New Patent Filed by Leif Holmlid

  • Big thank you to our Eagle Scout Ahlfors who posted a link to this new patent (attached below) in 'Clearance Items'. The patent discusses the production of both Muons and ultra-dense Hydrogen, and I think deserves thread of its own.






  • It looks like the patent (application?) is mostly about a more efficient accumulator/generator for the ultra-dense hydrogen he produces. He also describes a new apparatus where measurements are performed with the current induced by the charged particles emitted from the reaction on a toroidal coil. I guess this will be used in one of his next papers.


    New information which I don't recall reading (or at least, not seen directly mentioned) in his published papers:


    Quote

    The present invention is based on the realization that muons can be generated cheaper and more energy efficiently than using conventional methods, by accumulating ultra-dense hydrogen and subjecting the accumulated ultra-dense hydrogen to a perturbing field (such as an electromagnetic field, including purely electric or magnetic fields).


    Quote

    According to various embodiments, furthermore, the hydrogen accumulator may further comprise a metallic absorbing member for absorbing hydrogen in the ultra-dense state, arranged in the accumulation portion of the hydrogen accumulating member.


    Quote

    Advantageously, the metallic absorbing member may be made of at least one material selected from the group consisting of a metal in a liquid state at an operating temperature for the apparatus, and a catalytically active metal in a solid state at the operating temperature for the apparatus.

    Examples of suitable materials for the metallic absorbing member include liquid or easily melted metals like Ga or K, and solid catalytically active metals like Pt or Ni etc.

    (or also Li? By the way, this probably explains why the superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen would get depleted from the Ni surface in this paper)


    Quote

    According to various embodiments, the apparatus of the invention may further comprise a heating arrangement for increasing a temperature of the accumulating member comprised in the hydrogen accumulator.

    By increasing the temperature of the accumulating member, the ultra-dense hydrogen can be transitioned from a super fluid to a normal fluid, which may reduce the amount of ultra-dense hydrogen escaping from the accumulating member through super-fluid creeping.

    (The coil is visible in fig.2, but it doesn't have a number)

  • http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAR18/Session/R06.13


  • From the Tern Research website linked above by Ahlfors there's a press release dated 2017-12-26; it has some interesting tidbits. It looks like they're doing laser ablation experiments. Metals exposed to ultra-dense hydrogen would take significantly more time to ablate.


    * * * * *


    Press Release 12-26-17 Tern Research

    A Southern Utah entrepreneur has completed a series of experiments at Southern Utah University confirming that an unusual phase of deuterium can exist under the right conditions. This research is based on the work of Prof. Leif Holmlid at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.


    Mike Taggett, who founded Chums, a sports accessories company, in 1983, is a long time inventor and researcher. Since selling Chums in 2002, Mike has spent most of his time working on alternative energy projects and inventions. He has worked in two labs prior to the one in Cedar City in attempts to verify the existence of Ultra Dense Deuterium (UDD). Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen, exists in sea water and contains a neutron along with the proton in its nucleus making it heavier than hydrogen.


    He has been studying dense deuterium for the past 5 years and has visited over 15 universities looking for a physics professor that would collaborate with him. "Most physics departments are pretty busy and they are reluctant to spend any time on a material they are skeptical about". He says. "I understand they are busy but Holmlid has spent over 12 years and has published over 30 papers; it's a significant discovery." In 2016, Mike was able to rent lab space at the University of Idaho and looked for changes in surface conductivity of metal samples being exposed to the catalyzed gas. "I was able to build up a good system; vacuum chamber, fast impedance analyzer, etc. but it turned out to be very tricky to get stable readings so the results were not reliable." I was trying to work there a year later in a laser lab but the project got stuck in bureaucracy." So Mike kept looking for places to work and did odd jobs to pay the bills.


    He had sold his home and was basically a science vagabond staying in cheap motels around the west. "I was staying in Cedar City and wandered over to SUU. I knew it was a 4 year teaching university, rather than having much research, but I thought I would take a look. I met Professor Ali Siahpush while waiting to see the Engineering Dept. Chair and I mentioned research and he said "Research? Great! If it aligns with our mission and you can use a student to help that would be great!" "Everyone was really helpful getting me going." Mike says. Mike was on a shoestring budget and built up a system with a rebuilt vacuum chamber, parts from eBay and a laser he borrowed from another university on condition he could repair it.


    Mike and his assistant Ben Thrift, an engineering student, had things up and running in 5 weeks. The work and data collection focused on comparing how the laser "ablates" the metal before and after deposition of the ultra dense layer (ablation is a term for removing material) and in this case the material evaporates directly from the solid rather than melting first.


    Mike says, "Looking into the vacuum chamber through the window, it looks like a welding torch when running as the pulsing laser is powerful but for very short times, about 5 nano seconds per pulse!" Mike and Ben ran over 20 multi-day experiments on a variety of metals and saw a definite change after the dense layer formed. "It would take 200 -300% longer to ablate through the metal. Pretty amazing considering the invisible UDD layer is really thin, perhaps just atoms thick!" "Of course there is always the chance of an alternative explanation but right now the results are positive," he says.


    Mike thinks the dense deuterium could have applications for energy storage or space propulsion. "It's really fun and challenging to work in an emerging field. I am one of just three groups that I know of working on this." "Who knows what can be done with this unique material?"


    The next step he says is to further the work with different types of particle and energy detectors to better understand UDD. Mike says, "A big thanks to Julia Anderson, Dean Robert Eves and professors Ali Siahpush, Matt Roberts, Scott Munro and Sangho Bok for helping me get going at SUU." http://www.ternresearch.com

  • I've also found this article about Mike Taggett's research, dated 2018-01-18. This is where one of Ahlfors' photos posted above comes from:


    http://www.thespectrum.com/sto…-solar-system/1044139001/


    Quote

    A Southern Utah scientist is studying potentially the most dense material in our solar system

    Mike Taggett is an entrepreneur-turned-scientist studying a form of hydrogen that some believe is denser than any material on our planet.


    [...]

  • I tried plugging in some numbers for the equation given in "Snap6.jpg" in the comment/paper above.


    En = T - [R / (n - d)2]

    T = ionization limit = 13.5984 eV (for hydrogen)

    R = Rydberg constant = 13.6057 eV

    d = quantum defect = 0 (assumed to be so in the paper)

    n = principal quantum number = 1 (in the case of the lowest energy level for Rydberg matter of atomic hydrogen, example here)


    Wouldn't E for n=1 become zero or perhaps even slightly negative? Or am I getting numbers or the calculation wrong?



  • The assumption about the quantum defect might be wrong. The quantum defect is large when the electron is close to nucleus. N = 1 means close. The quantum defect is zero when the electron is far from the nucleus. Learn more about the quantum defect.

  • axil

    I just tried searching up a quick definition for quantum defect applicable to this case. Wikipedia popped up:


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_defect


    Quote

    The quantum defect of a Rydberg atom refers to a correction applied to the equations governing Rydberg atom behavior to take into account the fact that the inner electrons do not entirely screen their associated charge in the nucleus


    I guess that since Rydberg hydrogen atoms do not have inner electrons, no correction should be applied and thus that the quantum defect should be zero.

  • I could be wrong...


    The quantum defect is the measure of time that the electron spends inside the nucleus. When the electron is close to the nucleus it spends a lot of time inside so the quantum defect is large. When the electron is excited, it is far away from the nucleus and the electron does not spend any time inside the nucleus. In this case the Quantum defect is zero. IF N=4 or greater then the quantum defect would be zero.

  • axil

    Definitions aside, as far as I am aware of, Rydberg matter as studied by Holmlid and colleagues is formed by Rydberg atoms in a so-called circular state, where the excited electron forms a large circular (toroidal) orbit and never gets close to the nucleus. For hydrogen atoms there would be no other electrons besides the one forming such orbit.


     

  • axil

    Definitions aside, as far as I am aware of, Rydberg matter as studied by Holmlid and colleagues is formed by Rydberg atoms in a so-called circular state, where the excited electron forms a large circular (toroidal) orbit and never gets close to the nucleus. For hydrogen atoms there would be no other electrons besides the one forming such orbit.


     

    holmlid.png


    Those electrons don't orbit. The electrons surround the proton core in spin wave. The molecule is superconductive and the meissner effect keeps the electrons at a distance from the protons.


    We when through this stuff all before in this thread


    LENR and UDH

  • axil

    Now you're referring to something different. In comment #11 you said that the assumption that the quantum defect of hydrogen Rydberg atoms was zero (from the excerpt posted by Ahlfors) might have been wrong. I think I have shown that it was a justified assertion. I'm not going to keep going through this detour any further.



    The assumption about the quantum defect might be wrong. The quantum defect is large when the electron is close to nucleus. N = 1 means close. The quantum defect is zero when the electron is far from the nucleus. Learn more about the quantum defect.

  • axil

    Now you're referring to something different. In comment #11 you said that the assumption that the quantum defect of hydrogen Rydberg atoms was zero (from the excerpt posted by Ahlfors) might have been wrong. I think I have shown that it was a justified assertion. I'm not going to keep going through this detour any further.

    I was only trying to help. I should have known better.

  • axil

    I made a short question on a specific point of the quoted paper and you started a general discussion on other aspects of Holmlid's theory. That was off-topic, in a way.


    Anyway, so that the last point doesn't remain unanswered: in Rydberg atoms and Rydberg matter the electrons still have orbital motion. However, according to Holmlid in Ultra-dense hydrogen (which is again different from "ordinary" Rydberg matter) the electrons indeed don't orbit anymore, but only have a "spin motion", which sounds similar to what you're writing.


    http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218301316500853

    http://www.worldscientific.com…10.1142/S0218301316500853 (open access pdf)



  • By the photos, it might be best to call them "young adults". It looks like most are 18 years or somewhat older.


    Longview,


    Welcome back, and huh...am I looking at the same photo as you? They look 40-50ish to me, but if 18, then I say bravo, because LENR needs some youngsters to take the reins. With McKubre's going from semi to fully retired recently, LENR needs some knew blood.

  • Maybe you Shane are a better judge of age, I'm getting up there, so they all look young now ;). Certainly the field needs not only young enthusiastic supporters but, as you may suggest, it needs a new crop of physicists, chemists, electrochemists and condensed matter theorists, in my humble opinion.

  • axil

    Why you would think that. He's 75 years old. Also (from his latest paper) :



    At least one more paper is planned too;




    if not from him certainly from Sveinn Ólafsson and Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen (the latter, of Norront Fusion Energy) who are working on the same research.


    This reference hasn't been published yet:



    From:

    https://www.dropbox.com/sh/sp7…r-Distance+dependency.pdf

    https://www.dropbox.com/sh/sp7…uUL0v3NrkY7BPYPKDA_a?dl=0