Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes

  • The book is just a summary of all of his experiments. As such it is of high value for people that are knowledgeable in the art.


    But what would be of may more interest is a mathematical model that explains the EVO behavior. There are some S. papers trying it, but they are not compelling. If any body has some links (not Shoulders papers!) this would definitely be of interest.

  • https://www.researchgate.net/p…uterium_fusion_catalyzers


    Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes


    https://www.lenr-forum.com/att…ters-a-theoretical-model/


    My opinion is that at least one form of EVO is basically a very energy dense form of spheromak. If you compare the launch and impact marks, the continual emission of electrons, the production of x-rays upon destruction, the stabilization and ease of formation when noble gases are utilized, and many other issues spheromaks and EVOs seem very similar.

  • The references director gave are crude speculations:


    Here some more serious references:


    FORCE-FREE TIME-HARMONIC PLASMOIDS - Jack Nachamkin


    to be found on:

    https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA257765


    https://www.researchgate.net/p…Radiation_Diffusion_Model


    Can be downloaded from a "mill" site.


    something newer


    Electromagnetic toroidal excitations in matter and free space

    N. Papasimakis1*, V. A. Fedotov1, V. Savinov1, T. A. Raybould1 and N. I. Zheludev1,2

  • Read up to pg 51 of the Shoulders secreted book. Very interesting. Why has his work not been picked up by the mainstream, or has it? This is solid experimental science, and he leaves no doubt his experiments documented something extraordinary. Now I see why Ed Lewis, BobG, Director and others in LENR research refer to his work.

  • Found this interesting. Old, from 1992.

    https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/cit…-V_wcluA42LC4xU9JVebT9938

    "Abstract : A heretofore unexplored solution of Maxwell's equations is investigated for time-harmonic waves in a partially ionized gas. The analysis is focused on the spherically symmetric cases that behave like electromagnetic energy trapped in the form of a plasmoid . It will be shown that a critical frequency exists, below which the current cannot be carried by electrons and the plasmoid remains stable. Resonant sizes will be shown to exist such that plasmoids will not exchange energy with their external surroundings, and their boundary conditions can be met by vacuum solutions to Maxwell's equations. Virial analysis calculates free-change density and critical frequency to be consistent with Newtonian mechanics and classical electromagnetics. A stable vortical motion of the plasma will be shown to exactly cancel the dominant component of the electromechanical stresses, with the residual stresses being a strongly decreasing function of frequency."

  • Found this interesting. Old, from 1992.

    https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/cit…-V_wcluA42LC4xU9JVebT9938

    "Abstract : A heretofore unexplored solution of Maxwell's equations is investigated for time-harmonic waves in a partially ionized gas. The analysis is focused on the spherically symmetric cases that behave like electromagnetic energy trapped in the form of a plasmoid . It will be shown that a critical frequency exists, below which the current cannot be carried by electrons and the plasmoid remains stable. Resonant sizes will be shown to exist such that plasmoids will not exchange energy with their external surroundings, and their boundary conditions can be met by vacuum solutions to Maxwell's equations. Virial analysis calculates free-change density and critical frequency to be consistent with Newtonian mechanics and classical electromagnetics. A stable vortical motion of the plasma will be shown to exactly cancel the dominant component of the electromechanical stresses, with the residual stresses being a strongly decreasing function of frequency."



    Thanks for this reference. The full text is here


    https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a257765.pdf


    Force-Free Time-Harmonic Plasmoids

  • If you start to read the referenced theory then you will also begin to understand what people talk about. Toroids (EVO's) can be conform with the non-radiation (black..) condition!


    From "EV A Tale of Discovery"


    Kenneth R. Shoulders

    Description of the Black EVO


    "When the anode is correctly positioned, and the gas pressure is off, the path of the EV is fairly short, and definitely tortured, as evidenced by the large amount of light given off from surface interaction. As the gas pressure is raised, the light from surface interaction dims out, and the distance the EV will travel to the anode increases greatly. Under the microscope it can be seen that the EV has been raised above the surface. The lifting is most evident on rough surfaces where the tops of protruding ceramic bits are attacked by the passing EV. As the gas pressure is raised further, the EV is lifted above the protruding obstacles . This is a rather amazing process to watch but it is absolutely dependable as if the surface had been greased with a magic substance. I had been accustomed to using highly polished surfaces for EV guides but even the roughest surface had low loss with gas."


    What causes the Black EVO to fly over the surface when the gas pressure is increased? Why does the gas increase turn the Bright EVO into a black EVO?

  • Found this also interesting, from 2017:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867056/

    "
    Abstract

    Localized spoof surface plasmons (LSSPs) have recently emerged as a new research frontier due to their unique properties and increasing applications. Despite the importance, most of the current researches only focus on electric/magnetic LSSPs. Very recent research has revealed that toroidal LSSPs, LSSPs modes with multipole toroidal moments, can be achieved at a point defect in a 2D groove metal array. However, this metamaterial shows the limitations of large volume and poor compatibility to photonic integrated circuits. To overcome the above challenges, here it is proposed and experimentally demonstrated compact planar metadisks based on split ring resonators to support the toroidal LSSPs at microwave frequencies. Additionally, it is experimentally demonstrated that the toroidal LSSPs resonance is very sensitive to the structure changes and the background medium. These might facilitate its utilization in the design and application of plasmonic deformation sensors and the refractive index sensors.

    Keywords: localized spoof plasmons, metamaterials, toroidal dipoles"

  • A potential explanation for how this could be possible is to consider the work of Simon at http://www.subtleatomics.com


    Simon Brink claims that the interaction of hydrogen (or deuterium) with a variety of catalytic elements "shrinks" the hydrogen to a smaller size where it is more susceptible to undergoing nuclear reactions. For example, a hydrogen atom in the "ground state" can interact with many different elements to go to lower fractional states. But, however, once at one of these lower fractional states (1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10, etc) the same element may not trigger an additional shrinkage. So a hydrogen atom may need to interact with element "A" to then shrink to 1/3rd fractional state. But then to reach 1/4th fractional state it may have to interact with element "B". Then to get even smaller it may have to bounce into an atom of element "C." Eventually, after reaching a very small state (beyond perhaps 1/8th or smaller) the shrunken hydrogen atoms can experience nuclear reactions with other hydrogen atoms or other catalytic elements (copper, palladium, nickel, titanium, etc). Instead of producing a few hundred eV, these nuclear reactions can produce millions of eV.


    Yes, that's mostly what I'm proposing. As energy matches need to be very close (+/- 0.2% or so), it's not so easy to use multiple catalysts to get to lower fractional states, as you often run into 'dead ends' where there are no suitable catalysts. For this reason it may often be easier to use 1 step catalysts that allow larger jumps. What is currently needed to progress the theory is experimental data to quantify transition energies to lower Hydrogen states to confirm whether the theoretical model matches actual data. I suspect that as electrons get closer to the size of the nucleus, there would be some distortion to the inverse Rydberg model due to increased interaction with the nucleus. Experimental spectrum quantification will allow catalysts to be engineered. - A great PhD project!!!

  • How could the subatomics string together to form a magnetic 'shoulderezion?

    In your spreadsheet ,,, is the calculated mass based on your model ( as per Wyttenbach's meticulous maths)?


    What I'm thinking is that these super charge clusters are associated with super-massive nuclei. Pretty much the rule of the universe is that electrons are paired with protons, so if you've got a lot of electrons, you've also got a lot of protons, i.e. a super-massive nucleus, i.e. a black hole. In terms of structure for a super nucleus, I'm proposing that the structure is a FCC lattice of alpha particles, with extra neutrons added in somewhere. How can this be stable? Can't say exactly, but can say that the existing model of strong and week nuclear forces is likely incomplete at best, so I wouldn't waste time trying to workout why you can't have super-nuclei. We are pretty confident that we have an ultra-massive super-nucleus (black hole) at the centre of our galaxy which hasn't yet exploded, so these things are definitely possible regardless of whether we have equations to explain them.


    The model I'm looking at comes from the idea that particle radius should be the reduced Compton wavelength if they are bosonic (1 wavelength per rotation), but can be multiples or fractions of this if they are fermonic. This is the wave-particle equivalence principle. Based on this, if you know the radius and the number of wavelengths per rotation, you can calculate the mass (or via versa). The model has been recently updated based on a new insight, i.e. that the charge radius of the pion is 3/4 of the charge radius of the proton. The proton has now been nicely resolved as 4 shells rather than 3. Refer to subtleatomics.com/new-atomic-model