The possible theory of LENR (the reaction goes in a narrow temperature range)

  • A model is proposed that explains LENR in nanocrystals. We should expect "flares" of the neutron yield (or, more accurately, the reaction events) in a certain narrow temperature range, the evaluation is performed in the work. The experiment is to heat the powder and slowly cool, while keeping track of the "flashes". Please criticize.

  • Quote

    We emphasize that the temperature in our case is a measure of the kinetic energy,

    which is the same for all nuclei. Actually, the kinetic energy is different, it is possible to make it

    approximately the same by external action (for example, laser radiation).


    I agree with this sentence in the above essay summarising the relationship between temperature and nucleon kinetic energy.


    I'm going to hypothetically accept (without necessarily agreeing with) the rest of the argument in the essay, and explore the effect of this one sentence.


    The thesis in this essay however assumes constant nuclei energy, and hence laser excitation of nuclei, and synchronous movement. In that case, kinetic energy does not correspond to temperature and the kinetic energy of the nucleons cannot be predicted from the system temperature. Basically, heat is not used to provide this energy (that would be too random) but lasers. In that case, the conclusion that LENR reactions occur only within a narrow band of temperatures is just wrong. Also, even if we change this to mean LENR reactions occur only within a narrow band of laser excitation amplitudes, that thesis will work only if the laser energy is much higher than the typical Planck thermal energy.

  • The thesis in this essay however assumes constant nuclei energy,


    I don t assume constant nuclei energy but assume Maxwell energy distribution of nucklei. thus we have the PART jf nucklei with necessary energies (evaluation of this part- coeff dT/T )

  • In that case, the conclusion that LENR reactions occur only within a narrow band of temperatures is just wrong. Also, even if we change this to mean LENR reactions occur only within a narrow band of laser excitation amplitudes, that thesis will work only if the laser energy is much higher than the typical Planck thermal energy.


    agreed. that s why I write about temperature/kinetcic energy . if we use laser- we ljn t say about temperature

  • In that case, the conclusion that LENR reactions occur only within a narrow band of temperatures is just wrong.


    Astonishingly the original sentence might be correct!


    But the reference to temperature - as the gneral reason - is wrong for large nuclei. It's correct for Lithium and some lighter nuclei.


    Just one hint: Resonances are very selective to "temperature"!

  • Astonishingly the original sentence might be correct!


    But the reference to temperature - as the gneral reason - is wrong for large nuclei. It's correct for Lithium and some lighter nuclei.


    Just one hint: Resonances are very selective to "temperature"!

    yes they are selective but due to the DISTRIBUTION of energy (in my article- Maxwell ) we have some nuclei with appropriate energy

  • yes they are selective but due to the DISTRIBUTION of energy (in my article- Maxwell ) we have some nuclei with appropriate energy


    guron17 : This is a nice start: I will motivate you to dig deeper.


    First: There were many papers about lattice enhanced fusion probability. How do you compare your solution with the older ones?


    To go on: Regarding my comment (post) above, if you introduce an additional potential of stimulation then you can "wind up" the inter-nuclear vibration of a cavity bound D2 in p2 state. (see Cold nuclear fusion development E.N. Tsyganov March 2017 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2017.03.158)


    The problem is that temperature is more or less isotropic, but one would like the stimulation to occur along/orthogonal! to the main (D-D) axes. The critical radius of two 2pm corresponds roughly to 1keV, what is close to the kinetic reaction energy needed for D-D fusion.

    The second problem is that at 2 pm you need a “long” contact, thus no scattering is preferred. A solution to overcome these constraints is energy transport by Alfven sheer waves.

    Thus my recommendation as a next step: Just assume you see a plasma. Assume an electrical potential in the p orbit axes and calculate the plasma-frequency needed (to drive the Alfven sheer wave) from the given lattice constants.



  • The problem is that temperature is more or less isotropic, but one would like the stimulation to occur along/orthogonal! to the main (D-D) axes. - again the same / temperature is isotropic but SOME nuclei move along necessary directions (quasi- one dimentional system) I fulfill the evaluation.



    The critical radius of two 2pm corresponds roughly to 1keV, what is close to the kinetic reaction energy needed for D-D fusion.- so... we have possbility of the reaction due to the QUANTUM system properties. nobody knows why quantum mechanica is correct.



    Thus my recommendation as a next step: Just assume you see a plasma. Assume an electrical potential in the p orbit axes and calculate the plasma-frequency needed (to drive the Alfven sheer wave) from the given lattice constants. we treat nuclei as gas in the article for evaluation of amount of reaction acts- but gas of NEUTRAL particles due to quantum effects I decide equation no more

  • The Lipinski fusion runs in twenty degrees of centigrade range only... The truly nuclear mechanism cannot be such a sensitive - it's evident, that its trigger is in lattice vibrations.

    one need define- what is truly nuclear mechanism. I don t use truly nuclear mechanism- only quantum model for nuclei. if nuclei collide- we have reaction (assumption!). lattice vibrations are quantum and are decison of quantum equations TOO.

  • How would this theory explain pure isotopic Ni62 transmutation as occurred in the Lufano experiment? How does this experiment explain the golden ball experiment by Cravens where the temperure difference between the dummy and the active system was a few degrees at 80C? How does this theory explain the Russian plasma reactor that operates at 7000C?


    What system did the theorist have in mind when this theory was formulated?


    It is well known and generally accepted that the LENR reaction must be triggered by a shock. For example, Rossi uses an electrostatic field. Defkalion used a spark. Holmlid uses a laser pulse. Piantelli uses a lot of things.

  • Sorry - I finally managed to get time for reading the article of yours finally - and what I can tell, it's actually very good, as it points to the low-dimensionality of nuclei collisions as the key of effective activation energy breaking during cold fusion. It actually formalizes many insights which I spread here before some time. So you have my full blessing in this matter. We can just discuss, how much the quantum mechanics gets actually involved in this mechanism. It can be both smaller, both wider extent.


    The smaller extent follows from fact, that the similar result (attenuation of energy of during collinear collisions) can be derived in solely classical way (like the Mossbauer-Astroblaster lattice effect based on amplification of momentum). The proposals of yours also neglects another phenomena, like the electron screening. It would mean, that the classical geometry is the key, not the quantum mechanics.


    But the same can be said in opposite way: in my theory the quantum mechanical effects (like the entanglement) get significantly pronounced during collinear arrangement of massive bodies (dark matter phenomena, essentially the analogy of Allais effect at short distance scales) and they will decrease the activation energy barrier too (by making vacuum more dense and the Coulombic forces less prominent at the connection line of atom nuclei). Quite recently these effects were just revealed in form of so-called Hungarian boson, which manifest itself during interactions of anomalous heavily elongated atom nuclei.



    Therefore the temperature dependence may be more complex and it can exhibit multiple peaks of cold fusion yield at the energy spectrum. But your article is very good 1st order approximation of it. I'd even say, it's fundamental article for future cold fusion theory, because it explains it from first principles without assumption of ad-hoced concepts (like the Widom-Larsen's theory does: heavy electrons, slow neutrons). I mean, these concepts still have a good meaning in my understanding of cold fusion - nevertheless they should be derived from deeper underlying principles, not just assumed and guessed.

  • How would this theory explain pure isotopic Ni62 transmutation as occurred in the Lufano experiment? How does this experiment explain the golden ball experiment by Cravens where the temperure difference between the dummy and the active system was a few degrees at 80C? How does this theory explain the Russian plasma reactor that operates at 7000C?


    What system did the theorist have in mind when this theory was formulated?


    the system which consists of nanocrystalls of deuteride lithium. for any other systems one need develope another models although qualitative interpretation probably takes place (reaction in the RANGE of temperature)

  • Quote

    How would this theory explain pure isotopic Ni62 transmutation as occurred in the Lufano experiment?


    Note that 1D collisions aren't subject of cold fusion lattice systems only - the behavior of superconductors also depends on linear arrangement of electrons - charge waves which can propagate along hole stripes only. This is because the attenuation of momentum is sensitive to the particle masses involved in these interactions. Intuitively we can imagine it like the collisions inside the famous Newton cradle - this cradle couldn't work well, if every ball in it would have different mass. This effect makes the superconductors sensitive to the isotopic effect in similar way, like the cold fusion systems.


    Quote

    What system did the theorist have in mind when this theory was formulated?


    A long line of deuterons, as the article implies clearly. Of course it's idealized system, with no foreign atoms (nickel, etc.) - but it illustrates well the basic principle - the sensitivity of effective Coulomb potential to geometry of atom nuclei arrangement. The people working with hot fusion theory (Lawson and other) never considered this arrangement, because they always had random fuzzy plasma on mind, where such a special arrangement is impossible to maintain.


    Quote

    How does this theory explain the Russian plasma reactor that operates at 7000C?


    In no way, because it operates with single lone deuterons only, not with whole atoms (where electron screening applies), not to say atom lattices of mixed atoms or even larger particles (plasma). But at the case of Russian plasma reactor the temperature of plasma is actually less relevant - what matters there is the effective temperature of particles, which are in equilibrium with it. These particles cannot be such hot, or they would evaporate itself. But they act like the miniature anvils, which are smashing deuterons between them during their mutual collisions. The effective temperature of these collisions can get quite high during it - it just occurs in brief intervals of time. In this case the geometry of collisions isn't the main factor of cold fusion, but the disproportionality between masses of colliding particles.


    Quote
    How does this experiment explain the golden ball experiment by Cravens where the temperure difference between the dummy and the active system was a few degrees at 80C?

    This is not the temperature difference, which this theory explains. The above theory explains the prominent increase of rate of cold fusion with increasing temperature. The Cravens ball experiment would probably run even at different temperatures well, just the temperature difference observed would differ and this difference would depend on intensity of cooling/temperature balancing inside the system (Craven did use aluminum beads for good temperature leveling).

  • Quote

    he system which consists of nanocrystalls of deuteride lithium. for any other systems one need develope another models although qualitative interpretation probably takes place (reaction in the RANGE of temperature)

    I though that deuteride lithium was forbidden for common use by the nuclear authorities because it is a key to a functioning hydrogen bomb.


    http://www.atomicarchive.com/Fusion/Fusion2.shtml



  • Thank You for Your opinion and attention )))

  • How come LENR also works with protium and nuckel? No fusion is possible there.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…0%93proton_chain_reaction


    In general, proton–proton fusion can occur only if the kinetic energy (i.e. temperature) of the protons is high enough to overcome their mutual electrostatic or Coulomb repulsion.[2]


    In the Sun, deuterium-producing events are rare. Diprotons are the much more common result of proton-proton reactions within the star, and diprotons almost immediately decay back into two protons. Since the conversion of hydrogen to helium is slow, the complete conversion of the hydrogen in the core of Earth's Sun is calculated to take more than 1010 (ten billion) years



  • see evaluation in the article. proton dimensions are much more less then deutron( near 3). thus an amount of reaction acts must be less (near 10). but!- in this case I agree- jne need usr models of nuclei interaction.

  • Please note that the low dimensionality of low energy nuclear reactions not only makes them sensitive/selective to the original nuclides, but also to nuclides produced. During cold fusion reactions the thermodynamically more equilibrial nuclides are produced (He4 instead of He3 like at the case of cold fusion). This is just because during slower collisions this equilibrium has more time for to establish itself. This brings the cold fusion even more advantage, because it decreases amount of neutron fragments and as such it increases the thermal yield of fusion reaction. This is because fusion is draining heat from merging (decreasing surface/volume ratio) of atom nuclei - every particle-like fragment (like the neutron or muon) would decrease the overall energy yield. Not to say, these fragments would make the cold fusion reactor radioactive in the same way, like during hot fusion. From this perspective, the muon formation doesn't belong into mechanism of cold fusion - it's the unwanted hot fusion byproduct of it instead and it should be avoided.

  • Quote

    How come LENR also works with protium and nuckel? No fusion is possible there.



    Yes, the proton dimension is much smaller than the deuterium - but the nickel atom nuclei are much larger instead, which balances this effect. What we know from Piantelli experiments is, the deuterium fusion runs with nickel as easily as with protium, but not in mixtures (just the excess of 5% of deuterium reportedly kills the reaction with protium). IMO it has something to do with isotopic effect again - the lattice vibrations can propagate and attenuate at distance only when all its members have the same mass. Every foreign atom in line of colliding atoms would be the source of scattering of charge wave. I presume, the same effect could be also derived from ab-initio quantum calculations. Note also, that at the case of lithium - deuterium fusion the isotopic effect is much more pronounced (all atoms have lower mass) and the reaction doesn't run with protium, because the lithium nuclei are also quite small. Intuitively we can understand it with merging of mercury droplets: the smaller these droplets are, the more they resist their merging. The nickel nuclei therefore serve as a catalyst of fusion not because of screening effect of their electrons, but also by their compactness and large size. In particular the 62-Ni is the nuclei with the highest binding energy per nucleon of any known nuclide (8.7945 MeV), which makes its surface smooth and compact (free of halo neutrons protruding from it) - which promotes the fusion of small atom nuclei which are just waiting for large flat surfaces which they could merge with.

  • some notes. possibility or impossibility of reaction depends upon structure of laiice in space. we must have quasi- one-dimentional structure (one can decide corresponding equations for example for one dimentions structure De(untron)- Li- De or De- any nuclei- De or De- P or P-Li- P but quasi one dimentional structure must take place. I deal with structure De- De - De in the article.

  • The Lipinski fusion runs in twenty degrees of centigrade range only... The truly nuclear mechanism cannot be such a sensitive - it's evident, that its trigger is in lattice vibrations.


    Zephir_AWT : I extensively studied the Lipinski setup. They see the most intense result at 100eV, what is close the optimum of 98eV. In the case of the Li-disk experiment they generate a surface plasma, where the vertical (the LENR reaction dimension is along the proton beam) axes forces are amplified by a sheer Alfen wave.

    One outcome of their experiment is that in fact we see Li-H* fusion going over intermediate 8Li!!

  • Wyttenbach Thank You for your info. How the optimum 98eV has been derived/determined? The energy threshold reported in original Minari's experiments was higher, about 300 eVolts and asymptotic, i.e. with no optimum.


    Zephir_AWT : According to Mills the inner two S-electrons of Lithium are paired = entangled. They react (in a first order approach) as a single obejct to EM perturbation. Thus 98V is just the average bond energy they share. But there is some good reason to belive that it is 5 V less (93eV) if the perturbation of the S2 orbit is counted in.


    There is an urgent call to be made, that somebody repeats the Lipinski Lithium disk experiment. This experiment will explain everything about LENR!


    (The COP - calculated, but wrong according to my understanding - is over 3000 at 100eV average proton energy !)