The process by which the proton decays in LENR

  • That is one way to look at it, but the "high-energy helium-4" is usually not shown in path 1. The more conventional notation has the neutron (2.45 MeV) ejected as part of the reaction, which is generally seen in hot plasma fusion but not in LENR.


    I understand your thinking differs from the usual approach to the nuclear process(es) in LENR (cf. Storms). Can you explain why you think your path 1 above is the correct one? If it is in fact the dominant path, there would be lots of neutrons and thus secondary radiation (and dead experimenters).


    According to the experimental results produced by Holmlid and now more recently by Rossi, mesons and pions are the byproducts of the LENR reaction. These byproducts come from the disintegration of sub atomic particles. Holmlid also has identified kaons which are composed of at least one strange quark. These Kaons and the strange matter that they contain can only come from the decay of the proton.


    diagrams-ek.png


    The exploding titanium foil experiments of Leonid Urutskoev show fission of uranium which can only have been produced by muons in the absence of detectable neutrons.


    Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole

    Georges Lochak*, Leonid Urutskoev**


    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/LochakGlowenergyn.pdf


    The oneway entangled transfer of energy from the proton to the SPP keeps the LENR reaction products from becoming excited and radioactive. The detection of muons as a reaction product of stored catalyst when stimulated by UV light points to the production of mesons by hadronization.


    Any fusion products detected in these types of meson centric experiments are a result of muon catalyzed fusion. The evidence of transmutation products produced by fission without the detection of neutrons indicates muon production and resultant muon catalyzed fission.

  • http://xlab.me.berkeley.edu/pd…09_jstqe.2016.2545644.pdf


    Unidirectional Perfect Absorber


    The Whispering Gallery mode optical cavities of the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) can form a perfect absorber of energy from the LENR based catalyzed nuclear reaction and share that energy between all the SPPs in the SPP aggregation. Energy is fed into the SPP network and it is shared equally among all the SPP members. Energy goes into the the SPP aggregate and it is stored there. Fano resonance converts all the stored optical energy to the same common frequency among the entire population of SPPs in the system.

  • https://www.quantamagazine.org…k-the-riemann-hypothesis/


    Physicists Attack Math’s $1,000,000 Question

    There is a connection between the riemann hypothesis and cold fusion. The expansion of quantum mechanics to include complex numbers and time/parity symmetry is a doorway into how energy is extracted form matter. What the 1/2 connection to the real number components of the solutions in this quantum mechanical solution set is a mystery that tantalizes the imagination.

  • /* Some esoteric process is causing the proton to decay in LENR */


    It doesn't and no experimental evidence for it exists. End of story, you may return to your homes, nothing to see is here.


    No evidence...except as listed in post 31. In addition...


    There are also laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles in a water solution where the fission of thorium and uranium were generated.


    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in

    the presence of Thorium aqua-ions

    A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev


    https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf


    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt

    A.V. Simakin, G.A. Shafeev

    Dec 01 2009 physics.gen-ph nucl-ex arXiv:0911.5495v1

  • On the Journal of Nuclear Physics today, Rossi stated: “This morning we are making an experiment, testing the device to allow the QuarkX to be able to work either with battery or with AC power source, like a computer.”


    This announcement has sparked some interest, as many people over the years have expressed a hope that it might be possible to power a QuarkX with a battery, rather than having to have it dependent upon the grid for power. Battery powered E-Cats would provide a lot of flexibility and portability to the technology, and enable it to operate in places where a grid source of electricity was not available.



    The activating stimulus as defined by update 2 of Rossi’s patent states that a high voltage (50,000 TO 100,000 VOLTS) electrostatic potential is required to activate the LENR reaction. The knowhow for the generation of this potential using a lithium battery is of interest.





    The high voltage potential generated here is 60 kilovolts. This is right in the sweet spot for Rossi’s stimulus requirement.


    From the theory paper, the voltage that passes through the QuarkX reactor speaks against a spark discharge. The current is what would be expected in glow discharge. The theory paper also speaks about the movement of electrons and ions moving to the positive and negative electrodes. This happens in glow discharge.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glow_discharge


    440px-Glow_discharge_current-voltage_curve_vertical.svg.png


    From what Rossi has described as the configuration of the “fuse” like: QuarkX reactor, the high voltage wires would be connected at each end of the “fuse”. The spark gap requirement would defined the length of the tube to be about a minimum of 2 centimeters for a 50 kv spark gap.

  • One consideration that I feel is important to understand is what PT symmetry violation means with respect to CP symmetry violation. We understand that we can produce PT symmetry breaking using optical mechanisms but can PT symmetry violation somehow generate CP violation which is required to produce the decay of the nucleon (protons and neutrons)?


    From the various descriptions of symmetry in this article:


    https://www.europhysicsnews.or…2016/02/epn2016472p17.pdf


    Space time (PT) Symmetry is only valid in an open system where energy and/or matter can be gained or lost. In a closed system, PT symmetry does not exist since a closed system can neither gain nor lose energy and/or matter. Because LENR requires CP symmetry breaking and CP symmetry breaking requires PT symmetry breaking, LENR can only occur in an open system.

    Open vs. Closed Systems


    Systems can be either open or closed. A closed system is one where a quantity or series of quantities cannot enter or leave the system. For example, a system might be closed to energy, meaning energy might not be able to enter or leave the system. A vacuum thermos flask does a really good job of stopping energy from leaving the system to keep your drink warm. So it might make sense to treat it as a closed system - but no system in the real world is ever perfectly closed, so it will only be an approximation.


    The opposite of a closed system is an open system. An open system is one where a quantity or series of quantities can enter or leave the system to a significant degree. If you pour your hot drink into a mug instead of a vacuum thermos flask, the heat will escape relatively quickly into its surroundings. So a mug is most certainly an open system! Open systems are a lot more complicated to understand than closed systems, and so scientists prefer to work with closed systems when possible. Science usually stays away from open systems because closed systems makes things much simpler to explain and can be a good starting point before trying to explain open systems, too. Quantum mechanics only deals with closed systems.


    Traveling backward in time.


    If you make a movie of yourself throwing a ball, and thread the film backwards, it'll look the same as you catching a ball. So if you want to think of the falling object as being the same as the rising one going backwards in time, the physics will support that statement, but it doesn't sound all that cool. It is, however, the same thing as antimatter being viewed as going backwards in time.


    At the most basic level, the laws of physics are symmetrical: reverse time and they will follow the same route in reverse. Reverse the charge, and things will be attracted where they would have repulsed, and vice versa. Flip them both, and you've flipped it twice, so it's just like you started.

    Since a positron is exactly like an electron, only with the opposite charge, then if you (a) replace an electron with a positron, and (b) reverse time, it behaves exactly like an electron. The physicists call this Charge/Parity (CP) symmetry, where "parity" is actually more like looking at things in a mirror rather than flipping time, but it's the same idea.


    Flipping time is another way of looking at flipping left and right: a left-moving object going forwards in time is just like a right-moving object moving backwards.


    An electron like a ball sitting in the same spot is a closed system. It cannot change into a positron because it is not moving. The motionless ball is a closed system which cannot experience CP symmetry breaking. A moving ball is an open system where its motion can be deemed to have CP symmetry.


    So in an open system that has experienced PT symmetry breaking, LENR occurs because the nucleon undergoes CP symmetry breaking since in this case PT = CP.


    In optics, there are special conditions involving optical cavities that can experience PT symmetry breaking. These cavities can reach out magnetically and become entangled with nucleons via their magnetic projections. This phenomenon is known as the chiral magnetic effect(1) — “chiral” means “distinguishing left from right, When PT symmetry is broken in these entangled open systems of optical cavities and nucleons decay via CP symmetry breaking. The energy of the nucleon decay flows one way into the optical cavity.


    It seems to me that it is central to the understanding of LENR to appreciate the mechanisms of symmetry breaking with regards to nucleons.

    These optical cavities can form is many ways in various types of LENR systems.


    Leif Holmlid has applied fast high electric field and sees meson signal. Leif does not need to apply the very high voltage electrostatic field that Rossi is using as a stimulator. Leif has mentioned in one of his experimental write-ups that even the room lighting in the lab could produce muons.


    It is my guess that the Bose Einstein condensate nature of the ultra-dense hydrogen (UDH) amplifies the effect of the light that the UDH absorbs. Many UDH particles can form a Bose condensate which further gathers and amplifies the effects of light. This conjecture is supported by Keith Fredericks’ observation. He has seen these entangled UDH based particles in LENR ash.


    See

    http://restframe.com/mm/posts/tm/


    All the magic is happening in the spin wave the forms the shell of the UDH including superconductivity. UDH is the optimum LENR platform, but other LENR mechanisms can be produced in optical cavities generated on rough metal surfaces and in between nano and micro particles.


    1 - http://www.preposterousunivers…arks-and-gluons/#comments

  • Traveling backward in time.


    axil : If you ever studied theory of cognition, then you should know that there is no time. Time is just a mathematical simplification of a "physical reality", which in fact is caused by a partial set of ordered events. Thus no backwards travelling in time is ever possible in 3D+T universe.

    Only minimal measurable events have no time, as they are the markers for the so called time.


    Thus if physicists talk of time reversal, then they mean that a very tiny set of minimal events can run in two directions, which can be along the macroscopic time.

  • axil : If you ever studied theory of cognition, then you should know that there is no time. Time is just a mathematical simplification of a "physical reality", which in fact is caused by a partial set of ordered events. Thus no backwards travelling in time is ever possible in 3D+T universe.

    Only minimal measurable events have no time, as they are the markers for the so called time.


    Thus if physicists talk of time reversal, then they mean that a very tiny set of minimal events can run in two directions, which can be along the macroscopic time.



    "If you ever studied theory of cognition".... theory of cognition is not the right apporach to deal with true science, neither is it axils nonsense.

  • LENR in a nutshell

    LENR is an optical based process where light is trapped in a waveform called a soliton. Think of this structure as Nano sized ball lightning. This ball of light can form in many ways: inside ultra-dense hydrogen, on the surface of rough metal surfaces, inside cracks in metal, on nanoparticles and microparticles, between nanoparticles, and in dusty plasma. But critically, this soliton is not active until it is triggered through the electrostatic effects of a stimulating emission.

    When this soliton first form, light rotates around inside the soliton and supports two degenerate propagating-wave modes: clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) waves, manifesting the symmetry of this system. This counter rotation of the light negates any organization of the spin of the light from generating any meaningful magnetic effect.

    But when the symmetry of this counter rotating light is broken by this electrostatic stimulant, like a magnet all spin of the light ceases to interfere with each other and a newly organized super intense magnetic beam projects out of the soliton in an highly organized mode. The soliton then becomes a synthetic analog monopole quasiparticle.

    When this beam of magnetism enters inside protons and neutrons that move into its path, the quarks that make up these protons and neutrons change their type(color) and the protons and neutrons transform into exotic mesons made up of strange and beauty quark types. Energy is also produced in these subatomic particle decays and is feed back into the solitons of light thereby increasing their intensity. In this way, this infusion of incoming subatomic energy allows the soliton to survive for an extended period in a self-sustaining mode while the electrostatic stimulant continues to maintain the organization of the photonic spin.

    Leif Holmlid has been using a laser pulse as the stimulator but yesterday Sveinn Olafsson just told me this: “Leif has applied fast high electric field and sees meson signal”

  • S

    I just have an idea...a belief that I need to express. Please excuse me, so sorry if it scares you.



    scaring ? You are selling absolute nonsense as if there is only one QUANT of it true, as on aclands forum and here all the time. This is nothing scientific. This is nothing but a combined nonsensical rubbish, violating basic rules and laws, posted as "LENR in a nutshell".

    Why Do You continuously post that kind of nonsense and try to sell that as a "even slightest part of being true" ???

    It seems, that ADD syndrom might be the only answer for that.


    THIS CONTENT-FREE POST AND THE AD-HOM GETS YOU BANNED FOR 2 WEEKS. Alan.

  • https://phys.org/news/2017-04-…um-phase-transitions.html


    Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions


    A new and elegant take on Quantum Mechanics has arrived on the scene just in time to help explain how LENR works. With this new tool, dynamic systems are understood to include phase transitions at the extreme limits of their solution sets.


    Dynamic operators that have been only discovered a few years ago are now widely used in quantum optics which is at the heart of the LENR reaction.


    Phase transitions are hot in physics now central to the understanding of the Higgs field, optics with changing indices of refraction, and superconductivity all demonstrate phase transitions and the famous Mexican hat upside down potential that only using the complex number set can properly explain.


    OpticalDiodes_network.jpg

    In this figure, think of the blue optical resonators as the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) with a whispering gallery wave structure. The red toroids are the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.


    In this experimental setup explained by the figure, coupled optical resonators (paired red and blue toroids on little pedestals) are PT symmetry systems. When they are tuned through a “phase transition” light, instead of moving through them in both directions, can only travel one way.

    In LENR terms when a phase transition occurs is the SPP optical resonators, and when a proton decays, the energy of that decay in the form of a Gamma ray can only be absorbed by the SPP. Light energy cannot move from the SPP into the proton.


    We learn from this model that quantum theories need not obey the conventional mathematical condition of Hermiticity so long as they obey the physical geometric condition of space-time-reflection symmetry (PT symmetry).


    PT symmetry challenges a standard convention in physics—the widely held belief that a quantum Hamiltonian must be Hermitian. And, because PT symmetry is a weaker condition than Hermiticity, there are infinitely many Hamiltonians that are PT symmetric but non-Hermitian; we can now study new kinds of quantum theories that would have been rejected in the past as being unphysical. Moreover, PT-symmetric systems exhibit a feature that Hermitian systems cannot; as indicated in the energy levels become complex when energy from outside the system changes in the system.


    The transition from real to complex energies is a key feature of PT-symmetric systems and it is called the PT phase transition. At this transition the system goes from a state of physical equilibrium (called a state of unbroken PT symmetry) to nonequilibrium (broken PT symmetry).


    LENR occurs when PT symmetry is broken in an optical micro cavity.

  • In LENR terms when a phase transition occurs is the SPP opticalresonators, and when a proton decays, the energy of that decay in the form of aGamma ray can only be absorbed by the SPP. Light energy cannot move from theSPP into the proton.


    Hello Axil:

    I believe that you should not talk of proton decay. In LENR cascade reactions the energies available are high enough for spontaneous particle creation. If we see both +- Kaons then the particles were created out of the Dirac see. If we see only one kind then it's decay.

    Holmlid cannot distinguish them(+- Kaons/Pions).

    Muons are resonances of electrons. According to Mills there is no need for a decay to generate a muon. You just need a photon around 100MeV. Would be interesting if LENR could directly produce muons as a kind of “evaporation” of nuclear excess energy!

    I hope CERN will analize Holmlids output!

  • Would be interesting if LENR could directly produce muons as a kind of “evaporation” of nuclear excess energy!


    I believe that particle creation does account for much of the energy catalyzed by LENR. This process is called Hadronization.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadronization


    Quote

    In particle physics, hadronization (or hadronisation) is the process of the formation of hadrons out of quarks and gluons. This occurs after high-energy collisions in a particle collider in which quarks or gluons are created. Due to colour confinement, these cannot exist individually. In the Standard Model they combine with quarks and antiquarks spontaneously created from the vacuum to form hadrons. The QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) of the hadronization process are not yet fully understood, but are modeled and parameterized in a number of phenomenological studies, including the Lund string model and in various long-range QCD approximation schemes


    Holmlid has seen muons produced by activated Ultra dense hydrogen even when the UDH is removed long term from any stimulation by light. The production of these muon decreases over time until the UDH is re energizes through exposure to light. Such pre activated UDH has a shelf life of months. It appears that this UDH can maintain their stored energy content at high efficiency for an extended period of time




    .

  • It appears that this UDH can maintain their stored energy content at high efficiency for an extended period of time


    @ Axil: Nobody so far has explained what happens with a 4He nucleus that has no momentum and just an excess-energy below 20MeV. Electromagnetic radiation is not possible. But a 4D oscillating 4He nucleus will possible introduce a huge disturbance on the electron-environment, which finally may lead to entanglement between multiple metastable 4He.

    This is the second LENR step Gullström is discussing.

  • @ Axil: Nobody so far has explained what happens with a 4He nucleus that has no momentum and just an excess-energy below 20MeV. Electromagnetic radiation is not possible. But a 4D oscillating 4He nucleus will possible introduce a huge disturbance on the electron-environment, which finally may lead to entanglement between multiple metastable 4He.

    This is the second LENR step Gullström is discussing.


    The fusion results that appear in many LENR experiments such as the production of He4, tritium and He3 are a secondary side reaction produced by muon and/or pion catalyzed fusion,


    jiggle.gif

  • The fusion results that appear in many LENR experiments such as the production of He4, tritium and He3 are a secondary side reaction produced by muon and/or pion catalyzed fusion,


    axil : This is definitely wrong. You are to much focussed on Holmlids high-energy fusion, which is by no way proven LENR!


    May be you should show us a formula (= concrete physics!) how inside PtD a muon spontaneously gets created... And don't forget you need twice the energy of a muon..if it's a pair creation event!

  • axil : This is definitely wrong. You are to much focussed on Holmlids high-energy fusion, which is by no way proven LENR!


    May be you should show us a formula (= concrete physics!) how inside PtD a muon spontaneously gets created... And don't forget you need twice the energy of a muon..if it's a pair creation event!


    An experiment suggested as a probe of the nature of the LENR reaction involving the fission of thorium as follows:


    This experiment is based on this one that has been already performed as follows:


    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in
    the presence of Thorium aqua-ions
    A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev


    https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf


    "The resulting average size of Au NPs as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy lies between 10 and 20 nm."


    The addition is to configure this experiment with two double concentric glass chambers with pure water and gold nanoparticles in the inner chamber and one with a thorium salt in solution in water filling the outer chamber but without any nanoparticles inside of it.


    First test the two concentric chambers without nanoparticles added to the inner chamber. Expect to see no transmutation in either the inner or the outer chamber.


    Next test the two concentric chambers with nanoparticles added to the inner chamber. Expect to see transmutation results involving thorium in the outer chamber as was seen in the referenced experiment done by A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev.


    This will show that interaction between light and nanoparticles produce the LENR reaction and that the reaction is carried out at a distance by subatomic particles that can penetrate a glass wall.


    Variations on the wall material: aluminum, iron, stainless steel, lead etc can be carried out if the laser beam enters the inner chamber from an open top of the inner chamber.


    Next, a high voltage spark discharge can replace the laser light that is fired just above the top of the water level on the inner chamber. As a probe of the LENR reaction with gold nanoparticles present, expect to see transmutation results involving thorium in the outer chamber.


    No LENR reactions will be produced without the presence of gold nanoparticles in the inner chamber.

  • Based on the post above, an organized approach to LENR experimentation

    As an aid to LENR developers, a nanoplasmonic based experiment suggested as a probe of the nature of the LENR reaction involving the fission of thorium by muons.


    An organized and scientific approach in testing various combinations of test various materials and temperature ranges involving the LERN reaction can be carried out within the framework of this class of experiment.

    This expanded experiment is based on this already verified experiement that has already been performed as follows:

    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in

    the presence of Thorium aqua-ions

    A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev

    https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

    “The resulting average size of Au NPs as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy lies between 10 and 20 nm.”

    The addition is to configure this experiment with two double concentric glass chambers with pure water and gold nanoparticles in the inner chamber and one with a thorium salt in solution in water filling the outer chamber but without any nanoparticles inside of it.

    First, test the two concentric chambers without nanoparticles added to the inner chamber. Expect to see no transmutation in either the inner or the outer chamber.

    Next, test the two concentric chambers with nanoparticles added to the inner chamber. Expect to see transmutation results involving thorium in the outer chamber as was seen in the referenced experiment done by A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev.

    This will show that interaction between light and nanoparticles produce the LENR reaction and that the reaction is carried out at a distance by subatomic particles that can penetrate a glass wall.

    Variations on the wall material: aluminum, iron, stainless steel, lead etc. can be carried out if the laser beam enters the inner chamber from an open top of the inner chamber.

    Next, a high voltage spark discharge can replace the laser light that is fired just above the top of the water level on the inner chamber. As a probe of the LENR reaction with gold nanoparticles present, expect to see transmutation results involving thorium in the outer chamber.

    No LENR reactions will be produced without the presence of gold nanoparticles in the inner chamber.

    The simplicity of the framework of this experiment lends itself to adding variations to optimize the LENR reaction.

    The optimum matching of material type and light frequency can be determent by changing the size of the nano/micro particles and the light frequency produced by the LASER. Gold, silver, nickel, iron, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, zirconium and so on are material variations.

    Various crystal frequency doublets can be used to change the frequency of the LASER light.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunable_laser

    The efficiency of the wall material as a shielding against muon penetration can also be determined.

    The heat range of the LENR reaction can be probed by replacing water with transparent molten salt (FLiBe) as the nanoparticle support medium. FliBe dissolves thorium.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLiBe


    images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSBePI6Ug_sSFR_u0FABV4cevgEvWNQLQXcFuBHmKzf2QXfU1z9KQ


  • As an aid to LENR developers, a nanoplasmonic based experiment suggested as a probe of the nature of the LENR reaction involving the fission of thorium by muons.


    Axil: I agree that a large part of LENR reaction outcome is based on "muon like" physics. But there is a huge difference between "muon like physics" and "free muons"! Most free muons will escape and the energy is simply lost. You need a massive (some 10 cm) wall of copper to hold muons back.


    The key thought of today is core electron "chemistry". If you pump to much energy (Holmlid) into the outer shell, then the atom has no other choice than promoting The energy to inner orbits. Because on the one side high "J" states are prohibitted by pessure and on the other side, the transition needed to get rid of the extra energy is dominated by the power/energy ratio. The more power the shell electron wants to get rid of the longer it takes!

    Due to momentum conservation of e.g. the laser beam pulse, the main energy release by the nucleus will by high energy EM radiation in direction of the laser pulse!

  • Axil: I agree that a large part of LENR reaction outcome is based on "muon like" physics. But there is a huge difference between "muon like physics" and "free muons"! Most free muons will escape and the energy is simply lost. You need a massive (some 10 cm) wall of copper to hold muons back.


    The key thought of today is core electron "chemistry". If you pump to much energy (Holmlid) into the outer shell, then the atom has no other choice than promoting The energy to inner orbits. Because on the one side high "J" states are prohibitted by pessure and on the other side, the transition needed to get rid of the extra energy is dominated by the power/energy ratio. The more power the shell electron wants to get rid of the longer it takes!

    Due to momentum conservation of e.g. the laser beam pulse, the main energy release by the nucleus will by high energy EM radiation in direction of the laser pulse!


    Superconductive hydride structure contains a spin wave cover instead of orbiting electrons.


    images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQBYACZg1ZF4bStvus5uCkRSvHzc4ZswfdidIjddlCNSraBaP9t


    Spin wave produced by Hole superconductivity


    slide_35.jpg

  • The process by which the proton decays in LENR.


    Some esoteric process is causing the proton to decay in LENR. This process is the root source for the production of energy and sub atomic particles in LENR.


    Whatever is causing the proton to decay into strange matter is a new unrecognized if not unknown process in physics.


    https://phys.org/news/2017-04-…llar-problem-riemann.html


    Thanks about this. I agree. And this Riemann equation is a bulls eye too! Thank you for this hint. It really helps me forward with this;


    https://www.researchgate.net/p…ything_-THE_MATH_07102016


    it also makes more than clear that the anti materie is just bullshit.


    Proton decays to light, and there is nothing strange between, Just muons and other observable stuff.

    - There is NO neutrinos!

    - There is NO mass!


    If you just forget the MeV "mass-energy" countings it all becomes easy and clear and verifiable in the lab.

    As Nothing is missing. It's just never was there.