Clearance Items

  • I use a type of tesla coil attempting to start them.

    Its like a lead acid battery but with salt water- Capacitor running a Tesla coil all in one.

    it should recharge like a battery ect,

    I will post it when I get done another project needed done first.


    Its unlikely we can do anything with it until other things are under control.


    this unit is the only one that I know can do it..

    Its a bitch to build with the coils in place.ect..

    waiting for the weather ..

  • As they ...

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  • Today's world needs to change

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  • I was at all conferences with 13 ICCF in Sochi, except for the American ones, and this time they didn't give me a visa again

  • Taking stock: a meta-analysis of studies on the media’s coverage of science

    Mike S. Schäfer

    Abstract

    The presentation of science in the mass media is one of the most important questions facing social scientists who analyse science. Accordingly, media coverage of science has been a constant focal point in the respective literature, and a flurry of such publications has appeared in the past few years. Yet the activity and growth of the respective research have not been accompanied by systematic overviews. This article aims to provide such an overview by means of a meta-analysis: it analyses existing studies systematically and provides an empirical overview of the literature. The analysis shows that while the research field grew significantly in the past few years and employs a variety of research strategies and methods, it has been biased in three ways: mainly natural sciences (and namely biosciences and medicine), Western countries, and print media have been analyzed.


    Fleischmann, Martin (2002). "Searching for the consequences of many-body effects in condensed phase systems". Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press. ISBN 7-302-06489-X.

    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Fleischmansearchingf.pdf


    Fleischmann, Martin (2003).

    Cambridge, MA: World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 978-9812565648

    This paper was presented at the 10th International Conference on Cold Fusion. It may be different from the version published by World Scientific, Inc (2003) in the official Proceedings of the conference.


    ABSTRACT

    Some of the background work which led to the decision to investigate the behaviour of D+ electrochemically compressed into Pd host lattices is outlined.The key features of such “Cold Fusion” systems are described.


    1. BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH ON COLD FUSION


    It appears to me that most scientists have the impression that my colleague Stanley Pons and I decided one day in late 1983 to go into the laboratory and to carry out the experiment best described by the statement,


    “Gee-whiz, let’s go in the lab and charge some Pd cathodes with D+ and see what happens”.


    It is, of course, perfectly true that this is what happened. However, the conclusion that this was an isolated example is incorrect as has been realised by a relatively small number of research workers (among whom I would number pre-eminently the late Giuliano Preparata and his colleague Emilio Del Giudice).


    In fact, the decision to investigate the Pd/D system was preceded by a long period during which I asked the question:


    “is it possible to develop electrochemical experiments which demonstrate the need to interpret the behaviour of condensed matter in terms of the Q.E.D.paradigm?”



    "Background to Cold Fusion: the Genesis of a Concept" M. Fleischmann

    Bury Lodge, Duck Street, Tisbury, Salisbury, Wilts., SP3 6LJ, U.K.

    Source LENR CAN
    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Fleischmanbackground.pdf


    Quote

    The scheme of research which led to the start-up of the project now known as “Cold Fusion” is illustrated by Fig. 1.


    We note that it is commonly believed that there is absolutely no way of influencing

    Nuclear Processes by Chemical means:


    therefore, any results that demonstrate

    that this might be possible must be due to faulty experimentation, delusion, fraud etc.


    However, any enquiry as to the experimental foundation of the first statement in Fig. 1 is normally met by

    the response:


    “because quantum mechanics, Q.M., shows that this is so”.


    We are driven to the conclusion that this first statement is just part of the belief-system of Natural Scientists and we naturally also have to ask the question;


    “what conclusion would we draw if we subject the statement to the dictates of Field Theory?”


    In the 1960’s we started a series of research projects aimed at answering the Question;


    “can we find illustrations in Chemistry (especially Electrochemistry) of the need to invoke the Q.E.D. paradigm to explain the results obtained?” -endquotes

  • There's a number of other wonderful parallels in this paper, so I encourage others to read it. To me, the battle over plate tectonics teaches us a valuable lesson: If we want LENR to become mainstream, we need to get LENR into school curricula.

    Try making it a predictive theory first?


    Unless you want us to teach magic. Fun, but maybe not the right thing.

  • Hey Yo THHuxleynew


    oaioai:http://www.ideals.illinois.edu:2142/100997

    Investigation of a space propulsion concept using inertial electrostatic confinement

    Drew Ahern 30 April 2018

    Abstract

    This thesis discusses the Helicon Injected Inertial Plasma Electrostatic Rocket (HIIPER), a space propulsion concept consisting of a helicon source for plasma generation and an ion extraction method using a nested pair of inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) grids that are asymmetrically designed. In this study, which used argon as a propellant, a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) was used to measure the exhaust of HIIPER, and results showed the presence of electrons and ions, with ion energies equal to the helicon bias voltage and electron energies on the order of the inner IEC grid voltage. Electron energy distributions were also generated. Quasineutral exhaust conditions were measured to occur with the inner IEC grid between 2 and 3 kV (negative). Tests on the IEC grid configuration were also performed, which indicated that electrons preferentially exited the asymmetry of the inner IEC grid. Langmuir probe measurements showed that some ion losses occurred due to the experimental setup. These losses were reflected in thrust measurements at the exhaust of only a few micronewtons. However, with improvements to the facilities and experimental setup, improvements in thruster efficiency would likely be obtained. While additional analysis would be required to fully characterize HIIPER, the results thus far show promising quasineutral behavior and demonstrate an innovative cathode design for electric propulsion applications

    Thesis text electric propulsion, inertial electrostatic confinement

    Similar works

    Development and characterization of an inertial electrostatic confinement thruster

    Krishnamurthy Akshata30/11/2012


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    This present work is focused on the development of an IEC thruster based on the jet mode of operation. Discharge characteristics of the IEC jet mode were studied. Current, thermal power, thermal efficiency and thrust measurements were obtained. As an addition, helicon plasma injection into the IEC was studied, and based on findings suitable recommendations for the development of the helicon-injected IEC thruster were proposed

    Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship Repository

    Analysis of energy balance in a helicon coupled to an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    Chen George30/11/2013


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    The characteristics of the helicon plasma injection into the IEC were explored. The first such analysis was a COMSOL simulation to determine the voltage as a function of position in the helicon dielectric tube when the IEC cathode is biased to several kilovolts. This COMSOL simulation contained no plasma and a ~20 V drop in the helicon dielectric tube was determined. To build upon this COMSOL model which contained no plasma, calculations of the theoretical ion flow rates were performed. These calculations used the measured ion current to determine the ionization fraction. Using the ionization fraction as an input into the zero dimensional model an electron temperature was obtained. With the electron temperature, collision and sheath/presheath properties can be determined. Finally entering the collision and presheath/sheath properties into a diffusion equation yields an ion flow rate that was on the same order of magnitude as the measured ion flow rate (~1016 s-1). The similarity between the theoretical calculations with the measured values verified some of the assumptions made in the theoretical calculations. Such assumptions include approximating the voltage drop in the presheath, which includes the length of the helicon dielectric tube, as on the order of the electron temperature ~2.85 eV. This assumption was based on the literature and showed that effects such as Debye shielding play a large role in screening out large cathode biases. So increasing the cathode grid bias does not necessary increase the ion flow rate significantly

    Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship Repository

    Comparative simulations of conceptual ion extractors for use in asymmetric inertial electrostatic confinement

    Keutelian Paul30/11/2013


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    Many deep space propulsion missions currently use ballistic trajectories to reach their destinations. To reduce the times of flight, electric or plasma based propulsion systems are used. While Hall Effect thrusters are the general standard for plasma propulsion, new technologies can enable shorter travel times. The Helicon Injected Inertial Plasma Electrostatic Rocket (HIIPER) is an attempt to create a new type of robust plasma propulsion solution and is the predecessor to a propulsion and power plant hybrid device, integrating two systems on a vessel to one. Using an asymmetric Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device as the plasma accelerator stage of HIIPER, plasma must escape the IEC in order to generate thrust or collect power by means of direct energy conversion. To that end, a simulation was designed and run developing the first step of a series of simulations to characterize and rapidly develop HIIPER. This simulation is built in COMSOL Multiphysics and investigates different methods of extracting ions from an IEC using a variety of electrostatic fields at the asymmetry of the IEC to characterize which types of fields result in the highest momentum transfer. The IEC is set to an 8 kV bias with the charged elements of extractors set to 6 kV. The outer shell and exit sampling domain is set to ground potential. Ions are introduced into the IEC perpendicular to the exit channel, reflecting similar conditions in the actual HIIPER experiment. Ions are introduced at 2 eV to characterize the IEC’s performance. Seven cases are studied using conceptual and actual ion extraction and focusing devices and it is discovered that using a quadruple helix extractor, two ground helices opposite each other perpendicular to two charged helices opposite each other, produces the highest relative momentum of all the cases at 2.36 times the momentum achieved by using an asymmetric IEC without any plasma extraction device. The focusing qualities of each device and the exit velocities of the ions are also computed. With this solution, further studies in the experimental phase are possible, as well as being the first step for developing ion-electron interaction simulations, which will be used to compare and verify plasma finite element simulations also in work using COMSOL with the goal of developing simulation tools that can be used to more rapidly iterate the design and progress of HIIPER. It may also be possible to use these results in other electrostatic plasma systems where magnetic fields may be undesirable as a means of focusing and extracting plasmas

    Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship Repository

    Experimental and numerical validation of ion extractor grids

    Bercovici Benjamin30/11/2014


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    The experimental plasma thruster named the Helicon Injected Inertial Plasma Electrostatic Rocket (HIIPER) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) is currently being investigated. HIIPER features an Inertial Electrostatic Con nement (IEC) grid that is made asymmetrical by cutting out several wires to enlarge one of the openings in the spherical grid. When fed with a non-fusing gas such as argon, HIIPER operates in a mode where a very sharp plasma beam forms and exits the system through the IEC's asymmetry, thus allowing the existence of a net non-zero momentum. Such an operating mode is called "Jet-Mode". However, it was demonstrated that the exiting plasma beam is mostly dominated by electrons, as opposed to ions. Since electrons carry a very small momentum due to their light mass, an asymmetrical IEC producing an electron-dominated beam is not a viable propulsion device. In order to provide a greater thrust when the IEC is operating in the Jet-Mode, heavier particles such as neutralized ions must exit through the beam. This thesis focuses on the validation of so-called extractor grids, which are electrostatic components that can alter the potential pro le inside the system, and therefore enable the escape of heavier particles towards the preferred exit direction that would otherwise be trapped inside the system. The validation process mentioned before was two-fold: rst, a 2D, axisymmetric, electrostatic Particle-In-Cell code was developed in order to benchmark the di erent extractor grid designs and select those which performed the best at ion extraction. In particular, it was demonstrated that some speci c parameters have a favorable e ect on particle extraction. Second, an experimental campaign consisting in the testing of the extractor grids designs, as well as improving the experimental set-up, was carried out. Conclusions were then drawn on the capacity of HIIPER to act as a space thruster, once augmented with extractor grids. Based on the result of this work, suggestions for future research are made

    Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship Repository

    Formation and extraction of a dense plasma jet from a helicon-plasma-injected inertial electrostatic confinement device

    Ulmen Benjamin30/11/2013


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    An inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device has several pressure and grid-geometry dependent modes of operation for the confinement of plasma. Although the symmetric grid star-mode is the most often studied for its application to fusion, the asymmetric grid jet-mode has its own potential application for electric space propulsion. The jet-mode gets its name from the characteristic bright plasma jet emanating from the central grid. In this dissertation work, a full study was undertaken to provide an understanding on the formation and propagation of the IEC plasma jet-mode. The IEC device vacuum system and all diagnostics were custom assembled during this work. Four diagnostics were used to measure different aspects of the jet. A spherical plasma probe was used to explore the coupling of an external helicon plasma source to the IEC device. The plasma current in the jet was measured by a combination of a Faraday cup and a gridded energy analyzer (GEA). The Faraday cup also included a temperature sensor for collection of thermal power measurements used to compute the efficiency of the IEC device in coupling power into the jet. The GEA allowed for measurement of the electron energy spectra. The force provided by the plasma jet was measured using a piezoelectric force sensor. Each of these measurements provided an important window into the nature of the plasma jet. COMSOL simulations provided additional evidence needed to create a model to explain the formation of the jet. It will be shown that the jet consists of a high energy electron beam having a peak energy of approximately half of the full grid potential. It is born near the aperture of the grid as a result of the escaping core electrons. Several other attributes of the plasma jet will be presented as well as a way forward to utilizing this device and operational mode for future plasma space propulsion

    Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship Repository

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  • teach magic

    Right


    You should have your own thread.


    Learn about magic


    Condensed Matter Nuclear Science


    References

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    II, C.E., “Fast Neutron Spectroscopy With Organic Scintillation Detectors in a High-Radiation Environment”, NASA/TM-20205008493 (2021)

    [DECH15] DeChiaro, L. F., Forsley, L.P. , Mosier-Boss, P.A.. “Strained Layer Ferromagnetism in Transition Metals and its Impact Upon Low Energy Nuclear Reactions”, J. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, 17, (2015) 1-26.

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    S.D., Schifer, N.A., Chaiken, M.F., and Lugasy, N., “Heat Transport and Power Conversion of the Kilopower Reactor Test”, Nuclear Technology, 206: sup 1, (2020) 31-42.

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    383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3628420

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