Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes


    The Man Who Made Black Holes.

    Alan Smith, November 2017

    “Ken’s brilliance will be missed in the scientific community as a visionary in the field of new energy exotic vacuum objects (EVO’s). He was a leader in this new frontier, but perhaps best known to the scientific community as the father of vacuum microelectronics.” Diane Meade (Family member)


    Almost anyone who has spent time investigating ‘unlikely physics’ may have stumbled across mention of, or papers written by, the late Ken Shoulders. There are factors emerging now which may well bring renewed interest in the huge body of scientific work which forms his intellectual legacy. Shoulders has often been described by his peers as the ‘father’ of the domain known as ‘Vacuum Nano-electronics’. In part this is because over the last decade, prompted by concerns about climate change and rising energy costs there is in the phenomenon formerly known as ‘cold fusion’ now generally referred to as LENR. It seems likely that this field will benefit from a re-examination of Shoulders discoveries, particularly his work on EVO’s (Exotic Vacuum Objects or ‘Charge Clusters’ - CC’s). These names are convenient labels used to categorise phenomena which some researchers (this author included) feel offer key insights into new and fundamentally different approaches to LENR and as yet unexploited ways of creating and transforming matter and energy ‘at table-top scale’.

  • This is a major piece Alan. Thanks for this. Ken's work needs to be remembered. He believed that EVO's were not only relevant but responsible for LENR. Where there are plasmas and voltage spikes there are EVO's. You are right - he could be grumpy. But he was always understated. I knew him for >35 years and never knew him to be wrong about anything he stated with certainty.

  • Regarding:"Ken Shoulders also believed that EVO’s were capable of transforming into mini Black Holes, or in their various manifestations (all EVOs are not the same) could be harnessed for: Unlimited Energy production, Antigravity, Propulsion, Transmutation, Teleportation, Unimaginable destructive capability. Quite a list."

    I beleive that the EVO is a nanoparticle or a cluster of nanoparticles that are produced by the vaporization of a metal by the high heat generated by the arc discharge. Those nanoparticle(s) host surface plasmon polaritons that become entangled.

    Polaritons can be either bright of dark. The dark polaritons absorb energy and store it LIKE A BLACK HOLE. The bose condinsate formed by these polaritons act just like black holes in that they generate hawking radiation, the source of heat radiation. What goes into the Polariton BEC is high energy radiation and what comes out is hawking radiation (heat). These clusters of nanoparticles are self sustaining and feed off the decay of matter that they induce.

    Ken Shoulders saw in his experiments both white EVOs and Black EVOs. These EVOs correspond to the dark and bright polaritons that are well knowing in nanoplasmonics.

    Strange as it may seem, these EVO behave like the string theory predictions of tachyons. This prediction includes black hole behavior, monopole behavior, hadronization (meson production) and massive energy storage/high mass. Tachyons tracks have been seen in LENR ash.

  • The EVO is a micro sized version of ball lightning.



    Figure 1 Transmission electron micrograph of nanoparticle chains sampled from the

    discharge environment. These particles were deposited on a nickel grid, after sampling

    the gas space above a 14.9-kV discharge on a silt loam soil containing 12.5% carbon. The

    soil was placed in a layer on a flat conducting (graphite) base below a vertical graphite

    electrode, with a gap of 22mm to the soil, and 3.0 C charge transferred from a 204mF

    capacitor. The extended chains are made up of spheres 5±70 nm in diameter; the chain

    width is 25±125 nm. Six of the highest-power runs were examined in this way, with three soils. All showed similar results, except one showing only larger particles.

  • There is no arc.

    Where can I find the reference to that?


    How is an EVO Made: They are ubiquitous and usually made by sparking processes. The spark you make by static electricity contains mainly EVOs. Even breaking a rock or rapidly forming a bubble makes EVOs.

    These processes produce nanoparticles that are excited by the energy around the site of nanoparticle formation carried in the form of EMF.

    A polariton is an electron that has been entangled with a photon. This new particle loses its negative charge and most of its mass. Polaritons can combined together into a soliton as a bose condinsate because they are bosons. This is what gives the EVO their ability of these electron like particles to group together by the trillions.

    As Piantelli has shown in his experiments, It is true that polaritons can be formed on the surface of transition metal without a sparking process but the EVO is usually associated with sparking.

    Polaritons can also form on the surface of collaping cavitation bubbles.

  • I have sought some more information about Ken Shoulders and what I have read wasn’t impressive. That was not because of what others told about him but that is about his speculative ideas about energy.

    He showed to have a serious lack of understanding the foundations of physics (that is not equal to the Standard Model of physics). And mavericks without a deep insight in the foundations of physics are never a genius. At the most they had once or more times in their live “a lucky shot”.

  • axil

    Sorry for my breif reply, that was made in the small hours of the morning . If you read more deeply into what KS published, you will find that he was producing EVO's with a voltage gradient of around 200V/cm. At that level there is no arc. Yes, EVO's are produced by arcs, and by lightning, but Shoulders discovered another low-voltage way. Much of that method is concealed or at least glossed over in his papers, but the essentials are available for those who read closely. I am happy to describe more of this later.

    H.G. Sorry to hear you are not impressed, Ken always spoke so highly of you. As for his ability, when people who worked alongside Shoulders for decades, not just those who read a bit about him on the web, still considered him after all that time to be an intuitive genius of the first rank, there is probably some truth in the idea.

  • Alan Smith ,

    Ken always spoke so highly of you

    Sorry, impossible! Ken Shoulders and I didn’t know each other, so you have someone else in mind (or you are joking). Besides that, I didn’t meant that Ken Shoulders was not impressive as an experimentalist and as a technical designer/inventor, it is your description in the first post that’s besides reality (so it didn’t impressed me). EVO has no proven relation with LENR and Ken Shoulders wasn’t a genius. Every century there are only a handful of geniuses. The difficulty is not about Ken Shoulders, the problem has to do with readers who dive into his ideas because they trust your opinion.

  • OK. Let's settle for this. You (who you assure me never knew him) consider him not a genius, whereas quite a few highly qualified people who worked alongside him for -as I mentioned- decades think that he was. I think you lose that argument on sheer weight of eyewitness evidence against your small store of circumstantial evidence. Experiment beats theory every time .

    I was joking about 'spoke so highly'.... British sense of humour, does not travel well.

    As for the physics of EVO's , it is in accord with QED. Their existence as real phenomena has been verified in quite a few labs using many different methods (and calling them by many different names) stretching back for decades. The fact that you don't think much of them won't make them go away.

  • In reference to sparks (EDIT: and also low-voltage), in Shoulders' US 5018180 A (the first patent in the document, I haven't gone deep reading the literature) it's mentioned:


    [...] Examples of anomalous structure in the context of a plasma environment are varied, including lightning, in particular ball lightning, and sparks of any kind, including sparks resulting from the opening or closing of relays under high voltage, or under low voltage with high current flow.

    And from the same this should be relevant too:


    In general, the production of EV's is accompanied by the formation of a plasma discharge, including ions and disorganized electrons, generally where the EV's are produced at the cathode, with the plasma charge density being at least 106 electron charges per cubic micrometer, and typically 108 charges per cubic micrometer. In the case of a relatively short distance between cathode and anode of a source, the high plasma density accompanying the formation of the EV's is usually produced in the form of a local spark.

  • In much of his work Shoulders describes EVO's as discrete toroidal entities, capable of forming chains of inter-twined toroids. There is no need for anything else to be in the EVO than electrons, bShoulders Apparatus for Formation and Use of EVOs.pdfut there can be. The paper below casts a little more light on the topic. It is hard to find btw, not impossible but hard and getting harder. Make a copy if you can/wish to.

    Shoulders Apparatus for Formation and Use of EVOs.pdf

  • Regarding: "In much of his work Shoulders describes EVO's as discrete toroidal entities"

    The polariton as EVO exists in a toroidal entity called a whispering gallery wave where two contra rotating waves of photons circulate in a high Q mode (AKA little energy loss). The entangled electrons associated with the photon currents remain in a electron hole dipole in the metal that supports the EVO. The whispering gallery wave can be located at a distance from the metal that produced it.

    The whispering gallery wave is an optical microcavity, Science has resently demonstrated experimentally the emergence of spontaneous symmetry breaking in an ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery microresonator. The Optical whispering gallery (WGW) microcavity is the structural form that the Surface Plasmon Polariton assumed in LENR. These whispering gallery modes are analogous to the acoustic resonances in the whispering gallery in St. Paul Cathedral in London.

    A critical clue to the role of symmetry breaking in LENR is the observation that the application of an electrostatic field catalyzes spontaneous symmetry breaking in the WGW via the Kerr effect. In the quiescent magnetic state, the WGW produces a magnetic field like a dipole magnet. But these field lines can be slightly anisotropic and these magnetic field lines will produce a minimal LENR effect.

    But when a high voltage electrostatic field is applied to the WGW, the index of refraction inside the wave becomes complex via the KERR effect and the counter rotating photon currents combine into a unified current.

    This activated WGW is now transformed from a magnetic dipole to a magnetic monopole thus greatly amplifying its magnetic strength. This structure can now produce a powerful LENR response in proportion to the number and energy content of photons that are circulating inside the WGW.

    Regarding: :"capable of forming chains of inter-twined toroids"

    When the high voltage electrostatic field is applied, the TAO Effect is also applied to a group of WGWs (AKA polariton solitons),

    The polariton soliton is a superconductor because it is a Bose condinsate and as such is subject to the TAO effect.

    When Ken Shoulders was working, the polariton was not discovered, but in the last 10 years, its nature is intensively studied. The polariton is a condensed matter entity. It needs a metal surface to form. But after formation it can become decoupled from that metal surface and float around. The entangled electrons that are part of the polariton condensate are still a part of the electron/hole dipole, it is the photon portion of the polariton that can travel.

    As the polariton soliton extracts energy from quarks in the matter around it, the polariton soliton stores that energy in WGWs and the LENR effect becomes more powerful over time, because the new photons add more spin to the WGW. As the energy content of the WGW increases, the frequency of the photons increases from infrared to extreme ultraviolet. (1)

    Fabiani revealed that he has seen balls of light eating the structure of a reactor when the activation signal is applied. So Rossi has produced the EVO and it is the cause of his reaction.

    1 - The equation for photon energy is {\displaystyle E={\frac {hc}{\lambda }}} E = hc/y

    Where E is photon energy, h is the Planck constant, c is the speed of light in vacuum and y is the photon's wavelength

  • Do you mean 'eating'? Or heating? The second would be correct.

    From this post:


    Fabiani alludes to the KERR effect as the E-Cat stimulus E-Cat reaction as follows:


    “Over the years we realized that the reaction needs more stimuli than only heating. Everyone thinks that thermal stimulus is enough but that’s just the beginning. It’s not enough for maximum efficiency. It’s the base, the synthesis of the reaction. But the reaction has almost behaviors as of living matter, and it has responses as a function of the stimuli. They can be of many types other than thermal. And these are the ones that trigger, let’s call it the most fun part of it, allowing excellent gains in terms of response to the stimuli.”

    Fabiani then talks about the SPP as a soliton of photons(ball lightning) and the KERR effect that activates that soliton as follows:

    Talking about the validity of the E-Cat technology, Fabiani continues:


    “With the failures, I found myself having to believe in it. Why? Because when something fails, you see the behavior of the object. The next time you adjust it, then you see that it behaves very differently. And then you realize that it is something unique. We have it all filmed, which still cannot be disclosed. We have photographs of creatures that emit pure light that have completely melted the reactor down, all in a very quiet way. You just turn off the stimuli system and the reaction is switched off. It’s impressive.

    Is meltdown heat or is it eat?

  • A characteristic of the stimulus that can be distilled from the Fabiani quotes is that the stimulus is EMF field based. Study of the KERR effect reveals how its behavior is instructive in how LENR behaves including self sustaining mode.

    The DC Kerr effect, is the special case in which a slowly varying external electric field is applied by, for instance, a voltage on electrodes across the sample material. Polariton lifetimes are measured in picoseconds or at most microseconds. The polariton soliton must be restimulated after it comes into existence so that it can reach optimum power projection. Polaritons are not in equilibrium with new polaritons replacing dead ones on a short timescale. The electrostatic activation field must be constant in order to sustain the polariton at nominal power levels.

    In the optical or AC Kerr effect, an intense beam of light in a medium can itself provide the modulating electric field, without the need for an external field to be applied. In terms of the LENR reaction, the light produced by the polariton grows so bright, that the KERR field is self stimulating. This situation occurs in self sustain mode where the reaction builds on itself to the point where the light (aka white EVO) that it generates equals in intensity of the power produced by a laser, a self sustaining light level.

    In the Demo, Rossi was running the QX at 30% maximum power. This is achieved by reducing the electrostatic field strength so that the power projection of the polaritons is not optimized. When the QX runs at maximum power, the voltage applied to the electrodes is maximized. So the voltage level that produces the electrostatic field controls the power level of the QX.

    Only under maximum electrostatic stimulation is the self sustain condition reached. But there is a danger that the reaction will become supercritical when running in self sustain mode. This is the meltdown condition.

    Rossi protects against meltdown in the QX because the solid metal nanoparticles that support the polariton of entangled electron dipole motion is vaporized at high temperature, This kills all the polaritons in the QX. When the temperature of the plasma becomes low enough for metal nanoparticles to reform, then the LENR reaction can be reestablished. In this way the QX is passively protected from meltdown because its structure is beyond the meltdown temperature of the metal reactant (aluminum).

  • I have other eyewitness accounts of the 'lava lamp' lights inside the reactor that did not involve a melt-down. I stand corrected about FF's comment though, I had forgotten his reference to 'melted'.

    Dear Alan, you are intellectually honest and a pleasure to converse with. It is well worth my time to explain to you how the LENR reaction works. There are not many whose intellectual virtues make them so worthy.

  • This is a major piece Alan. Thanks for this. Ken's work needs to be remembered. He believed that EVO's were not only relevant but responsible for LENR. Where there are plasmas and voltage spikes there are EVO's. You are right - he could be grumpy. But he was always understated. I knew him for >35 years and never knew him to be wrong about anything he stated with certainty.


    It is pleasant to me to see you here at a forum. You gave to science much, you still can make a lot of things, to help another and to understand in what you were mistaken...

  • A few more QX design factors can be extracted by considering the implications of the nature of the KERR stimulus control mechanism.

    Because the KERR effect is mediated by an electrostatic field, the material that the QX is made from must allow that field to get through the reactor structure and into the fuel. Therefore the structural material must be a non metal. Rossi might use non metals throughout the QX structure to avoid field absorption and to enable better control of that field.

    Many QX tubes can be controlled by one all encompassing electrostatic field. A direct wire connection does not need to be made to each QX tube.

  • Alan Smith

    From what Shoulders writes in the same patent I linked (which I only very quickly read) it would seem that:


    [...] The principle requirement for generating an EV is to rapidly concentrate a very high, uncompensated electronic charge in a small volume.

    If this is the case, wouldn't any relatively large short circuit do? It wouldn't necessarily to involve high(-ish) voltage once it's started, only that as an arc is initially formed (by the rapidly vaporized material) and that a significant current starts flowing. Perhaps this is also what happens at the nanoscale when high voltages - not necessarily at high current - are passed through a dispersion of very small particles (short-circuit pathways are formed in the process).

  • Regarding: "The principle requirement for generating an EV is to rapidly concentrate a very high, uncompensated electric charge in a small volume."

    The entanglement of the polariton with a photon requires that the photon and the electron be in contact for a period long enough for the two to reach the same energy level. This thermalization between the electron and the photon is made possible when the electron can be localized in a limited space. Localization of the electron happen around bumps and in cracks in metals, A process called Anderson localization is central to this process of Polariton entanglement.

    Many LENR reactors use rough metal surfaces to catalyze the LENR reaction. This surface preparation of a metal surface can be done using metal vapor deposition (Piantelli) or either spark (Mizuno) or laser resurfacing. By their nature (topological), nanoparticles produce near ideal surface conditions for localizing electrons.

    For your convenience

  • axil

    Instead of doing this surface preparation beforehand as several researchers in the LENR field appear to do, couldn't the reaction directly occur within the cloud of particles formed by the plasma / high current vaporizing in part the electrodes or by forming a plasma through a pre-existing particle dispersion?

  • axil

    Instead of doing this surface preparation beforehand as several researchers in the LENR field appear to do, couldn't the reaction directly occur within the cloud of particles formed by the plasma / high current vaporizing in part the electrodes or by forming a plasma through a pre-existing particle dispersion?

    This is a system that uses the approach that you suggest.



    Klimov A., Grigorenko A., Efimov A., Sidorenko M.,Soloviev A., Tolkunov B., Evstigneev N., Ryabk ov O

    I beleive that the QX works in the same way: that is by dusty plasma.

  • For those who like this candy, here is a list of papers about or related to this phenomenon. From

    1. Atul Bhadkamkar and Hal Fox, "Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions," Journal of New Energy, Winter 1997, vol 1, no 4, pp. 62-67.
    2. Kenneth R. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," U.S. Patent 5,018,180, issued May 21, 1991. This was the first charge-cluster (EV) patent to issue and states: "An EV passing along a traveling wave device, for example, may be both absorbing and emitting electrons. In this way, the EV may be considered as being continually formed as it propagates. In any event, energy is provided to the traveling wave output conductor, and the ultimate source of this energy appears to be the zero-point radiation of the vacuum continuum."
    3. Kenneth R. Shoulders, EV, A Tale of Discovery, c. 1987, published and available from the author, P.O. Box 243, Bodega, CA 94922-0243.
    4. Robert Bass, Rod Neal, Stan Gleeson, and Hal Fox, "Electro-Nuclear Transmutation: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp. 81-87.
    5. Hal Fox and Shang Xian Jin, "Low-energy Nuclear Reactions and High-density Charge Clusters," presented at the annual meeting of the American Nuclear Society, Nashville, Tennessee, June 9, 1998, Journal of New Energy, Vol 3, No 2/3, pp. 56-67.
    6. Shang Xian Jin and Hal Fox, "Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp. 5-20.
    7. -
    8. G. A. Mesyats, "Ecton Processes at the Cathode in a Vacuum Discharge," Proceedings of the XVIIth International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, July 21-26, 1996, Berkeley, Calif., pp. 720-731. Co-worker Dr. Vasily Baraboshkin participated but not recognized in the article.
    9. Oleg V. Gritskevitch, "Gritskevitch's Hydro-Magnetic Dynamo," New Energy Technologies, No. 2, September-October, 2001, pp. 9-14, copy of page or Russian patent. Cites production of high-density charge clusters. Covers and corrects material present at the INE Symposium 1999.
    10. Personal communication with developer of Papp Engine.
    11. Palo N. Correa and Alexander N. Correa, "Energy Conversion Systems," U.S. Patent 5,449,989, 12 Sept 1995.
    12. George Hathaway, Peter Graneau, Neal Graneau, "Solar-Energy Liberation from Water by Electric Arcs," Journal of New Energy, vol 5, no 4, Spring 2001, pp. 60-69.
    13. T. Ohmori and T. Mizuno, "Nuclear Transmutation Reaction Caused by the Light Water Electrolysis on Tungsten Cathode under an Incandescent Condition," Journal of New Energy, Vol 4, No 4, pp. 66-78.
    14. Xing-liu, Jin-zhi Lei, Chang-ye Chen, Xiong-wei Wen, and Li-jun Han, "Vortex Dynamics and Exploiting Energy from the Vacuum," Journal of New Energy, vol 6, no 2, Fall 2001, Proceedings of the INE 2001 Symposi

    And more - there may be duplicates.

    Bailey, P.G., "INE Subjects Catalog," Institute for New Energy, current. []

    Bass, R., Neal, R., Gleeson, S., Fox, H., "Electro-Nuclear Transmutations: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996.

    Bhadkamkar, Atul & Fox, Hal, "Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions", J of New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 62-68, 28 refs, 2 figs.

    Dufour, J., "Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes," Fusion Technology, 1993, vol 24, p 205ff.

    Fox, H. & Bailey, Patrick G., "Possible New Applications of High-Density Charge Clusters", companion paper. []

    Fox, H., "The Most Complete Bibliography of New Energy Research Papers and Articles," Fusion Information Center, $15.00 PC Disk, P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639. (current) []

    Fox, H., "Second Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction Conference (Summary)," New Energy News, vol 4, no 6, Oct. 1996, pp 1-2. []

    Fox, H., "Nobel Prize Nominations for Energy (Charge Clusters, et. al.)," New Energy News, vol 4, no 7, Nov. 1996, pp 1-3. []

    Fox, H., "Does Low Temperature Nuclear Change Occur in Solids?" Proceedings of the 1995 Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference held June 1996. Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996. Summary and Table of Contents available at:

    Fox, H., "Editor's Choice: Privately Funded Research in the Creation of Hydrogen," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, Summary and Table of Contents available at:

    Fox, H., "Title TBD," Proceedings of the 1996 Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference held in Sept. 1996. Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996. Summary and Table of Contents available at:

    George, Russ, Paper presented at second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions conference, College Station, Texas, September 13-14, 1996.

    Grotz, Toby, "T. Henry Moray and the Transmutation of Elements," New Energy News, vol 4, no 11, March 1997, pp 5. []

    Harada, Hideo, Patent JP 07239397 A2; "Transmutation of radioactive waste by muon-catalyzed fusion reaction"; Hideo Harada, Hiroshi Takahashi (Doryokuro Kakunenryo, Japan); issued 12 Sept. 1995; appl. 28 Feb. 1994; 7 pp.

    Jin, Shang-Xian & Fox, Hal, "Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model", J. of New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, 16 refs, 2 figs.

    Jin, Shang-Xian, Fox, H., "Possible Palladium-Related Nuclear Reactions", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996.

    Miguet, S., Dash, John (Portland State University), "Microanalysis of Palladium after Electrolysis in Heavy Water", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 1, January 1996, pp 23, 5 figs, 3 refs.

    Miles, M.H., Bush, B.F., Johnson, K.B., "Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems," New Energy News, vol 4, no 7, Nov. 1996, pp 4-5. []

    Miley, George H., Patterson, James A., "Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Proceedings of the Second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, Sept 13-14, 1996, College Station, Texas.

    Mizuno, T. et. al., "Excess Heat Evolution and Analysis of Elements for Solid State Electrolyte in Deuterium Atmosphere During Applied Electric Field," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996.

    Ohmori, Tadayoshi, Mizuno, Tadahiko, and Nodasaka, Yoshinobu (Hokkaido Univ., Japan), Enyo, Michio (Hakodate Nat. Coll. of Technol., Japan), Minagawa, Hideki (Hokkaido Nat. Indust. Res. Inst., Japan), "Transmutation in the Electrolysis of Light Water Excess Energy and Iron Production in a Gold Electrode," Fusion Tech., Vol 31, No. 2, Mar. 1997, pp 210-218, 8 refs, 11 figs, 3 tables.

    Patterson, J., and Cravens, D., US Pat. 5,607,563; "Systems for Electrolysis"; James A. Patterson, Dennis Cravens; issued 4 Mar. 1997; appl. 4 Dec. 1995; 16 claims, 2 drawing sheets. [www.padrak. com/ine/NEN-5-1-7.html]

    Reiter and Faile, "Spark Gap Experiments", New Energy News, Sept 1996, pp 11ff.

    Savvatimova, I., Kucherov, Yan & Karabut, Alexander, "Impurities in Cathode Material Before and after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments", Fusion Technology, vol 26, no 4T, Dec 1994, pp 389-394. ICCF-4, Maui, Hawaii, Dec 6-9, 1993.

    Shoulders, Kenneth R., "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density", U.S. Patent 5,018,180, issued May 21, 1991, see also "Circuits Responsible to and Controlling Charged Particles", U.S. Patent 5,054,047, issued Oct. 1, 1991.

    Shoulders, Kenneth and Steven, "Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions", J. of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996.

    Shoulders, Kenneth R., EV, A Tale of Discovery, c1987, published and available from the author, P.O. Box 243, Bodega, CA 94922-0243.

    Vysotskij, Valadimir I., et. al., Patent RU 2052223 Cl: "Method for Producing Stable Isotopes Due to Nuclear Transmutation, Such as Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion of Elements in Microbiological Cultures"; Vladimir I. Vysotskij, Alla A. Kornilova, Igor I. Samojlenko (Tovarishchestvo S Ogranichennoj Otvetstvennostyu Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob'edinenie "inter-Nart"), issued 10 Jan. 1996; appl. 18 Jan. 1995 (in Russian).

  • Alan Smith

    That's interesting to know (but going along the previously given description, it naturally follows that high current, low voltage arcs would work); actually I am now wondering if some strange observations I made during certain deliberate short-circuit tests made with a different rationale were related with this.

    To be fair, as Paradigmnoia observes, the flash combustion of small particles could explain many ones. But I think I've read before that in some cases X-ray emission might arise during self-propagating high temperature synthesis, and chemical combustion alone shouldn't be causing that.