Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes

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    I'm curious enough that I might attempt something myself with improvised equipment and cheap stuff (for example, I previously hinted that I planned using an ignition coil for the high voltage signal. They have a slow repetition rate but the actual high voltage spike should be only a few nanoseconds long), but I don't trust my competence in electronics enough to be playing with high voltages; I would also be limited to experiments at atmospheric pressures (which should still work to some extent, although Shoulders has always used systems with a relatively good vacuum which makes the effect more efficient and easier to study). The good thing at least is that hydrogen isn't required, which enormously simplifies any replication task. EVOs are an anomaly related to the electron and LENR would be pretty much a side effect.


    I'm sure that others could easily attempt a replication or experiment along existing hints/suggestions with the materials and equipment they already have, better monitoring instrumentation and higher competence.

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    I'm curious enough that I might attempt something myself with improvised equipment and cheap stuff (for example, I previously hinted that I planned using an ignition coil for the high voltage signal. They have a slow repetition rate but the actual high voltage spike should be only a few nanoseconds long), but I don't trust my competence in electronics enough to be playing with high voltages; I would also be limited to experiments at atmospheric pressures (which should still work to some extent, although Shoulders has always used systems with a relatively good vacuum which makes the effect more efficient and easier to study). The good thing at least is that hydrogen isn't required, which enormously simplifies any replication task. EVOs are an anomaly related to the electron and LENR would be pretty much a side effect.


    I'm sure that others could easily attempt a replication or experiment along existing hints/suggestions with the materials and equipment they already have, better monitoring instrumentation and higher competence.


    Don't assume too little of your capabilities. But don't kill yourself either.

    You have proven to be capable of clear thinking. That, and a pile of junk is all you need (Edison paraphrase)


    We may be on to something... I'll PM you soon


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  • Speaking of electrons and anomalies, what I wrote above indirectly made me recall that in one the latest videos that was posted by ColdFusionNow several months ago (which I transcribed on LENR-Forum), Edmund Storms said this:


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    [16:29] Where during this process do the nuclei recognize they have too much mass and need to get rid of it? In hot fusion, this is done quickly and overwhelms this process. This is the unique feature of cold fusion, this is where cold fusion differs from hot fusion. Cold fusion is slow and methodical and because it occurs over a period of time the energy has time to get out in small quanta. The electron must have special properties. The electron is the only thing new and novel here: everything else is consistent with normal physics except for that electron. Something new has been discovered and is required to make cold fusion work.


    Basically Storms' idea is that the actual anomaly in LENR is with the electron, which is what brings hydrogen atoms in a sort of metallic state he calls that the Hydroton (but other researchers also have their ideas on dense, metallic-like hydrogen atoms explaining LENR results). So, for people struggling to understand why/how EVOs might be be behind LENR, this could offer a possible answer.



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    Electronics is not my bread&butter, so to speak. Furthermore, power analyzers, oscilloscopes, probes and the like would help the task significantly and I only have basic tools.

  • "The electron must have special properties" (E.Storms).


    This reminds me of a long-ago physics lecturer, who said 'We can describe the mass, the charge, and the spin of an electron, specify it's energy level, often tell where it has been and where it is going, but never forget this. It is an electron, it has powers and properties we have yet to discover, and - just sometimes- it will do it's own thing, whether we want it to or not.'

  • In this case, discharges could not be the way for Lenr. This appaers as a electron cluster disorderly.

    This is why, BTW, we meet sometimes just a little tranmutations not a lot of XH.

    BTW, we should find more results inside an ordered lattice because tidy current...

    The reality is more complex, so big results are found by P&F with a cubic cathode. (expensive but runs well)

    Why? Because in this case, it exists in small areas of the cubic lattice, " crossed currents".

    These generate very "special trajectories" for electrons.


    Now to stop talking I wish a merry Christmas to all.

  • Cydonia

    For what it's worth, Shoulders and coworkers thought that hydrogen embrittlement in palladium cathodes is responsible for randomly (but consistently in some cases) creating sudden discharges by fracto-emission within micro-cracks, which would generate EV. Interestingly, Storms also thinks that LENR occurs within such cracks (the so called Nuclear Active Environment or NAE, although of "nano-" size in his opinion). In a previous comment I linked a couple related writings where this is discussed a bit more in detail, along with a paper by Shoulders.


    I don't think that HV discharges and fracto-emission would be the only way to produce suitable concentrated voltage gradients.


  • Interesting article. From the link:


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    [...] This discovery, that high kinetic energy can be imparted to positive ions by a cluster which has been formed with relatively low-energy means, is important! As an example of the extent of the kinetic energy developed in a positive ion, when 5 kilovolts potential difference is applied, a proton (deuteron) in the case of a pure proton (deuteron) cluster will attain 5 KeV energy. However, a proton (deuteron) embedded in a cluster, using the same accelerating potential of 5 kilovolts could attain a kinetic energy of 9.18 (18.36) million electron volts! This additional kinetic energy is now sufficient to overcome the Coulomb barrier of a typical target nucleus and produce nuclear reactions. When a large number of such charge clusters, with accompanying positive ions, are produced and accelerated to a target anode, the nuclear reaction rate can be quite high.


    As charge cluster research and development matures, it is likely that this technique of promoting high kinetic-energy positive ions will become one of the least expensive and easiest methods to study nuclear reactions. A table-top, compact, charged-particle accelerator may no longer be a dream but become a reality. Such table-top particle accelerators are proposed to supplement large, expensive, particle accelerators. In the near future, small colleges and even secondary schools will be able to afford a laboratory particle accelerator.


    I think I've read this from other sources. An EV charge cluster was thought to be able to embed much heavier ions within it without losing significant velocity. Since the cluster is composed of millions-trillions of electrons while embedding a much smaller number of heavy ions like protons or deuterons, under an applied voltage this would result in such ions getting accelerated to the same velocity of these electrons, thus gaining significant kinetic energy in the process, which would be sufficient for them to engage easily in nuclear reactions with the target. EDIT: From this, it sounds like it could be very interesting to use monoatomic heavy gases with the same process (e.g. noble gases).


    Also:


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    [...] If you are working with devices in which charge clusters are expected to be produced, the following procedure is suggested. Place a small transistor radio near the suspected cluster target. Tune to an AM (amplitude modulated) part of the radio band where there are no AM stations on the air. Turn up the volume and listen for "cracks" of static. When a charge cluster strikes it will emits sufficient electromagnetic energy to hear on such a radio. Remember that FM (frequency modulation) clips these bursts of EM radiation and that static discharges will not be heard on FM stations.

    If you question whether these clusters can do damage to metal surfaces, just disconnect the capacitor that is wired across the breaker points of a distributor in a gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine. You will soon find that you will need to replace the distributor breaker points. The capacitor is sufficient to prevent the formation of charge clusters.


    So basically one just has to listen to the EMI produced to detect EV? This could be done in many obvious ways; I might have done it accidentally in the past during non-EV-related tests (in intent, at least)

  • The EVO is a non-equilibrium process that requires continual energy input to sustain itself. However, it can self-stimulate in a process commonly called self-sustain mode. This EMF stimulant is what makes the EVO effective in the macroscopic world. In the QX, light is the EVO stimulant. Even when the RF pumping is shut down in the 7 second cycle, the light produced by the QX continues to be produced. But after 4 seconds of self-sustain operation, the 7 second cycle must be renewed with a high voltage spark and another 3 seconds of RF. What most LENR reactor builders don't appreciate is the absolute requirement for self-sustain stimulation.


    Ed Storms now recognizes the existence of an energy storage mechanism in LENR. What is stored is light energy. Gamma radiation, a form of high energy light, is extracted from subatomic particle decay and stored for later release, but that high energy based form of EMF is transformed by interference as an energy mixing process with other lower frequencies of light to store the gamma energy as frequency increase. This stored light is the self-stimulant that keeps the LENR reaction going. The baseline light frequency is that light that a High intensity light (HID) would produce without any LENR energy input.


    In the QX as an example, the light that the LENR reaction produces can vary from red to blue based on the energy pumping that is happening in the LENR storage mechanism. If the RF portion of the cycle is increased beyond the 3 second time slice, the energy stored by the LENR reaction will increase to a blue color, but if the RF portion of the cycled is shortened to 3 seconds, then the color produced by the pumping is lowered to red.


    If the RF stimulant is kept constant throughout the entire QX pumping cycle then the QX will be overstimulated into super criticality and it will then meltdown.



    There is a side channel of energy release in the infrared frequency range that is constant. This side channel of light production is fixed in frequency regardless of the pumping with RF. This side channel of light production is called hawking radiation because the EVO is an analog EMF black hole.

  • I suggest NAE concept from Storms should remain reliable even if still inaccurate because he tries to improve his knowledges following own brain waves..

    Personally, in any cases, energy, discharges, don' t trigger Lenr.

    About clusters, if you imagine ten electrons which have to recover orbital trajectory with ten nucleus, sometimes, one of them forget their way..if for example the nearby environment is complex and crowded with obstacles such as cracks or rare gas.

    The meaning of " forget their way"", i suggest here, would mean "they lose all their kinetic energy and fall on the nucleus".

    The excellent Groszek paper shared here by Alan Smith goes in this direction.

    This explanation well connects Lenr with "simple"chemistry often we saw...

    Can, i 'm not sure that " gradient tension" are necessary because i saw some electrolysis experiment with around 50 W wich have melted ZrO2 substrat..


    Alan Smith said:" It is an electron, it has powers and properties we have yet to discover, and - just sometimes- it will do it's own thing,"

    NAE is an environnement where electron's trajectories are complex because constraints..

    The main thing is the constraint, also the discharges generate these but in a small proportion and by too heterogeneous way.


    Bocijn well spoke about hidden momentum.. (thanks for shared paper)


    Cydonia

    For what it's worth, Shoulders and coworkers thought that hydrogen embrittlement in palladium cathodes is responsible for randomly (but consistently in some cases) creating sudden discharges by fracto-emission within micro-cracks, which would generate EV. Interestingly, Storms also thinks that LENR occurs within such cracks (the so called Nuclear Active Environment or NAE, although of "nano-" size in his opinion). In a previous comment I linked a couple related writings where this is discussed a bit more in detail, along with a paper by Shoulders.


    I don't think that HV discharges and fracto-emission would be the only way to produce suitable concentrated voltage gradients.

  • It's called 'heat after death'. We look for it all the time.


    I don't believe that the LENR stimulus is heat.


    See the KERR effect.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerr_effect


    The stimulus is the DC KERR effect or a laser pulse


    A high voltage field produced by a spark will produce this.


    and the self sustain stimulus is the AC KERR effect.


    The light from the high intensity plasma will produce this.


    You can put the QX is a hot refractory furnace and you will get no reaction.

    : heat won't do the job. Heat is an output of the LENR reaction "sometimes" not an input based stimulus.


    As an example, if your theory were correct, EVOs would be produced when you heat aluminum covered in silicon carbide. You will find that no transmutation results.


    Ken Shoulders produces EOVs by the application of a spark to the aluminum covered in silicon carbide. You will find that transmutation is produced.


  • Interesting dialog about heat after death.

    For myself i still suggest that Lenr reaction makes some hybrids nucleus following nucleus cluster's models.

    In this case, binding energy isn't the same between each nucleon inside a nucleus.

    Lenr reactions increases this imbalance.

    That means that ash as lenr reaction product becomes unstable then releases back a part of XH (heat after death), when nucleus retrieve its original binding energy distribution.

    This is why Rossi re-used a part of old ash to do a new mix.

    It also implies that all isotopic analyzes are false ...