Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes

  • A few more QX design factors can be extracted by considering the implications of the nature of the KERR stimulus control mechanism.


    Because the KERR effect is mediated by an electrostatic field, the material that the QX is made from must allow that field to get through the reactor structure and into the fuel. Therefore the structural material must be a non metal. Rossi might use non metals throughout the QX structure to avoid field absorption and to enable better control of that field.


    Many QX tubes can be controlled by one all encompassing electrostatic field. A direct wire connection does not need to be made to each QX tube.

  • Alan Smith

    From what Shoulders writes in the same patent I linked (which I only very quickly read) it would seem that:


    Quote

    [...] The principle requirement for generating an EV is to rapidly concentrate a very high, uncompensated electronic charge in a small volume.


    If this is the case, wouldn't any relatively large short circuit do? It wouldn't necessarily to involve high(-ish) voltage once it's started, only that as an arc is initially formed (by the rapidly vaporized material) and that a significant current starts flowing. Perhaps this is also what happens at the nanoscale when high voltages - not necessarily at high current - are passed through a dispersion of very small particles (short-circuit pathways are formed in the process).

  • Regarding: "The principle requirement for generating an EV is to rapidly concentrate a very high, uncompensated electric charge in a small volume."


    The entanglement of the polariton with a photon requires that the photon and the electron be in contact for a period long enough for the two to reach the same energy level. This thermalization between the electron and the photon is made possible when the electron can be localized in a limited space. Localization of the electron happen around bumps and in cracks in metals, A process called Anderson localization is central to this process of Polariton entanglement.


    Many LENR reactors use rough metal surfaces to catalyze the LENR reaction. This surface preparation of a metal surface can be done using metal vapor deposition (Piantelli) or either spark (Mizuno) or laser resurfacing. By their nature (topological), nanoparticles produce near ideal surface conditions for localizing electrons.


    For your convenience


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anderson_localization

  • axil

    Instead of doing this surface preparation beforehand as several researchers in the LENR field appear to do, couldn't the reaction directly occur within the cloud of particles formed by the plasma / high current vaporizing in part the electrodes or by forming a plasma through a pre-existing particle dispersion?

  • axil

    Instead of doing this surface preparation beforehand as several researchers in the LENR field appear to do, couldn't the reaction directly occur within the cloud of particles formed by the plasma / high current vaporizing in part the electrodes or by forming a plasma through a pre-existing particle dispersion?


    This is a system that uses the approach that you suggest.


    HIGH-ENERGETIC METAL NANO-CLUSTER PLASMOID AND

    ITS SOFT X-RADIATION

    Klimov A., Grigorenko A., Efimov A., Sidorenko M.,Soloviev A., Tolkunov B., Evstigneev N., Ryabk ov O


    http://www.newinflow.ru/pdf/Klimov_Poster.pdf


    I beleive that the QX works in the same way: that is by dusty plasma.

  • For those who like this candy, here is a list of papers about or related to this phenomenon. From http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/mar2/fox_fn.htm


    1. Atul Bhadkamkar and Hal Fox, "Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions," Journal of New Energy, Winter 1997, vol 1, no 4, pp. 62-67.
    2. Kenneth R. Shoulders, "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density," U.S. Patent 5,018,180, issued May 21, 1991. This was the first charge-cluster (EV) patent to issue and states: "An EV passing along a traveling wave device, for example, may be both absorbing and emitting electrons. In this way, the EV may be considered as being continually formed as it propagates. In any event, energy is provided to the traveling wave output conductor, and the ultimate source of this energy appears to be the zero-point radiation of the vacuum continuum."
    3. Kenneth R. Shoulders, EV, A Tale of Discovery, c. 1987, published and available from the author, P.O. Box 243, Bodega, CA 94922-0243.
    4. Robert Bass, Rod Neal, Stan Gleeson, and Hal Fox, "Electro-Nuclear Transmutation: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp. 81-87.
    5. Hal Fox and Shang Xian Jin, "Low-energy Nuclear Reactions and High-density Charge Clusters," presented at the annual meeting of the American Nuclear Society, Nashville, Tennessee, June 9, 1998, Journal of New Energy, Vol 3, No 2/3, pp. 56-67.
    6. Shang Xian Jin and Hal Fox, "Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp. 5-20.
    7. -
    8. G. A. Mesyats, "Ecton Processes at the Cathode in a Vacuum Discharge," Proceedings of the XVIIth International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, July 21-26, 1996, Berkeley, Calif., pp. 720-731. Co-worker Dr. Vasily Baraboshkin participated but not recognized in the article.
    9. Oleg V. Gritskevitch, "Gritskevitch's Hydro-Magnetic Dynamo," New Energy Technologies, No. 2, September-October, 2001, pp. 9-14, copy of page or Russian patent. Cites production of high-density charge clusters. Covers and corrects material present at the INE Symposium 1999.
    10. Personal communication with developer of Papp Engine.
    11. Palo N. Correa and Alexander N. Correa, "Energy Conversion Systems," U.S. Patent 5,449,989, 12 Sept 1995.
    12. George Hathaway, Peter Graneau, Neal Graneau, "Solar-Energy Liberation from Water by Electric Arcs," Journal of New Energy, vol 5, no 4, Spring 2001, pp. 60-69.
    13. T. Ohmori and T. Mizuno, "Nuclear Transmutation Reaction Caused by the Light Water Electrolysis on Tungsten Cathode under an Incandescent Condition," Journal of New Energy, Vol 4, No 4, pp. 66-78.
    14. Xing-liu, Jin-zhi Lei, Chang-ye Chen, Xiong-wei Wen, and Li-jun Han, "Vortex Dynamics and Exploiting Energy from the Vacuum," Journal of New Energy, vol 6, no 2, Fall 2001, Proceedings of the INE 2001 Symposi

    And more - there may be duplicates.


    Bailey, P.G., "INE Subjects Catalog," Institute for New Energy, current. [www.padrak.com/ine/SUBJECTS.html]

    Bass, R., Neal, R., Gleeson, S., Fox, H., "Electro-Nuclear Transmutations: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in an Electrolytic Cell", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996.

    Bhadkamkar, Atul & Fox, Hal, "Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions", J of New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, pp 62-68, 28 refs, 2 figs.

    Dufour, J., "Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes," Fusion Technology, 1993, vol 24, p 205ff.

    Fox, H. & Bailey, Patrick G., "Possible New Applications of High-Density Charge Clusters", companion paper. [www.padrak.com/ine/FB97_2.html]

    Fox, H., "The Most Complete Bibliography of New Energy Research Papers and Articles," Fusion Information Center, $15.00 PC Disk, P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639. (current) [www.padrak.com/ine/NEN-4-12-3.html]

    Fox, H., "Second Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction Conference (Summary)," New Energy News, vol 4, no 6, Oct. 1996, pp 1-2. [www.padrak.com/ine/NEN-4-6-1.html]

    Fox, H., "Nobel Prize Nominations for Energy (Charge Clusters, et. al.)," New Energy News, vol 4, no 7, Nov. 1996, pp 1-3. [www.padrak.com/ine/NEN-4-7-2.html]

    Fox, H., "Does Low Temperature Nuclear Change Occur in Solids?" Proceedings of the 1995 Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference held June 1996. Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996. Summary and Table of Contents available at: www.padrak.com/ine/JNEV1N1.html.

    Fox, H., "Editor's Choice: Privately Funded Research in the Creation of Hydrogen," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 2, Summer 1996, Summary and Table of Contents available at: www.padrak.com/ine/JNEV1N2.html.

    Fox, H., "Title TBD," Proceedings of the 1996 Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference held in Sept. 1996. Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996. Summary and Table of Contents available at: www.padrak.com/ine/JNEV1N3.html.

    George, Russ, Paper presented at second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions conference, College Station, Texas, September 13-14, 1996.

    Grotz, Toby, "T. Henry Moray and the Transmutation of Elements," New Energy News, vol 4, no 11, March 1997, pp 5. [www.padrak.com/ine/NEN-4-11-3.html]

    Harada, Hideo, Patent JP 07239397 A2; "Transmutation of radioactive waste by muon-catalyzed fusion reaction"; Hideo Harada, Hiroshi Takahashi (Doryokuro Kakunenryo, Japan); issued 12 Sept. 1995; appl. 28 Feb. 1994; 7 pp.

    Jin, Shang-Xian & Fox, Hal, "Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model", J. of New Energy, vol 1, no 4, Winter 1996, 16 refs, 2 figs.

    Jin, Shang-Xian, Fox, H., "Possible Palladium-Related Nuclear Reactions", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996.

    Miguet, S., Dash, John (Portland State University), "Microanalysis of Palladium after Electrolysis in Heavy Water", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 1, January 1996, pp 23, 5 figs, 3 refs.

    Miles, M.H., Bush, B.F., Johnson, K.B., "Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems," New Energy News, vol 4, no 7, Nov. 1996, pp 4-5. [www.padrak.com/ine/NEN-4-7-2.html]

    Miley, George H., Patterson, James A., "Nuclear Transmutations in Thin-Film Nickel Coatings Undergoing Electrolysis", Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Proceedings of the Second Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, Sept 13-14, 1996, College Station, Texas.

    Mizuno, T. et. al., "Excess Heat Evolution and Analysis of Elements for Solid State Electrolyte in Deuterium Atmosphere During Applied Electric Field," Journal of New Energy, vol 1, no 1, Spring 1996.

    Ohmori, Tadayoshi, Mizuno, Tadahiko, and Nodasaka, Yoshinobu (Hokkaido Univ., Japan), Enyo, Michio (Hakodate Nat. Coll. of Technol., Japan), Minagawa, Hideki (Hokkaido Nat. Indust. Res. Inst., Japan), "Transmutation in the Electrolysis of Light Water Excess Energy and Iron Production in a Gold Electrode," Fusion Tech., Vol 31, No. 2, Mar. 1997, pp 210-218, 8 refs, 11 figs, 3 tables.

    Patterson, J., and Cravens, D., US Pat. 5,607,563; "Systems for Electrolysis"; James A. Patterson, Dennis Cravens; issued 4 Mar. 1997; appl. 4 Dec. 1995; 16 claims, 2 drawing sheets. [www.padrak. com/ine/NEN-5-1-7.html]

    Reiter and Faile, "Spark Gap Experiments", New Energy News, Sept 1996, pp 11ff.

    Savvatimova, I., Kucherov, Yan & Karabut, Alexander, "Impurities in Cathode Material Before and after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments", Fusion Technology, vol 26, no 4T, Dec 1994, pp 389-394. ICCF-4, Maui, Hawaii, Dec 6-9, 1993.

    Shoulders, Kenneth R., "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density", U.S. Patent 5,018,180, issued May 21, 1991, see also "Circuits Responsible to and Controlling Charged Particles", U.S. Patent 5,054,047, issued Oct. 1, 1991.

    Shoulders, Kenneth and Steven, "Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions", J. of New Energy, vol 1, no 3, Fall 1996.

    Shoulders, Kenneth R., EV, A Tale of Discovery, c1987, published and available from the author, P.O. Box 243, Bodega, CA 94922-0243.

    Vysotskij, Valadimir I., et. al., Patent RU 2052223 Cl: "Method for Producing Stable Isotopes Due to Nuclear Transmutation, Such as Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion of Elements in Microbiological Cultures"; Vladimir I. Vysotskij, Alla A. Kornilova, Igor I. Samojlenko (Tovarishchestvo S Ogranichennoj Otvetstvennostyu Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob'edinenie "inter-Nart"), issued 10 Jan. 1996; appl. 18 Jan. 1995 (in Russian).

  • Alan Smith

    That's interesting to know (but going along the previously given description, it naturally follows that high current, low voltage arcs would work); actually I am now wondering if some strange observations I made during certain deliberate short-circuit tests made with a different rationale were related with this.


    To be fair, as Paradigmnoia observes, the flash combustion of small particles could explain many ones. But I think I've read before that in some cases X-ray emission might arise during self-propagating high temperature synthesis, and chemical combustion alone shouldn't be causing that.

  • [Alan Smith

    That's interesting to know (but going along the previously given description, it naturally follows that high current, low voltage arcs would work);

    Regarding: "It naturally follows that high current, low voltage arcs would work"



    The QX is a downsized version of the SunCell with the plasma ball reduced to the size of a speck of dust. You can understand what is happening inside the QX by looking at what is happening inside the SunCell when both systems are running in self sustain mode. The metal used in the QX is aluminum whereas the metal used to support the plasma inside the SunCell is silver. Lithium is not a reactant and remains in the vapor form. Unlike the SunCell, the hydrogen pressure inside the QX tube is very high because the amount of solid fuel that is placed inside the QX must be proportionality substantial relative to the size of the tube in order for the fuel loading to be manageable manually. Rossi cannot work with(load) nanograms of fuel into that small tube to produce a hydrogen pressure close to a vacuum.

    cleardot.gif

  • Just to be clear, I am not suggesting a flour bomb is what ball lightning-like things actually are.


    I am just pointing out that it can be dangerous if the experiment is not well thought out. Even nickel powder will burn violently in the right conditions.

  • During the demo, Rossi said that the hydrogen envelope inside the tube is the size of a hair. The very small size of this volume is inherently safe from many angles. There is not much destructive potential is such a small amount of material.

  • Loading that small tube with fuel takes some imagination. Would dissolving the lithium aluminum hydride in a liquid and placing the tube in the fuel solution so that capillary action of the tube draws the fuel solution into it work? Then dry the tube out to remove the liquid so that only a film of fuel coats the inside of the capillary space.

  • During the demo, Rossi said that the hydrogen envelope inside the tube is the size of a hair. The very small size of this volume is inherently safe from many angles. There is not much destructive potential is such a small amount of material.


    Only about 0.7 g of mass was converted to energy when Hiroshima was incinerated.

    So maybe only a few dozen blocks of Stockholm if things went bad?

  • Loading that small tube with fuel takes some imagination. Would dissolving the lithium aluminum hydride in a liquid and placing the tube in the fuel solution so that capillary action of the tube draws the fuel solution into it work? Then dry the tube out to remove the liquid so that only a film of fuel coats the inside of the capillary space.


    You can dissolve LiAlH4 in ethoxyethane, so long as the ee is not contaminated by the absorption of atmospheric moisture,

  • You can dissolve LiAlH4 in ethoxyethane, so long as the ee is not contaminated by the absorption of atmospheric moisture,


    A very dilute solution can insure that a very small amount of fuel can be loaded. The dilution level determining the amount of fuel that is to be loaded.