fields. There are no independent phenomena. Thus without quantum fields there are no particles and forces because they all represent local configurations of these fields.


    About 2 centuries ago they invented the steam engine. The engineers tried to make these engines more powerful without more fuel consuming and that was the beginning of the discovery of the main law in physics: the conservation of energy. So when you look at a Feynman_diagram (energy transfer between elementary particles) it shows the conservation of all the quanta transfer between the involved phenomena (electromagnetic waves, particles, etc.).


    However, Feynmann diagrams show only the transfer of the involved phenomena. What about the energy conservation of identical volumes of the quantum fields? Now we are no longer talking about local phenomena like particles and radiation, we are talking about the properties of the structure of the “bare” quantum fields… Just like it is spacetime.


    Rest mass is a local energy transfer from the scalar field (Higgs field) to the vector field (electromagnetic field). However, when we annihilate a proton and an anti-proton, all the energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation (quanta). In other words: particles are local concentrations of quanta and a quantum is a distinct amount of energy that’s transferred between the spatial structure of the quantum fields.


    Now try to imagine a volume: for example a cube. All the volume inside the cube is totally filled with the structure of the quantum fields. There is alteration between the spatial units of the structure (quanta transfer) and all the transfer of quanta is conserved (exactly conform the main law in physics).


    Now we incorporate time. We start a metronome and there is only quanta transfer between the spatial units of the structure of the quantum fields when the metronome tics. Now the transfer of all the quanta is synchronized.


    We can throw the metronome away but when we do it we will discover that there is no conservation of energy in our cube any more. Every asynchronous transfer will destroy the total sum of quanta within the volume at that moment (that’s the conservation). And what about a spatial unit that "refuses" to transfer a quantum at a certain moment? The same problem, the conservation of energy is broken.


    In other words: every spatial unit of the structure of the quantum fields transfers 1 quantum at the same time. By the way, there is no experimental proof that the global structure of the quantum fields isn’t identical everywhere in the universe (the invariance of constants in physics).


    [Think about the constant speed of light (quanta transfer). The origin of this constant is the conservation of quanta transfer because when the time is constant (synchronized) and the distance is constant (identical spatial quantum field structure), the velocity is constant too.]


    Back to cold fusion.


    A hydrogen nucleus is a local concentration of quanta. So when we transfer a certain amount of quanta in the direction of a solitary hydrogen atom (e.g. an electromagnetic wave), there will be an alteration in the local quanta transfer. I will explain the situation with the help of some imaginary quantities.


    Suppose our hydrogen nucleus is a concentration of 1000 quanta and the spatial boundary of the nucleus envelopes 1000 spatial units. Every spatial unit of the structure of the quantum fields transfers 1 quantum at the same time so our hydrogen nucleus has the speed of light! Just because the velocity of a single quantum is the constant c (speed of light).


    Suppose we decrease the volume of the boundary of our hydrogen nucleus (e.g. from 1000 to 10 units). Now the duration of the transfer of the boundary of the nucleus will be 100 x 1 transfer.


    Anyway, we had transferred an electromagnetic wave in the surrounding of the hydrogen nucleus (e.g. 100 quanta). The result is a decrease of the amount of quanta transfer that’s needed to move the boundary of the nucleus (from 1000 to 900 quanta). However, the total amount of concentrated quanta – that represents the nucleus – hasn’t changed. We only changed the local environment of the nucleus and the result is an increase of the velocity of the hydrogen nucleus. In other words: this is a (popular) quantum description of Newton’s mechanics: F = m a (a = acceleration, m = mass).


    Now we put our solitary hydrogen nucleus inside a palladium lattice and we transfer the same electromagnetic wave in the direction of the hydrogen nucleus (100 quanta). When the electromagnetic wave passes a palladium atom there is hardly any alteration because the concentration of quanta of a palladium nucleus is not 1000 quanta, it is about 100.000 quanta (atomic weight = 106,42).


    Next the electromagnetic wave encounters our hydrogen nucleus and the result is clear: the nucleus must accelerate. However, it cannot accelerate because its velocity is locked by the palladium lattice.


    Unfortunately, the main law of physics is implacable. The hydrogen nucleus has to change its configuration according to the new situation (an increase of the quantum transfer). Thus the nucleus has to expand its boundary (see the example with the size of the boundary above).


    Imagine empty space (a local structure of the quantum fields without concentrations of quanta). Is there any Coulomb force to be find? Of course not, the Coulomb force is a result of a local concentration of quanta and the corresponding interactions between the scalar field and the vector field. So when we “blow up” the boundary of a hydrogen nucleus with the help of an electromagnetic wave, the Coulomb force will decrease.


    The whole explanation is reliable, well known physics. However, it is described from an unusually point of view: the overall geometric structure of the quantum fields. Just to keep it simple.

  • AlainCo:

    Hydroton, metallic hydrogen, cracks are just one imagined solutions...


    Axil:

    Metallic hydrogen is the solution because of the observation by Piantelli that deuterium will kill the Ni/H reaction. This rule implies that metallic hydrogen must be isotopically pure, either protium or deuterium but not both in a mix. This also implies that the superconductive nature of metallic hydrogen is absolutely required for the LENR reaction to function. A mix of protium and deuterium cannot form Bose condinsate but isotopically pure hydrogen can form that condinsate.


    Even without cracks, this also implies that Piantelli's surface can produce metallized hydrogen. Like the surface produced by palladium/hydrogen codeposition, the rugged surface topology is the key to LENR; it's the key to the production of metallized hydrogen. But the question arises, how can a rough surface produce pressure greater that that at the center of the earth?


    Ed Storms theory has hit upon the essence of what makes LENR useful. Like an impressionist painter, Ed has captured true essence in broad brushstrokes leaving the details to be filled in by the viewing of his art.


    What Rossi has found is that hydrogen is not the only element that can be metalized. Lithium can also be compressed in cracks but at far lower pressures that hydrogen. Rossi has engineered his microparticles to accept the lithium atom in reformatted cracks that he creates in a preprocessing step. Rossi uses metalized lithium because it is easier to create and is more capable in what it can do in LENR.


    But like the hydrogen don't mix hydrogen isotopes rule, Lithium 7 cannot be mixed with Lithium 6 if a metallic form of superconducting lithium is to be formed.


    But as Lugano has shown, metallic lithium is not poisoned by lithium 6 creation through transmutation. Once formed Lithium is rugged stuff and cannot be poisoned isotopically. This metallic form of the crystal can survive for years.

  • Quote

    Metallic hydrogen is the solution because of the observation by Piantelli that deuterium will kill the Ni/H reaction. This rule implies that metallic hydrogen must be isotopically pure, either protium or deuterium but not both in a mix.


    How the logic of the above sentence will change, if we omit the "metallic" word from it like this?

    The observation by Piantelli is that deuterium will kill the Ni/H reaction. This rule implies that hydrogen must be isotopically pure, either protium or deuterium but not both in a mix.


    Such an observation indeed isn't evidence of any specific phase of hydrogen.


    Quote

    A mix of protium and deuterium cannot form Bose condensate but isotopically pure hydrogen can form that condensate.


    But condensate isn't metal and vice-versa. I'm aware, that it makes no problem for you.


    Quote
    Rossi has engineered his microparticles to accept the lithium atom in reformatted cracks that he creates in a preprocessing step.


    Without link it's just pure speculation invented at place. I seriously doubt that Rossil would give away such an experimental details - he hides even the presence of lithium in his catalyst. While I appreciate the linking of sources, I'm forced to dismiss wild speculations without sources - unfortunately such a speculations prevail in your posts.

  • Quote

    H.G wrote: "Now we put our solitary hydrogen nucleus inside a palladium lattice and we transfer the same electromagnetic wave in the direction of the hydrogen nucleus (100 quanta). When the electromagnetic wave passes a palladium atom there is hardly any alteration because the concentration of quanta of a palladium nucleus is not 1000 quanta, it is about 100.000 quanta (atomic weight = 106,42)."

    Axil answers:

    LENR exists in plasma reactors without a lattice. Rossi's Quark reactor works at a temperature that is beyond the melting point of nuckel so your understanding has a hole it it. The lattice is not the causative factor in LENR, it is the metallic hydrogen (MH) crystal. But what you say about quanta transfer is on target in regards to metallic hydrogen. Energy is transferred from the affected nucleus to the MH crystal as you state and it is stored there in a magnetic structure called the polariton...well it is really a polariton spin wave. When enough energy is so stored in that spin wave, then mesons are generated: a process called hadronization.

    Just like in a hot fusion reactor, the magnetic field that surrounds the MH in that spin wave protects the MH from extreme temperature. Therefore, MH once formed can exist in a plasma with a spin wave of polaritons on its surface protecting it and keeping it together.


    Also


    This experiment that I explained above shows that LENR can exist in a liquid.


    https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua-ions

    A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev


    The gold nanoparticle creates the polariton and is not affected by it. It is the Thorium aqua-ions that as fissioned at a distance from the polariton.


    Like Ed Storms did, you got to look at all the LENR experiments and make sure your theory covers every case.


  • Quote

    LENR exists in plasma reactors without a lattice. The lattice is not the causative factor in LENR, it is metallic hydrogen (MH) crystal.


    If you cannot have lattice, you can have metallic hydrogen crystal neither.


    Quote

    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua-ions... This experiment shows that LENR can exist in a liquid.


    Why it should run in the liquid in this reaction? It could run at the surface of Au nanoparticles.


    Quote
    The gold nanoparticle creates the polariton and is not affected by it. It is the Thorium aqua-ions that as fissioned at a distance from the polariton

    Nope, this is your speculation based on absence of knowledge, what the polariton is (coupling of photon with a polaron). The article above linked provides no single evidence of actual polariton involvement - it's all fixated ideas of yours (which may or may not be correct in some particular context, but you haven't proved it). BTW Thorium doesn't fuse, it's already heavy enough. You're getting crazy in your obstinate effort to explain the stuffs, which you apparently don't understand.

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    Why it should run in the liquid in this reaction? It could run at the surface of Au nanoparticles.

    A liquid covers the surface of the Au nanoparticle. And when the laser is shut down, the reaction continues to produce radiation for 6 hours on the energy stored in the polariton in a heat after death process that is seen in many LENR experiments.

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    the reaction continues to produce radiation for 6 hours on the energy stored in the polariton


    How the polariton could store an energy? Haven't you imagined, that the thorium is heavy element, which would react under fission (not fusion) and formation of radioactive fast decaying products? You should wait first, until someone will prove the mechanism in your example, before you could use it as an illustration of this mechanism. You cannot prove the speculation by another speculation. Once you will attempt to prove your idea by interpretation based on the same idea, it will be just what the circular reasoning is called.