Celani et al: Improved stability and performance of surface-modified Constantan wires, by chemical additions and unconventional geometrical structures.

  • energy source - recombination!?

    From the paper: "In fact, the energy gain seems to strongly correlate with the process of dissociation and recombination of
    atomic hydrogen/deuterium.
    We also have early indication that the migration of the active species is enhanced by current and voltage in the
    Constantan.
    On the basis of our observations we propose a simplified model of the experiment where atomic hydrogen/deuterium is
    firstly formed by exothermic adsorptive dissociation on the surface of Constantan (Ni/Cu), migrates toward the Fe-MnK
    impregnated fiberglass sheath and exothermically recombines (especially on MACOR ceramic) (Figure 16). The
    energy for sustaining this process comes in form of current on Constantan (via Joule heating and a possible
    electrochemical factor) and from a yet unknown process, possibly at electron Compton wavelength scale, justifying the
    apparent excess heat."

  • Max Nozin

    That seems to suggest something along the lines of what Randall Mills theorizes. If I recall correctly the recombination of atomic hydrogen is one of the processes able to make hydrogen atoms transition to the Hydrino form, releasing energy with a positive balance.

  • can sure


    look at this chapter from William Lyne's book http://www.bibliotecapleyades.…ultether04.htm#References - he speculates that COP>1 is possible and has been documented in chemistry books in early 1900s. Then gives a sketch (at the end of the page) of the reactor which is extremely similar to the SunCell.


    You can have any option of the author and people pushing similar ideas, but can't deny the possibility that if is there, god forbid, is an external flow of energy from whatever source you name it (ZPE, ether, aether, compton, vacuum etc.) traditional physicist will spend rest of their lives juggling reaction formulas, reaction chains, inventing new particles just to maintain 0 energy balance.

  • Quote
    If I recall correctly the recombination of atomic hydrogen is one of the processes able to make hydrogen atoms transition to the Hydrino form, releasing energy with a positive balance


    Yes, there is a long essay by Nicholas Moller on Langmuir's study on the atomic hydrogen torch. It appears likely that this was the first discovery of excess energy from plasma discharge. But such an excess energy has been observed in another systems, even these ones involving rare gases (Papp's engine), which are already monoatomic.


    Quote
    traditional physicist will spend rest of their lives juggling reaction formulas, reaction chains, inventing new particles just to maintain 0 energy balance.


    I can agree, but Randell Mills is not different in this respect. Occasionally these physicists were proven right, for example the proposal and finding of neutrino was solely based on energy balance. Ironically, it's just the neutrinos, which violate this balance at the case of solar neutrinos again. It's worth to note, that Langmuir experiments were quite extensive and thorough, done in evacuated vessels, monitored with spectra. The formation of hydrino would hardly evade attention there. The factor speaking for hidden particle is, the latent energy from hydrogen recombination can be transfered from place to place. In this moment the hydrino hypothesis is still in the game, but my raising suspicion is, that we are actually facing some overunity effect here. In my guess the probability of fusion is 20%, hydrino 30%, but overunity 50%.

    The post was edited 3 times, last by Zephir_AWT: Link to Naudin's replication of Langmuir overunity added http://jlnlabs.online.fr/mahg/index.htm ().

  • Despite the mainstream physicists pretend, that everything around us is driven with thermodynamical laws and spontaneously increasing entropy (which defines so-called entropic time arrow), in real world around us we can find many examples of entropic time arrow violation. In my theory the overunity arises during thermalization of negentropic phenomena, like the overheating or oversaturation, which violate the entropic time arrow by formation of metastable state. The magnetization of ferromagnetics (especially these ones in form of thin needles or whiskers, where ferromagnetic domains have no place for reorientation) is one example of metastable state. The formation of metastable undercooled atomic hydrogen from electric arc or NMR excitation of carbon or iron nuclei in magnetic field are another example of such negentropic phenomena, the thermalization of which can be assisted with vacuum fluctuations.


    In my understanding this principle of energy production isn't even very new one, because the energy released during nuclear fusion or fission also utilizes the metastable states of matter remaining during non-equilibrial explosions of stars into supernovae. The atom nuclei which we are living with want to fuse or split and only small energy input (introduced during implosion of nuclear bomb for example) is able to release much higher amount of energy on demand by making it more reversible. The general way how to make metastable system reversible is to establish/enforce lower or higher-dimensional routes for energy sharing and thermalization in it.

  • Francesco Celani showed in earlier publications regarding the use of processed Contantan wire that during Hydrogen/Deuterium loading the electrical resistance decreased significantly.

    I would be interested to see whether this behavior has also improved by the enhancements shown in his latest paper.

    This could indicate the formation of UDD/UDH at its surface, which is superconductive at room temperature according to the observations of prof. EM. Holmlid.

  • Rob Woudenberg

    According to recent observations by Holmlid et al. the UDD/UDH also has a critical temperature after which it ceases to be superfluid and probably also superconductive (a critical temperature is a characteristic of all superconductors, btw). For Deuterium on Nickel this is about 130°C, which is generally lower than the temperature Celani usually keeps his wires at in his case. His wires seem to retain more or less indefinitely a lower resistance after hydrogen has been absorbed, regardless of the temperature, but yet depending on hydrogen uptake. On the other hand, Holmlid's measurements don't take into account the absorption of ultra-dense hydrogen clusters into the bulk; they are only able to probe what's on the surface and in my opinion it's plausible that in this "free" form they might have different properties.


    Therefore, I think that if there's superconducting UDD/UDH formation occurring in Celani case, it's probably not (not mainly, at least) on the surface.

  • According to recent observations by Holmlid et al. the UDD/UDH also has a critical temperature after which it ceases to be superfluid and probably also superconductive (a critical temperature is a characteristic of all superconductors, btw). For Deuterium on Nickel this is about 130°C, which is generally lower than the temperature Celani usually keeps his wires at in his case.


    Can, Celani processes his wires, so its surface may not be pure Nickel.

    Gas pressure may also have an effect.

    Time will tell.

  • The wires are made of Constantan which is a copper-nickel alloy with manganese traces in his case. His process also causes various oxide phases to be present on the wire, as the abstract in the opening post cites.


    Past MFMP replications of his experiments, which at least managed to replicate the reported resistance reduction with loading, also occasionally pushed the wire to rather high temperatures, and as far as I recall a sudden increase in wire resistance with increasing temperature (after the resistance decrease occurred) was never observed, both at high and low pressures. On the other hand, applying a vacuum and heating would slowly make the wire resistance return to values close to normal, presumably due to hydrogen loss.


    In the paper I linked in my previous comment, Holmlid observes that the superfluid/superconducting transition temperature of ultra-dense hydrogen tends to get higher the higher the melting point of the metal/metal oxide is. Constantan has a lower melting point than pure nickel, so it's expected that this transition would occur at a lower temperature than Nickel alone.

  • See also quantumheat.com: Adding nano scale features to macro scale metals for lenr applications. Of course, many other self-proclaimed LENR experts instead recommend to strip the surface features of nickel particles by washing them in acids or even with ultrasound bath.

    IMO the only tangible and theoretically supported progress in surface treatment did Piantelli with his nickel whiskers - all other approaches are just well minded and less or mure successful alchemy.

  • Well in this patent Celani does say about one treatment method 'As a result of step d) the oxidised nickel is reduced to metallic nickel (activation of the product) and a thermally-stable nanostructure having high catalytic activity is produced in this way.' And he is doing a lot of cleaning and washing, So maybe this is just another way to skin the cat?

  • See also quantumheat.com: Adding nano scale features to macro scale metals for lenr applications. Of course, many other self-proclaimed LENR experts instead recommend to strip the surface features of nickel particles by washing them in acids or even with ultrasound bath.


    Acid bath cleaning, which is quite effective in stripping oxides away from metals (if for example you've ever tried cleaning old rusty utensils with vinegar or muriatic acid) is also what Piantelli-Focardi did with their early experiments. H loading is also possible this way.


    https://patentscope.wipo.int/s…telli)&tab=PCTDescription


    Quote

    1 ) Charging step
    Among the known techniques for charging hydrogen in the active core so that the hydrogen isotopes become chemically adsorbed in the crystal lattice, there are the following:


    [...]


    - immersion of the core in solutions of HCI, HNO3, H2SO4


    This process is also called pickling


    http://www.tau.ac.il/~chemlaba…rodeposition/13208_02.pdf


    Quote

    Electrodeposition and electroless deposition and their associated processing steps including acid pickling and electrocleaning can generate hydrogen which can enter substrates in the atomic form and cause hydrogen embrittlement.


    [...]


    It appears that any material can become embrittled by a pressure effect if hydrogen bubbles are introduced by a means such as electrodeposition and this state remains unchanged until hydrogen atoms escape from the bubbles (6). In some cases, the failure can be so abrupt and forceful as to seem almost explosive (7). Geduld reminisced that "one of the most spectacular and memorable sounds associated with zinc plating was standing in a quiet storage room next to drums of recently zinc plated steel springs and listening to the metallic shriek of self-destruction. as the springs slowly destroyed themselves in order to release occluded hydrogen"


    ...


    IMO the only tangible and theoretically supported progress in surface treatment did Piantelli with his nickel whiskers - all other approaches are just well minded and less or mure successful alchemy.


    I would like some actual excerpts or citations for these nickel whiskers you mention. I don't remember reading anything by Piantelli's group about them.

  • Quote
    I would like some actual excerpts or citations for these nickel whiskers you mention. I don't remember reading anything by Piantelli's group about them.

    Me too - but in cold fusion research the things which actually work only rarely get explicitly into a publication. Try to use Google (hint).

    Quote
    Acid bath cleaning... is also what Piantelli-Focardi did with their early experiments.

    In cold fusion research the things which don't actually work often appear explicitly in patents. Guess why...

  • "Try to use Google" isn't really an acceptable answer to that question.


    Let me put it differently: where did you get the idea that Piantelli is creating nickel whiskers?

  • There's no systematic evidence at this point as far as I can tell that removing impurities from the surface of a substrate does anything beneficial. It seems to simply be an assumption that this is the case. It might be the opposite: that preparing a substrate by cleaning it will be partly or wholly detrimental.

  • It doesn't seem to be critical in other cases/for other authors, but Piantelli seems to believe otherwise.


    https://www.google.com/patents/CA2744430A1



    Quote

    Advantageously, said step of bringing hydrogen into contact with said clusters is preceded by a step of cleaning said substrate. In particular, said step of cleaning is made by applying a vacuum of at least 10-9 bar at a temperature 15 set between 350 C and 500 C for a predetermined time.


    Advantageously, said vacuum is applied according to a predetermined number, preferably not less than 10, of vacuum cycles and subsequent restoration of a substantially atmospheric pressure of hydrogen. This way, it is possible to quantitatively remove the gas adsorbed within the metal, in particular 20 the gas which is adsorbed in the metal of the active core. In fact, such gas drastically

    reduces the interaction between the plasma of valence electrons and the hydrogen ions, and can limit or avoid the adsorption of the hydrogen in the clusters, even if an initial adsorption has occurred on the metal surface.