Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes


  • You predict hydrogen atoms can cluster independent of any matrix. I know of no evidence for the formation of hydrogen clusters outside of normal chemical interaction. If they should form, the conditions in the chemical structure must be very different from those normally present in a chemical system. A very rare and unusual condition must form first in which normal chemical behavior no longer applies.


    The clustering of hydrogen atoms forms the basis of Holmlid'e ultra dense hydrogen technology. The process by which these clusters form is through the formation of Hole Superconductivity. The formation of this state is driven by the minimization of energy. Rossi has referenced this process in his last paper and states in chapter 4 that these hydrogen clusters are the key to his reaction.

  • Chemical states are explained very well without the need to apply relativity corrections or space-time distortions. These concepts are applied when high energy is involved because they are needed to explain the behavior. They are not needed to explain the behavior of a chemical system because the energies are not large enough to justify such correction factors.


    The energies in electromagnetically based quantum states are indeed to small to justify relativity and to small to cause nuclear reactions.


    For years, fusion research has been trying to provide the promise of nuclear fusion using inertial confinement. Always there has been a need for better confinement. Now by using weak interacting quantum states, a new form of confinement allows fusion below the Lawson criteria. Rather than the forcing atoms into smaller space, weak interacting quantum states, (WQS) place atoms in in time-space that is dilated and contracted.


    WQS are accessed by absorption of high energy photons. There are 240 accessible states between hydrogen ionization and neutron decay (13.5878925 ev to 0.7824260693 MeV specific to within 2.0E-5 ev). These states have quantum numbers related as follows E=n2hv. The high energy photons required for WQS, phat photons, are supplied from hydrogen ionization. This relationship of hydrogen Phats have be known for almost 40 years. What is new is that they create a catalyst for fusion. The interaction of a phat with hydrogen is new chemistry. Chemistry is described by states, so the description of new states is required.


    These weak states are not electromagnetically based quantum mechanics. The weak force must use W particles or other weak force-based bosons. With WQS there is production of a W particles then its conversion to an antineutrino and an electron and back to W particles in a pattern that produces a non-transverse wave superpositioned on the hydrogen atom. Non-transverse because it uses quarks in the nucleus and the electron in its electromagnetically based quantum orbit and because instant relativity is one dimensional. The various weak based quantum states are specific to energy levels listed above. Only state n= 240 has the expectation to produce a neutron. One calculates expectations using shrinkage of hydrogen to a neutron and neutron decay time as a basis, one calculates L/L0 = m0/m =Δt0/Δt =Lorentz factor. Look at my pending patent to see details. Further, one can predict a rest mass for the anti-neutrino, assign a shrinkage value and a positive charge shielding value to each quantum state. One can insert the relative positive charge shielding directly into the equation for the coulomb barrier to predict how much less energy is required to bridge that barrier when either the projectile or the target has a WQS at a known quantum level. Relativity based on antineutrinos is the source of containment for each atom. Also, WQS create a giant dipole in the nucleus because instant relativity is one dimensional and the wave is non-transverse. The dipole results in a magnetic field so extreme that WQS affected atoms can bond magnetically. This extreme magnetic field is the predicted and the observed result of relativity; the relative motion of the electron and a nuclear dipole.

  • You predict hydrogen atoms can cluster independent of any matrix. I know of no evidence for the formation of hydrogen clusters outside of normal chemical interaction. If they should form, the conditions in the chemical structure must be very different from those normally present in a chemical system. A very rare and unusual condition must form first in which normal chemical behavior no longer applies. Simply using the description "superpostioning weak states" adds nothing of value because it does not give any information about how the rare condition can be produced. An explanation is useful only when it allows understanding to move forward by allowing the idea to be tested. How would you plan to cause and then test this behavior in the lab?


    I hope the detail in previous post helped with the " very rare and unusual condition" which results in new states and the co-incidence with reverse neutron decay such that a condition which produces hydrogen phats is a condition that produces a catalyst cluster. It was Santilli who created a plan and produced results to test this behavior in the lab. Although that wasn't his intension.


    Nothing in the above description of interaction (superpostioning) of a electromagnetically based quantum state with weak force-based quantum states requires a solid state. Although, it is possible to calculate the specific distance between conductive surfaces to produce a waveguide. A waveguide for specific wavelengths which are required to form the states of hydrogen above. The prediction is a form of dense hydrogen at the surface or inside of a hydrogen absorbing conductive metal. I’ve done the calculations and you can too. They require introducing some imperfections in the lattice structure to get the distance between layers of metal right. I have mentioned other evidences with tie to LENR as you define it. But, working with metals for proof is your limitation not mine.


    Rather the proof in my pending patent is analysis in the gas phase. I didn’t use Santilli’s explanation of magnecules or his theory because I did not believe it possible to deform hydrogen significantly from it quantum state. When I first saw all the mass spectra data showing all the new masses because of magnecules, I was astonished that such a result could be possible. In fact, based on electromagnetically based quantum states or chemistry as it is currently defined, it isn’t possible.


    Santilli’s data and experiment provided an opportunity to define the origin of magnecules differently from Santill. (see the previous post) . His data is certified data from an independent lab and I am independent of Santilli. So, thats where I started. I was puzzled by Santilli’s claim of intermediate fusion. I could see the data showed production of nitrogen, but he didn’t do a mass balance. Why? A nuclear transmutation may be expected to change a proton to a neutron or vice-a versa, but the total number of nucleons must remain unchanged. So I could do a mass balance and put the mass balance on that basis.


    Briefly this is how that is done. Change the before and after data to a nucleon basis and adjust the percentages to the same total nucleon basis. Take the difference between before and after. That difference is the chemical change and any nuclear change. One uses the idea of magnecules and statistics to assign unknown masses and couple of other things you can see if you read the pending patent. Then mass balance out the chemistry and you are left with the nuclear change. So there it was: nuclear fusion. WOW. But without the energy expected or high energy nuclear products or neutrons. Does that sound familiar to LENR?


    But that's not the best part. All atoms are discrete so if a reaction has occurred it has a balanced equation that can be determined by the usual methods of stoichiometry. Which it did. In my universe nobody can fake precise stoichiometry. So there you have proof:: 1) Data derived balanced nuclear equation. 2) a precise and accuracy proof of the formation of de-novo nitrogen. The reaction is reproducible and could be used to produce any amount of de-novo nitrogen.

  • Apologies if this is the wrong place to ask this question.


    Does anyone know how to obtain a copy, in any format, of Ken's book, "EV: A Tale of Discovery"? I have long been intrigued by his work and have wanted to try an replicate some of what is within in my current lab capabilities. His papers and patents leave some questions that hopefully the book fills in.


    Thanks

    Scott

  • Does anyone know how to obtain a copy, in any format, of Ken's book, "EV: A Tale of Discovery"?


    Alan "temporarily" put it somewhere on the forum. Not sure if it is still here though. I read it myself...or at least the non-technical parts, and truly a fascinating story. Ken was quite the genius, and it amazes me he was not taken more seriously by the establishment.

  • Oh good there is, or at least was, an E-copy floating about. I am brand new to the forum so am not sure exactly who Alan is?


    Yes, it sure does look like Ken was an exceptionally talented guy. From what I can glean the apparatus needed to generate and use the EVO effect is not terribly exotic but I have yet to find any evidence that anyone has tried to replicate his work.

  • Scott Fusare


    I was gifted a copy of the print book by one of Ken's colleagues, and I got an OCR copy made. Email me via the forum and I can send it to you - sadly the file is too big to upload here. To use the forum email system click on my picture (gently now!) and the next screen has a menu showing icons- click on the pencil icon and that's how you do it.

  • Scott Fusare

    None of those promoting Shoulders' work seem to be. Possibly private replication attempts by other parties might be ongoing but I have no actual knowledge of those. Note that I mean direct replication of his actual devices/gizmos, not liberal interpretations of any observation he might or might have not made.

  • I did chat with a few people who knew KS about replication a few years back. The general opinion was that while producing EVO's might be simple enough, actually sorting out what they could do and measuring and observing the effects would be difficult and expensive.

  • Regarding measurements, in year 2000 Hal Fox wrote to William Beaty (Vortex-l admin):


    http://amasci.com/weird/evexp.html


    Quote

    [...] Ken works much with single shots. He charges a small capacitor to a given high voltage (maybe several hundred volts). It is easy to measure the voltage on the capacitor before a "shot" and after the shot and compute the energy used. Similarly, the output is captured in a capacitor. It is easy to compute the power output supplied to the capacitor. Shoulders has shown that it is relatively easy to get ten times as much electrical energy out as input electrical energy. The trick is to provide an input pulse that is very short to make the charge cluster and to make the output pulse as wide as possible. This is not simple because one needs to produce clusters using nanosecond, high-voltage pulses.


    Hal Fox knew Shoulders well and in the early 2000s his company acquired the rights to using his patents (source), but no actually working device was ever presented. Fox died in 2012: http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/HalFox.pdf


    Quote

    [...] “Hal spent much of his own money supporting the field while being forever optimistic that some big deal or a wealthy patron would come forward. In spite of many failures to obtain financial support, Hal continued his research, focusing on the electron charge cluster discovered by Ken Shoulders. Unfortunately, Nature was not kind to his efforts so that an expected working device never materialized.”

  • This has been my exact concern and something I hope the book might help with. It is not at all clear to me how to differentiate between a "normal" spark and an EVO. Particularly given thta he states all sparks contain EVOs. Perhaps he looked at charge transfer to the target or something similar?

  • This has been my exact concern and something I hope the book might help with. It is not at all clear to me how to differentiate between a "normal" spark and an EVO. Particularly given that he states all sparks contain EVOs. Perhaps he looked at charge transfer to the target or something similar?


    My understanding is that an EVO is present in front of every newly generated spark, which is probably why he wanted to generate very short, square pulses: any energy added to the electric discharge beyond that required to form an EVO would be wasted. Unfortunately with very short pulses also come great difficulties in performing reliable measurements.

  • My understanding is that an EVO is present in front of every newly generated spark, which is probably why he wanted to generate very short, square pulses: any energy added to the electric discharge beyond that required to form an EVO would be wasted. Unfortunately with very short pulses also come great difficulties in performing reliable measurements.


    That is my understanding of Shoulders views on this as well. I know he talked about short, fast rise time pulses but I have not yet found where he defines "short" or "fast rise time". I gather there is some threshold that must be met in dumping the charge fast enough to trigger the phenomena.


    Yep, high dV/dt waveforms really add to the challenge of measurement technique and data interpretation. I often get the feeling that folks don't fully appreciate the challenges involved with this and happily attribute EMI driven readings to something exotic as opposed to noise corrupted measurements.

  • Does it confuse anybody that the book and the papers, which I saw, do not contain a single electrical circuit diagram but plenty diagrams of a Teslaesque contraptions?


    Well his artwork in the patents is typical in my experience. It would be unusual to have a cook book sort of presentation in that venue. I was hoping that the book fills some of this in, guess I better get reading. I don't need a cook book but do need more detail than I have found so far.

  • That is my understanding of Shoulders views on this as well. I know he talked about short, fast rise time pulses but I have not yet found where he defines "short" or "fast rise time". I gather there is some threshold that must be met in dumping the charge fast enough to trigger the phenomena.


    There is some data in US 5,123,039. In an example he used 600 ns-long pulses.


    Quote

    As an example, with a mercury wetted copper wire as a cathode in place of the launcher 552, a xenon gas pressure of approximately 10-2 torr, an input pulse voltage 600 ns wide at 1 kv with a firing rate of 100 pulses per second impressed through a 1500 ohm input resistor 568, and with an anode voltage of zero and a target load 570 of 50 ohms, an output voltage of -2 kv was achieved on a 200 ohm delay line 564 and an output voltage into the target 556 of -60 volts. A faint purple glow was established within the tube 554 and, when a positive input voltage was applied to the anode 556, visual EV streamers were present for the last centimeter of the EV run just before striking the anode. The wave form generated in the helix 564 is a function of the gas pressure. Generally, a sharp negative pulse of approximately 16 ns in length was produced with the aforementioned parameters, followed by a flat pulse having a length that was linearly related to the gas pressure, and which could be made to vary from virtually zero at preferred conditions of minimal gas pressure to as long as one millisecond. The input pulse repetition rate may be reduced for such high gas pressure values to permit clearing of ions within the tube between pulses to accommodate the long output pulse. The magnitude of the negative pulse increased as the gas pressure decreased. At minimal gas pressure, only a sharp negative pulse of approximately 16 ns width was obtained.


    He then goes on explaining in an embodiment that since the output pulse remains about the same, with much shorter pulses, ideally in the picoseconds range, a very large gain could be obtained.


    Quote

    Under preferred conditions, the gas pressure is reduced to the lowest value that will sustain the EV generation in the tube, or envelope, at the same time losing the trailing portion of the output pulse as discussed above. The EV is formed during a brief portion early in the time of the input pulse, and this fact is reflected in a brief, sharp shoulder in the vicinity of the leading edge of the negative input pulse. Consequently, with reduced gas pressure in the traveling wave tube, the length of the input pulse may be reduced while still providing a 16 ns long output pulse. With the input pulse length reduced to 5 ns, for example, the corrected energy conversion factor becomes (16÷5)×30=96. That is to say, with the input pulse length reduced as noted, energy available at the output of the helix of the traveling wave tube is ninety-six times the energy input to the traveling wave tube, in addition to the energy consumed within the traveling wave tube and the energy available in the form of collected particles at the collector electrode.


    Even a greater energy conversion factor is available if the input pulse is further reduced; an EV may be generated with an input pulse as short as 10-3 ns. The EV is a mechanism for tapping a source of energy and providing that energy for conversion to usable electrical form.


    His diagrams typically show a square wave input signal.