Clearance Items

  • He has published 7 papers as far as I know. The most recent one was in 2000. See:


    https://lenr-canr.org/wordpress/?page_id=1081


    Hi Jed. I hadn't appreciated that your database is so user friendly. It's terrific!


    Among the Russ George publications ... what is the nature of the ones that do not have links? They also do not show have citation information. I am thinking of the ones between 1995-97 with record numbers 1362, 1363, and 1341.

  • If anyone is still interested, I am continuing the discussion of blood testing from a drop of blood and Theranos here. The claim by one or more posters was that there are ways to do hundreds or thousands of tests on a drop of blood. As I responded, that is true but sort of trivial. These are not every day clinical laboratory tests but rather immunoassays or DNA SNIP identifications. See for example: https://medicalfuturist.com/wh…blood-testing-stand-today and https://www.genalyte.com/6-blo…g-startups-next-theranos/


    The multi billion dollar prize will go to whoever is the first to perform on a single drop of blood the actual tests used to evaluate health in a clinical laboratory setting. According to Scripps Health, these would include (in no particular order):



    Comprehensive metabolic panel (see below)

    Vitamin D 25-Hydroxy,

    TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) test

    Complete blood count (CBC)

    HbA1C (blood sugar)

    Occult blood in stool and urinalysis

    HDL and LDL levels

    High sensitivity C-reactive protein

    NMR Lipoprotein testing (advanced cholesterol test)

    Prostate specific antigen – PSA (men)

    ----------

    The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a frequently ordered panel of 14 tests that gives a healthcare provider important information about the current status of a person's metabolism, including the health of the kidneys and liver, electrolyte and acid/base balance as well as levels of blood glucose and blood proteins. Abnormal results, and especially combinations of abnormal results, can indicate a problem that needs to be addressed.


    The CMP includes the following tests:


    Glucose - energy source for the body; a steady supply must be available for use, and a relatively constant level of glucose must be maintained in the blood.

    Calcium - one of the most important minerals in the body; it is essential for the proper functioning of muscles, nerves, and the heart and is required in blood clotting and in the formation of bones.

    Proteins


    Albumin - a small protein produced in the liver; the major protein in serum

    Total Protein - measures albumin as well as all other proteins in serum

    Electrolytes


    Sodium - vital to normal body processes, including nerve and muscle function

    Potassium - vital to cell metabolism and muscle function

    CO2 (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate) - helps to maintain the body's acid-base balance (pH)

    Chloride - helps to regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance

    Kidney Tests


    BUN (blood urea nitrogen) - waste product filtered out of the blood by the kidneys; conditions that affect the kidney have the potential to affect the amount of urea in the blood.

    Creatinine - waste product produced in the muscles; it is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys so blood levels are a good indication of how well the kidneys are working.

    Liver Tests


    ALP (alkaline phosphatase) - enzyme found in the liver and other tissues, bone; elevated levels of ALP in the blood are most commonly caused by liver disease or bone disorders.

    ALT (alanine amino transferase, also called SGPT) - enzyme found mostly in the cells of the liver and kidney; a useful test for detecting liver damage

    AST (aspartate amino transferase, also called SGOT) - enzyme found especially in cells in the heart and liver; also a useful test for detecting liver damage

    Bilirubin - waste product produced by the liver as it breaks down and recycles aged red blood cells


    https://labtestsonline.org/tes…nsive-metabolic-panel-cmp


    The above are the tests in common use world wide in clinical labs. If you know of a company contemplating making a machine which can perform a worthwhile subset of these on a drop of blood, I'd love to see the reference and the link. And I would certainly invest if credible testing had been done and appropriately reported. But then again, so would every venture capitalist be willing. Yet, this is what Theranos was implying they could deliver. Why else would they have been valued in the billions? For performing esoterica?



  • It would seem that all the tests on the comprehensive metabolic panel can be performed by immunoassay nowadays - even blood counts. For TSH, immunoassay is now the recommended testing method, and the others are either regular tested by immunoassay, or such tests are being assesed for accuracy by researchers.


    And is the "NMR" lipoprotein test really all that necessary, or are Scripps Health just trying to cash in with expensive tests? The Havard Medical School seems to think so:


    "It sounds like you had advanced lipoprotein testing, which is a more detailed and also more expensive version of a standard cholesterol or lipid test. In general, I'm not a fan of this type of testing, because there is no solid evidence that the results are useful in any concrete way or provide information that can improve a person's health." https://www.health.harvard.edu…ipoprotein-testing-useful


    I would imagine that Genalyte already use several immunoassays from the above list in the 60 or so tests they currently perform.

  • Among the Russ George publications ... what is the nature of the ones that do not have links? They also do not show have citation information.


    Those are papers I have not uploaded. Some I do not have. Others I have, but the author or publisher did not give me permission to upload.


    There is no citation information because I did not bother to enter it into the database. When I don't have permission to upload, I don't add the abstract or other information. There are 2,586 papers in the database that I have not uploaded, so it would be a lot of work to enter all that information. I don't see the point. The paper is probably not available anywhere else, except perhaps behind a paywall where no one will read it anyway.


    It is a little complicated. The database is maintained in EndNote format. It was compiled by Ed Storms and me. There are 4,530 items in it. There are at present ~1,944 documents uploaded, which are in 1,099 computer files. Some computer files have multiple documents, such as proceedings and issues of the JCMNS. As I said, that leaves 2,586 documents in the database that I do not have, or I don't have permission to upload. I am not going to go to the trouble to add all those abstracts and whatnot. A few abstracts were added by Ed Storms, and a few more are now added automatically when I download info. from DOI links. But when I wrote the program that converts EndNote to the MySQL files, I decided to simply life by not transferring those few.


    I also did not bother to add all of the old papers in proceedings to the EndNote file. They are out there, but not indexed. So that's why I say there are tilde (approx) 1,944 documents. I do not have an exact count. There are 1,944 that I went to the trouble to index.

  • The above are the tests in common use world wide in clinical labs. If you know of a company contemplating making a machine which can perform a worthwhile subset of these on a drop of blood, I'd love to see the reference and the link. And I would certainly invest if credible testing had been done and appropriately reported. But then again, so would every venture capitalist be willing. Yet, this is what Theranos was implying they could deliver.

    They are many labs worldwide accredited for the panels that Theranos was proposing in capillary blood. Again, Theranos failed not because they were proposing more than they could analyze in one drop of blood but because of the lack of compliance with current regulations on laboratory testing. See what John Carreyrou said on it: "This fiasco could have been avoided had Theranos sought accreditation from the College of American Pathologist (CAP) by submitting actual tests run on their equipment for appropriate testing. Based on the recent revelations, the results would not have been accurate and they would not have received CAP accreditation. Only labs that have CAP accreditation should be in the business of performing blood laboratory testing. CAP standards are exceedingly stringent and exceed CLIA certification. The FDA acted appropriately and responsibly in this case."

    Again, some labs do propose under their CAP accreditation the same panels that Theranos was proposing. These tests are as precise and accurate as tests done in venous blood. The issue is not that the technology does not exist but that Theranos didn't bother to comply with current regulations.


    Now, with regard to the number of tests that today's technology can allow in one drop of blood, sure if one use immunoassays that require a given amount of blood per biomarker, one cannot extend the panel to more than 20-30 analytes. However multiplexed assays such as LCMS do not have this drawback and some CAP accredited labs do already propose the measurement of thousands of molecules by high resolution LCMS in only ten microliters of blood.

  • Quote

    Straight from the horse's mouth?


    Actually with facile and unsupported claims made here about the supposedly wide scope of micro clinical lab capabilities, I meant to portray as well the opposite end of the horse.


    Quote

    Now, with regard to the number of tests that today's technology can allow in one drop of blood, sure if one use immunoassays that require a given amount of blood per biomarker, one cannot extend the panel to more than 20-30 analytes. However multiplexed assays such as LCMS do not have this drawback and some CAP accredited labs do already propose the measurement of thousands of molecules by high resolution LCMS in only ten microliters of blood.


    Can you provide a link, preferably to a commercially available device, like Theranos claimed to be, which provides even 20 commonly performed tests which are of routine clinical usefulness in a typical medical practice and which can be done on 0.05 ml of blood or less? I've never seen or heard of one but I don't rule out the possibility that it can be done. I am talking about serologies or exotic immunoassays. I am asking about things I listed before: CBC, LFT, RFT, Lipid panels, diabetes panels, and electrolytes. Those are the tests which physicians require multiple times per day to evaluate their patients in an office setting.


    BTW, since you mention it, I've used LCMS (liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy) in a military setting some years back. It's a peachy but complicated method and yes, it uses very small samples. I believe a current clinical application is detection of small amounts of toxic materials in serum (toxicology). It is also useful for protein chemistry. However, I am not aware of common routine applications to clinical laboratory analyses. Help me out here. I'd really like to know. How is LCMS used to do routine medical lab tests? And are these really done in large numbers on a single drop of blood or serum?

  • Hi Ruby,

    2. At ICCF22, I will also be showing off a new comic book that I wrote and artist Matt Howarth illustrated. It is almost finished and we will try to get it published through mainstream channels. It could take a while, but if that fails, we will self-publish. Here is a sample of page 7 attached. They call them "graphic novels" now, but it's a 30-page comic book essentially.

    Actually, it's funny you mention "the fringe" as the artist Matt decided to change Stanley Pons' hair after he saw a few more pictures! So I believe there will be an updated page 7!


    I don't know if the comic book is also intended to strictly comply with technical aspects. However, before updating page 7, artist Matt could also watch these two videos:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBAIIZU6Oj8

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kixLjK0HzGY


    The videos show that gas bubbles (and foam) are formed inside the test tubes, not in the water bath where the tubes are immersed.

  • Can you provide a link, preferably to a commercially available device, like Theranos claimed to be, which provides even 20 commonly performed tests which are of routine clinical usefulness in a typical medical practice and which can be done on 0.05 ml of blood or less? I've never seen or heard of one but I don't rule out the possibility that it can be done.

    If you were familiar with laboratory testing, you would have known that the labs don't make their tests public.

    Quote

    I am talking about serologies or exotic immunoassays. I am asking about things I listed before: CBC, LFT, RFT, Lipid panels, diabetes panels, and electrolytes. Those are the tests which physicians require multiple times per day to evaluate their patients in an office setting.

    Is the test catalog below ok for you? It comes from the first US lab that got CAP accreditation for capillary blood testing, a few years before Theranos entered the market of lab testing.


    Metabolic Panel

    Blood Glucose

    Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

    Blood Creatinine

    BUN / Creatinine Ratio (Calc)

    AST (SGOT)

    ALT (SGPT)

    Alkaline Phosphatase

    GGT

    Bilirubin, Total

    Protein, Total

    Albumin

    Albumin / Globulin Ratio (Calc)

    Globulin (Calc)

    Bicarbonate

    Calcium, Total

    Uric Acid

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Chloride

    Kidney Function

    Glomerular Filtration Rate (Calc)

    Lipid Profile

    Cholesterol, Total

    HDL-C

    LDL-C

    LDL-C (Calc)

    VLDL (Calc)

    Triglycerides

    Cholesterol / HDL Ratio (Calc)

    LDL / HDL Ratio (Calc)

    Apolipoprotein A-1

    Apolipoprotein B

    Cardiac BioMarkers

    Cystatin C

    Inorganic Phosphorus

    Homocysteine

    hsCRP

    Lactate Dehydrogenase

    NT-proBNP

    Anemia

    Total Iron

    Ferritin

    Vitamin B12

    Diabetes Insulin

    C-Peptide

    Hemoglobin A1c with EAG

    Glycated Albumin (Fructosamine)

    Hormones

    Testosterone, Total

    Cortisol

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S)

    Estradiol

    Progesterone

    Thyroid Function TSH

    T3, Total

    T4, Total

    T3, Free

    T4, Free

    Tumor Markers

    PSA, Total

    Immunoglobulin E

    Infectious Disease

    Anti-HCV

    Toxicology

    Blood Cotinine (Nicotine Metabolite)

    Bone Biomarker

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D

    Hematology

    Complete Blood Cell Count w/ 5-part Diff


    The size of the panel can be up to 30 tests when a collection device able to separate the serum from the cells is used.

    Quote

    BTW, since you mention it, I've used LCMS (liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy) in a military setting some years back. It's a peachy but complicated method and yes, it uses very small samples. I believe a current clinical application is detection of small amounts of toxic materials in serum (toxicology). It is also useful for protein chemistry. However, I am not aware of common routine applications to clinical laboratory analyses. Help me out here. I'd really like to know. How is LCMS used to do routine medical lab tests? And are these really done in large numbers on a single drop of blood or serum?

    Last week, during ASMS 2019 the largest conference on mass spectrometry, Labcorp said that in 2018 only they acquired up to 500 MS instruments for routine lab testing.


    In my lab, we run LCMS every day. We have the capacity to measure >50k molecules in one drop of blood. But I guess you will not trust me on that one. Because you see scams everywhere. You dont have the aptitude to separate the wheat from the chaff.

  • Listen, Julian, at one time I developed a small subset of clinical lab tests (I can discuss that with you by email if you like) but it was a while back so I readily admit I may have missed something recent. What is the name of the machine which does 30 of the tests you listed on a capillary full of blood? A link would be nice but I'll be happy to Google it. And it can do any mixture of any 30 on one sample? That would be pretty amazing. Most lab tests can be done on capillary size blood samples and there is nothing new about that but not many can be done on the same sample by the methods I used to be familiar with.


    Also, for my amazement, if you know, what is the routine modern application for LCMS other than tox screening? Are you a clinical lab tech? Biochemist? ETA: I did read somewhere that you are a physicist. So if you can say, what is your connection with a clinical lab?


    BTW, no centrifuge was involved with the Theranos devices, that I know of so they did not separate serum from cells and what Ms. Holmes would hold up to show people, their proprietary sampling "nano" container, was only shown with whole blood that I have seen. And yes, it was a scam. A bald faced, thoroughgoing, total scam. I am not claiming that the chemists and lab techs knew that but the principals did. Maybe not from the very start but pretty soon after they started cheating on results and lying to their investors. Which is why they face criminal prosecution.