Simple New 'Differential Calorimetric' Reactor Design.

  • This is Lookingforheat.com's latest reactor upgrade. The two quartz tube 'hot ports' sit in 'class 26' foamed alumina furnace facing bricks, good up to 1500C+. Each heater is fed from a separate and programmable channel by the PSU which can deliver power up to 50Volts in 0.01V increments. Currently the system is undergoing 'Isothermal Calibration' where the temperatures in both (empty) port are very precisely matched and the difference in current required by each one logged. Back to pen and paper for this exercise (and a matched pair of thermocouples and digital thermometers) since there is a bit two much 'tweaking' involved to make a data-logger file clearly readable.

  • From the other thread:




    The above experiment is related to the new setup of the photo in the opening post here.

    Can you expand a bit on how you obtained carbon black from acetylene?


    In some processes acetylene is used to obtain single- or few- layer graphite, i.e. graphene, although generally not of quality suitable for most conventional uses.


    http://www.k-state.edu/media/n…/graphenepatent12517.html


    Quote

    MANHATTAN — Forget catalysts and expensive machinery — a Kansas State University team of physicists has discovered a way to mass-produce graphene with three ingredients: hydrocarbon gas, oxygen and a spark plug.


    Their method is simple: Fill a chamber with acetylene or ethylene gas and oxygen. Use a vehicle spark plug to create a contained detonation. Collect the graphene that forms afterward. [...]


    http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi…=PN/9440857&RS=PN/9440857

  • For simple differential thermometry, consider wiring two thermocouples in series, with the polarity reversed. The output of the series string will then be proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions. It is necessary to use a pair of thermocouples that are closely matched across the entire expected temperature range. as an alternative, the system can be calibrated with the two junctions at the same temperature, so the output vs temperature will give a calibration curve for post-correction of the data.


    For details, see http://www.nutechengineers.com/dtmwt.html

  • magicsound Acetlyene Black (also called 'Gas Black') is made by burning gas -which may be mixed with or replaced entirely by methane or other hydrocarbon gases in a reduced oxygen atmosphere, I'm sure you are familiar with the 'sooty flame' you get if you turn off the Oxy in a welding torch but leave the acetylene on.


    I like your idea about differential temperature measurements btw, very neat and means you could manage with a single channel data logger. And yes, the reactor was built to test the fuel I mentioned above, We'll see how that goes.

  • Above is one of the 3 channel controllers on the PSU- capable (they say) of handling [email protected] Rock steady in operation and the voltage at least compares very closely with my elderly but very accurate Avometer.

  • Alan Smith

    'can' writing. I'm aware that incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons produces soot which can be used as a quick&dirty amorphous carbon source. I'm only saying that some variations of the process can produce higher quality carbon like graphite (e.g. though pyrolysis, which would be called pyrolytic graphite) or even graphene (with the method recently discovered at the KSU as shown in the previous link).


    The latter is interesting in the context of high voltage discharge experiments, although they're not the subject of your upcoming test.

  • The main uncontrolled error I can see here is that the hot port filling, especially if it melts or vaporises, can act as a heat pipe at some temperatures giving much higher thermal conductivity. This will change heat profile and therefore effective thermal resistance.


    It could be reduced by forcing an isothermal wrapper of hot ports: but I'm not sure how you'd do that given the temp range.


    Regards, THH

  • The main uncontrolled error I can see here is that the hot port filling, especially if it melts or vaporises, can act as a heat pipe at some temperatures giving much higher thermal conductivity. This will change heat profile and therefore effective thermal resistance


    What do you mean by 'hot port filling'? The Alumina fuel tubes (not shown) the Quartz port tubes themselves? The Kanthal wire heater coils will usually peg out at around 1400C, everything else is good for much more than that.

  • For simple differential thermometry, consider wiring two thermocouples in series, with the polarity reversed. The output of the series string will then be proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions.

    A pair of thermocouples reverse connected will only be accurate if the temperature difference is zero. The reason for this is that the Seeback coefficient is not a linear function of temperature. So if TC #1 is at 300C and TC #2 at 301C the voltage difference will not be the same as of TC #1 is at 500C and TC#2 is at 501C. Consult the following URL to see how the Seeback coefficient varies with temperature. For a small differential temperature delta a linear assumption may be acceptable.


    https://www.google.com/search? q=J+thermocouple+graph&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjS1b3jmKPTAhVO0GMKHa-UDFUQsAQILQ&biw=1338&bih=847#imgdii=GhM165JLsS8NnM:&imgrc=xhxM153nEHAGXM:

  • What do you mean by 'hot port filling'? The Alumina fuel tubes (not shown) the Quartz port tubes themselves? The Kanthal wire heater coils will usually peg out at around 1400C, everything else is good for much more than that.


    So I mean wherever the active fuel gets put (inside the quartz tubes?). A difference between the active and control tubes - needed to distinguish the two - can also make for a difference in the thermal conductivity change at various temperatures.

  • Th

    So I mean wherever the active fuel gets put (inside the quartz tubes?)


    The active fuel goes into a sealed alumina tube, as does a control sample (an equal weight of iron powder) and that goes one into each port. The reactor system is calibrated to run isothermal and the shape size and weight of the alumina tubes is identical. There is no thermal or electrical connection between ports. So if it is suddenly NOT isothermal, you know something is happening. The attached pictures shows the fuel tube system these it are of the very first system we designed. On Mk 4 now.







  • Well, I ran the new and very carefully prepared fuel today, slowly up to 900C+ on pure DC. Nada, zip, zilch - except the reactor behaves amazingly well, watching the temperature going up totally in sych (plus or minus 2 degrees/channel maximum at any one time) in both completely independent systems and then seeing both settle at precisely 947C was very gratifying, despite the lack of XSH. I can achieve this because of the full calibration test I did earlier - the LH port requires 2W than the LH one at 850+, so it was pre-programmed to get it.


    Total power demand at these temperatures is trivial, around 120W per channel, but at 800C I determined that altering the power input to any channel by 1W shifts the temperature of that channel by around 4C.


    Next test will be with Square-Wave AC, full data-logging and additional fresh hydride(s) current frequency at something like 1kHz.

  • Well, I ran the new and very carefully prepared fuel today, slowly up to 900C+ on pure DC. Nada,


    Maybe you did ultrasonic part wrong? NAE supposed to be near surface but smooth surface is not good..

    You just linked paper that say ultrasonificated (with ultrasound _probe_) nickel powder may take 100000 fold hydrogen, like raney Ni.

    Me365 say "even one liter hydrogen can disappear". I suggest that you got/make probe sonotrode with 1.5kw/50²mm =0,6w/mm² (Suhas) power level (D~11mm @70w) and do 200hrs cavitation erosion for Ni powder (+water and 1-3%KOH)

    http://imajeenyus.com/electron…asonic_driver/index.shtml


    Because:

    --clip--

    https://www.hielscher.com/prob…efficiency-comparison.htm
    Whilst a ultrasonic bath provides a weak sonication with approx. 20-40 W/L
    ultrasonic probe-type devices can easily couple approx. 20.000 W/L

    --/clip--


    It maybe need (water) "hammer" as me365..


    How separated heater project, one for fuel one for LiAlH to controll pressure accurately?


  • eros


    Plenty of maybes. Right now I am just happy that the new reactor is the biggest bang for the least bucks when it comes to looking for XSH. My chief interest at the moment is divided between working on fuel - prep and also EM frequencies. It has taken me a while and cost a deal of cash to get all the ducks in a row, now I'm out hunting.

  • Alan Smith

    Do you stop increasing temperatures at 900°C for any particular reason? If the background idea behind these experiments since you're using LiAlH4 in self-contained tubes is still to replicate Parkhomov, he originally didn't report seeing excess heat below 1000-1050°C (exact thermocouple location not clear), and specifically he wrote that he saw it above 1100 °C. Have a look at this graph made using his data from the attached pdf.




    For what it's worth, last year BEC user on LENR-Forum (Brillouin) reported that excess heat from Lugano/Parkhomov replications starts only at very high temperatures (>1300°C, probably inside the tube), not clear if from internal testing or from others' work - although I don't remember this datapoint from anybody else.

  • Hi Can.


    Actually I ended up at 947C. I can go higher easily, but was reluctant to fry the thermocouples. Really this run was about calibration and learning to handle the equipment. It went very well, as I find I can dial in a power level for any temperature, hit the go button and both ports will go up (or down) in synch to the temperature I wanted, +/- 1 or 2 C at the most. Pretty neat with no thermostats.;) This week I will have the square-wave pseudo AC systems (H-Bridges) between PSU(s) and Reactors and for those it will be worth frying a few TC's - but generally speaking, if anything is going to happen, you see it starting at 7-800C, no need to shoot for the stars too soon.


    Thanks for your input. A.

  • Ok, I see. The impression I got so far from others' observations is that in absence of a direct stimulus aiming for the maximum possible temperature seems to be the way to go, but it's just an impression so far.


    Have you monitored pressure (speaking of which, how was excessive hydrogen from the LiAlH4 bled off) ? Not even transient temperature fluctuations not worth of being called a sign of positive COP been observed in this experiment?

  • No transients, in fact no difference between control and test at all. It may be that dissolving the LiAlH4 in Hexane so that it coated the orther ingredients as it dried denatured it too much. I do have another set up where I can control the hydrogen pressure but haven't used it this time. What's in the tube (which gets flushed with hydrogen before sealing) stays in there. The only thing I do in these type of tests is put a little chip of magnesium right at the bottom of the tube with wadding between it and the fuel proper. This is to mop up any stray oxygen.


    I have a different batch of fuel brewing now, So many more tests planned, this is a simple and fast system.


    Attached is a picture of the steel 'variable pressure' fuel containers in an original Mk1 Reactor. These were sold, but I have another pair that can be used in the current apparatus. They are fitted with silver-brazed 4mm OD gas/vacuum pipes (also stainless) which thanks to the very poor thermal conductivity of stainless steel can be coupled up with high-temperature silicon-rubber tubing. This kind of tubing is ok for pressures between 1mB and 3.0Bar, but for higher pressures could be fitted with suitable connectors for up to 6Bar - 84psi.


    As you can see, the tubes fit into the 'hot cores' of the reactor, where they nudge up against a pair of thermocouples in the heart of the system. There is increased interest in monitoring Hydrogen pressure in fuel tubes, since this can be used to trigger reactions and also as the best indicator of the degree of hydrogen take-up (hydrogen loading) of the fuel.

  • Interesting photo; it's hard to believe that the tubing there would be capable of keeping the hydrogen sealed. (EDIT: I don't mean in a bad way)


    I previously made that question because according to certain theories the formation of compact hydrogen species (for example Hydrino, DDL, UDH, etc. etc.) can be accompanied by short-lived exothermic effects in addition of possibly a decrease in hydrogen pressure (a consequence of the phase transition of the hydrogen atoms). These can be of course also be the result of standard chemical reactions or plain absorption of hydrogen into the Ni powder, but the latter (especially) is supposed to be slightly endothermic and not very deep at pressures near atmospheric.


    Once these species are formed then a suitable impulse or some other sort of excitation would be needed to trigger nuclear reactions within it, but it's possible that (although not directly known if) very high temperatures may be capable of this too.


    So my point is, with all possible caveats, that anomalous short-lived fluctuations in temperature and pressure decrease may be a sign that a more substantial reaction is ready to get triggered. If you're not seeing anything at all then the system is probably inert. In some systems the trigger is also what causes the hydrogen to transition to a more active form, but it's not the case of these tubes, at least if you're only increasing temperatures monotonically.

  • For simple differential thermometry, consider wiring two thermocouples in series, with the polarity reversed. The output of the series string will then be proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions. It is necessary to use a pair of thermocouples that are closely matched across the entire expected temperature range. as an alternative, the system can be calibrated with the two junctions at the same temperature, so the output vs temperature will give a calibration curve for post-correction of the data.


    For details, see http://www.nutechengineers.com/dtmwt.html

    There are at least two ways to get well-matched thermocouples. One is to pay the extra money to get matched pairs from the supplier, and the other is to make your own. Use from wire that came off the same roll, and preferably wire that came off immediately adjacent during unrolling.


    Making your own thermocouples is easy. For wire bigger than about 24 gauge, bare about 1/4 inch of the wire from the insulation. Give the bare wires about 1.5 to 2 full twists. Get your oxy-acetylene torch to a neutral flame and weld the wires into a bead. For small gauge wires, it takes less than one second, so slowly pass the wire through the flame without stopping. It takes some practice, but practice only uses about 1 cm per try.


    For wire smaller than about 20 gauge, I have had excellent success with a Variac (at least 5 amp rating). Run one of the Variac leads to a scratch pad. The scratch pad is a steel or copper or stainless steel plate about 5 cm X 5 cm X .3 cm thick with a hole drilled or tapped for the Variac lead. Bare and twist both ends of the thermocouple wires. Attach the other Variac lead to one end of the thermocouple (alligator clips work for this), and physically scratch the other end of the wires across the scratch pad. Try it several times and you will get a good feeling for the correct Variac setting for each size thermocouple wire. Attach a piece of tape as a pointer for each wire size. I have made good thermocouples with wire as small as 40 gauge with this technique. This might work with a voltage regulated power supply, but I have never tried it.


    Now go pat yourself on the back for saving money compared to buying pre-made thermocouples, but of course you have to have the acetylene torch and/or Variac. I've only made type K thermocouples this way, so I can't speak for the ability to make other types.

    Dan

  • The post above shows the two-channel H-Bridges in position, and the scope trace from the output of one channel. Nice clean square-wave AC 720-730 Hz, [email protected] per channel, channel temperatures matched to +/- 1C after 60 minutes from cold (849, 851C).


    I am going to have to reduce the number of turns or change to thicker wire for the heaters, btw, since while I have plenty of headroom to increase the current - the H Bridge will handle up to 10A - the max voltage into the H-Bridge is 25. And as you can see from the figures above, circa 120W per channel only gets me to 850C.

  • Alan, unless you are using some kind of temporal-expansion probes, it looks like your switching frequency is actually 724 Hz, not 724 kHz.


    In terms of B-field induction effects, the edge rate is what really matters, not the switching frequency.

  • That's correct, thanks for pointing it out. A typo I will amend :( . As you see btw, nice clean waveform good dV/Dt.

    Alan,


    As I understand it you want to investigate whether varying magnetic fields have some affect on your reaction rate.


    Two things:

    You'd expect the magnitude of such an effect to be prorpotional to the switching frequency, on the grounds that edges are additive. You can always propose more complex mechanisms where some metastable active state is enabled by an edge, but that must be less likely.


    Since this is hypothesised to be dB/dt related it must matter how fast is your edge, and you should characterise this to know what range of frequencies you are using. For that you probably need a scope trace some 100 X expanded...


    Finally - you seem to have a nicely engineered system which can be very sensitive. I'm wondering about the use of iron (if I remember rightly) as your control once you start introducing magnetic fields. The iron will interact significantly with the field. A non-ferromagnetic material would be better - even better still would be an insulator.


    Regards, THH

  • THHuxleynew


    Thank you for your input. I have always considered the importance of using materials with matched ferromagnetism. To that end I have controls based on equivalent weights of both plain Ni and Fe, powders sans hydrogen, of course. What would be the benefit of using a non-ferromagnetic material. as a control? I am not sure I understand that.


    As for the expanded scope traces, been there done that. :) Rising edge amazingly clean and vertical which is I suspect assisted by the relatively low capacitance/inductance of the heater coils and the fuel-tube combination. I think I will need to see what happens to the rising edge when I put the -obviously more inductive - steel tube fuel-holders in place in the cores.