New Paper By Gullström, Rossi - COP 22,000

  • Nucleon polarizability and long range strong force from σI=2 meson exchange potential
    Carl-Oscar Gullström, Andrea Rossi. 9/march/2017


    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.05249.pdf


    This appears to be a Quark - related experiment.....


    Address of the site: 7861 NW 46th St., Doral, Florida, 33139 USA
    Participants to the experiment: Carl-Oscar Gullström, Dr Andrea Rossi
    Description of the apparatus
    The circuit of the apparatus is made by a power source to supply direct
    current, a load made a 1 Ohm resistance, a reactor containing two nickel rods
    with LiAlH4 separated by 1.5 cm of space.
    Measurements:
    During the test a direct current was switched on and off. When the current
    was switched on a plasma was seen flowing between the two nickel rods. The
    current was running through the plasma but the plasma was found to be charge
    neutral from a Van Deer Graaf test. This implies that the plasma has an
    equal amount of positive ions flying in the direction of the current and negative
    ions(electrons) in the opposite direction.
    Input: 0.105 V of direct current over a 1 Ohm resistance.
    Energy output: The wavelength of the radiations out of the reactor has been
    measured by a spectrometer ( Stellar Net spectrometer 350-1150 nm ) and was
    integrated with the value of 1100 nm ( 1.1 microns ).
    The temperature of the surface of the reactor ( a perfect black body ) has
    been calculated with Wien’s equation: 2900/λ (micron) = 2900/1.1 = 2636 K
    By Boltzman Equation the effect is: W = σ × ǫ × T
    4 × A
    A = 1.0 cm2
    ǫ = 0.9
    By substitution: W = 5, 67 × 1012 × 0.9 × 4.8 × 1013 = 244.9 etc, etc..

  • Please explain this experiment in simple terms so that we may understand how the strong force behaves under these unusual conditions. Also explain what those unusual conditions come from. If not Alan then anyone...

  • Whatever is going on, apparently it's just using just 11 mW of input power.


    EDIT:


    I wonder what exactly is meant by integrating to 1100 nm.

    All the power from 350 to 1150 nm integrated to one wavelength?


    It seems that the reactor was considered an ideal blackbody with peak wavelength measured at 1100nm with this spectrometer. According to Wien's displacement law that corresponds to roughly 2636K.

  • The important point about the nature of the SPECIAL LENR active magnetic field is "This means that only the center of an magnetic quadrupole is relevant where there is no dipole field."



    No dipole field means a monopole field or at least a anisotropic magnetic field where magnetic field lines are disconnected from their dipole partner. This type of magnetic field causes the quarks in a nucleon to be constrained along these discontiguous magnetic field lines so that the quarks in a nucleon line up linearly along those field lines thus disrupting the strong force inside the nucleons. Maybe because of this quark constraint, the CP symmetry of the strong force becomes non zero and nucleon decay occurs. Rossi have also said in his blog that muons have not been detected in his reaction. But if nucleons are being disrupted, muons are a sure sign of it.



    Rossi has stated in his blog that monopoles do not exist. He and his partner have now come up with a substitute theory where no dipole magnetic field lines apply.



    IMHO, transferring nucleon energy down a quadrupole magnetic field or a electric field is impossible because such a field is not point to point. But a monopole field line will take energy away from the nucleons very nicely when the quarks in that nucleon are constrained linearly.



    We know from experiment that anisotropic magnetic field lines produce LENR effects so the quadrupole magnetic field might be a special case of a more general anisotropic magnetic field line condition.

  • Each of the C3H6SO molecules each have a separate vector. ( I will provide the equation later) but let it stand at this point unless someone can prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the hamiltonians of my design are not in the H20. Well then they have a better design than I.



    /but I am making Thai tonight not a quacrk. Should I use more NaCl? this is important.

  • Kind of a letdown having a COP of only 22000. But, I'm comforted by the fact that you can get heat, light, electricity, and propellantless thrust from it. Modest claims, but I think most people could agree that they are quite realistic. Who would have someone add their name to another theoretical paper with lots of formulas in it if it wasn't really true?

  • My questions about this paper for anyone who is interested:


    1) The following pathway is mentioned: 62−x Ni + xn∗ →62Ni. Can anyone explain this in a little more easy to understand manner? For example, he states, "where p∗ and n∗ means a bound nucleon which has a source in another nuclide." What do the "x" symbols represent?


    2) He then goes onto mention, "The main sources of the bound nucleons are" and identifies "5Mn → 54 Cr + p"


    He also states the following later on in the paper: "For example the reaction Ni+p* with p* from manganese or lithium would give copper isotope below the ground state."


    Does the above tell us that Rossi is using Mn in his fuel mixture!?


    3) The start up voltage of .105V seems too low to start up a glow discharge which usually requires a couple hundred volts even if the gas is at low pressure. An arc discharge, however, is what seems to be depicted in the paper. An arc discharge could operate at a much lower voltage. Was it some special property of this system that allowed for the ionization to begin at such a low voltage OR could the control system have imparted a brief high voltage spike (even for a millisecond) to get the arc going before lowering the voltage back down?


    4) Rossi just indicated on the JONP earlier today or yesterday that the pure electrical output of the Quark would be more like a current rather than a voltage. Does this mean that the nuclear reactions occurring at the cathode are perhaps emitting copious electrons and providing the power for the current flow? Could this device basically be a nuclear "current" (rather than voltage) booster device?


    5) There is a sentence in the paper that reads, "The important part for this to work is that the electrons needs to be unpaired in order to make a s in flip to emit photon in the microwave region." Does this mean that one form of output from the cathode is microwave radiation? This would certainly further ionize the gas into protons and electrons -- perhaps explaining the high current.


    6) The paper states, "Suitable elements that are naturally in 1S states are the alkali and coin metals. In addition some more metals could be in 1s states this includes nickel, platinum, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium and chrome. A dz2 state is particularly good since this is a magnetic quadrupole seen from

    the nucleon.." Is palladium in a 1S state? I'll have to do a search to find out. If it is not in the 1S state, perhaps this could be one of multiple possible reasons why Ni-H works better than Pd-D?


    7) What elements have the dz2 state which is claimed to be particularly good?


    8) On the practical side of things, getting hydrogen into the nickel seems to be of critical importance. The hydrogen or liquid alkali metal needs to be placed between grains or cracks. According to the paper, this would allow them to be exposed to a quadrapole magnetic field. Basically, this seems to imply that methods of optimizing hydrogen absorption such as the use of atomic hydrogen or ions bombarded onto the metal could accelerate the effect. Could me356 by performing multiple cycles of vacuum degassing and then exposing to hydrogen be simply tremendously embrittling his nickel?


    "A good way to put atoms in between the grains is by using liquid metal embrittlement and/or hydrogen embrittlement. There charged ions of the liquid metal/hydrogen fills the space in between grains to make cracks and at the same time place them in strong magnetic quadrupoles."


    9) Does the following statement explain why Andrea Rossi has used frequencies that included square waves and allegedly resonance conditions with his resistor that produces sudden spikes?


    "The special electromagnetic fields that are required for extracting energy out of a nucleon is a magnetic quadrupole or a changing electric field."


    10) It seems to me that this paper tells us TWO very important things: fuel processing is critical and varying electric fields can also help. What do all of you think?

  • Kind of a letdown having a COP of only 22000. But, I'm comforted by the fact that you can get heat, light, electricity, and propellantless thrust from it. Modest claims, but I think most people could agree that they are quite realistic. Who would have someone add their name to another theoretical paper with lots of formulas in it if it wasn't really true?


    If the Rossi Effect is real as a whole then I think this claim is probably very realistic.


    First, we know that all of Rossi's devices have been capable (I'll say allegedly capable to be diplomatic with some people on here) of self sustaining for hours at the time. Even Sergio Focardi who tested Rossi's earliest systems claims this. This means a COP of INFINITY. And infinity is far higher than 22,000! So from one point of view, the COP is extremely impressive but nothing that we shouldn't have expected.


    Secondly, my guess is that in addition to perhaps expelling energetic electrons and other emissions that might ionize the hydrogen gas, the nuclear effects will warm up the cathode until it becomes a thermionic emitter. This would make the nickel start emitting electrons -- adding the current going through the cell. This current would seem like it was "free" but it would really be a product of the heat generated by the nuclear reactions.


    This is an amazing paper and worthy of high praise, in my opinion. Of course this technology needs to be tested by multiple third parties ASAP to obtain verification.


    But take my words with a container of salt -- I'm not a physicist. I'm just giving my opinion.

  • I just had a thought.


    In systems that rely on heat and no electric current running through the nickel or electric fields from a resistor, fractoemission could produce a current running through the metal during thermal shocks (rapid increases in temperature) that damage the lattice and emit electrons. Once this happens, additional electrons could be emitted producing more current and the reactions could proliferate, self sustaining.

  • Manganese is essential to iron and steel production by virtue of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties, as first recognized by the British metallurgist Robert Forester Mushet (1811 - 1891) who, in 1856, introduced the element, in the form of Spiegeleisen,
    into steel for the specific purpose of removing excess dissolved
    oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus in order to improve its malleability. Steelmaking,[35]
    including its ironmaking component, has accounted for most manganese
    demand, presently in the range of 85% to 90% of the total demand.[32] Manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel.[30][36]


    Could Rossi be using a nickel Manganese alloy to remove the oxygen in his nickel?


  • Anyone willing to try and answer my questions?