AlainCo has dropped Ed Storms questions so I presume that we have to think about these questions and try to answer them. Not by searching the internet to offer the opinion of other people, but with the help of our knowledge and insight of (nuclear) physics. (Ed Storms isn’t handicapped, so believe me, he can search the internet too.)
First of all, I have numbered Ed Storms questions so it is easier to find our way. However, question 6 and 7 are related to partly unknown experiments so none of us can give an adequate answer.
If NAE are nanocracks – why is there a limit for their number/density? What is the limiting factor?
Are those active cracks special in some way or is it only a problem of size?
If temperature is a factor, how?
Will the processes at 70, 400, 800, 12000 C be qualitatively the same, or will be some changes in the mechanism?
How and why do the NAE resist and survive the nuclear process?
Piantelli said he had excess heat for months. The Rossi heat effect seems to be OK for 6 months. Why is the duration of the PdD excess heat a problem?
What do you think and which factors play a role for the claimed greater density of NAE in NiH then in PdD – metallurgy, morphology? Perhaps we have to consider that Pd D works with deuterium and NiH with protium.
I have figured the problem about Question 1 in a post before (#33).
Ed Storms knows everything about the fractures at the surface of hydrogen loaded palladium. But because the origin of the fusion is a mystery, he has formulated the question about the cracks in small steps. He is just curious about answers that can open a new concept to evaluate the phenomenon of the cracks. Personally, I don’t think that anyone can describe “new physics” that can elucidate the origin of these cracks. The “old physics” is good enough.
Question 2 is nearly identical to question 1. The only reliable answer is the degree of freedom of the enclosed hydrogen atoms. Macro cracks show the local damage of the palladium lattice so there cannot be any doubt about the consequences: the hydrogen atoms are no longer forced within a small volume inside the palladium lattice.
Question 3 is another question that shows how carefully Ed Storms tries to avoid every uncertainty in the search for the unknown mechanism of cold fusion. His question isn’t related to the size of the cracks, he wants to know if temperature is a dominant condition to start nuclear fusion.
So the answer must be: yes and no. “Yes” because the temperature influences the freedom of the enclosed hydrogen atoms (nano cracks). “No” because of the water (heavy water) that surrounds the palladium cathode. There cannot be a local spot of high thermal energy at the surface of the cathode as long as the cathode is under the water level. The wavelength of thermal radiation is simply too long to “force” it.
Question 4 is a bit vague. In my opinion there are 2 interpretations. First, the question includes a nickel lattice too. Second, it is only about palladium and there is fusion.
I skip the first interpretation because there is no information about the reactor.
The second interpretation about the meaning of the question is manageable. Fusion will deliver an enormous amount of electromagnetic radiation so the fusion will not stop, despite of the raise of temperature (more freedom for the enclosed hydrogen atoms). However, palladium becomes a semiconductor at higher densities of hydrogen. So I cannot imagine that the nuclear fusion starts when the palladium lattice is 100% loaded with hydrogen atoms (probably it starts near the end of the alpha-phase/beginning of the beta-phase). The consequence will be local shortcomings of hydrogen atoms inside the palladium lattice so the fusion will stop. It cannot start again before the palladium lattice is cooled down.
Maybe Ed Storms can explain/confirm this with the help of the palladium experiments he has done before.
Question 5 is the most helpful question in relation to the unknown nuclear mechanism.
The nuclear radiation of cold fusion has another frequency in relation to hot fusion. The cause behind this “relational phenomenon” is known. The wave length of electromagnetic radiation depends on the volume (boundary) of the source of the radiation.
Now we can conclude that the boundary of the fusion process has a volume that is “enormous” in relation to the boundary of a hydrogen nucleus (hot fusion). I haven’t read anything about the wave length of cold fusion radiation but I assume that it will be somewhere in the range of electron emitted photons (maybe near the ultra violet range).
Now try to imagine the fusion of 2 hydrogen nuclei. What can we conclude when the boundary of the fusion process has nearly the size of a single hydrogen atom (electron orbit in the ground state)? Well, there is any – or only a negligible amount – of the Coulomb force present within the boundary of the fusion process.
So there is still Question 1: “Why there is nuclear fusion between adjacent hydrogen atoms when a dense electromagnetic wave arrives at the nuclei while they cannot move?”
I cannot remember that paper very well but I thought that it has not much to do with palladium based fusion.