New Patent Filed by Leif Holmlid

  • can probably explain many excess heat results in LENR experiments without the emission of nuclear products


    1keV energy of conversion of itself cannot explain

    how the 2.2 MEV from D-D fusion is converted to <4ev visible and infrared radiation

    and how Helium is a nuclear product

  • 1keV energy of conversion of itself cannot explain

    how the 2.2 MEV from D-D fusion is converted to <4ev visible and infrared radiation

    and how Helium is a nuclear product


    Once stable ultra-dense clusters are formed, they may engage in nuclear reactions spontaneously (on their own, without the application of energetic impulses like a Nd:YAG laser) at a slow rate - including D+D fusion when deuterium is used - but the energy of condensation is such that in watt-scale experiments it can account for all or most of the excess heat observed within relatively brief periods of time. The former effect does not rule out the other. This is also in the excerpt I posted - did you read it?


    Alternatively one might craft a reactor where, using larger amounts of hydrogen, only the energy of condensation is used. BLP/Randell Mills' reactors could be a possible example where this happens.


    I think you might be quoting the interpretation of researchers who never considered the possibility that stable dense hydrogen clusters could be formed.

  • I read it.. the energy of c is big enough but it does not explain how the

    Helium is produced.. Miles seems to have some correlation btw the He and the Energy

    In cold fusion.. in his latest paper.


    Perhaps Gundersen can work out the connection btw. LENR and Holmlid

    now that he has both types of reactors in the same lab.

    it might take him awhile working alone.

  • I forgot to mention that with the latest paper by Holmlid and Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen discussed above there is an associated video:

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…on/332019445_CIMG00373MOV


    I took the liberty of uploading it on a streaming service for easier viewing, but since it has a very low resolution and a non-standard aspect ratio it's best viewed with a media player on a PC advancing one frame at a time (as also suggested in the paper).



    Quote

    Ultradense particles moving and colliding with the chamber walls.


    From the paper:


    Quote

    [...] One type of dense matter observation may however be close to continuous H(0). Under the conditions of interest, the vacuum chamber is filled with a visible mist, probably of H(l)

    Rydberg matter. Such a mist is formed after an hour or so of direct laser impact on catalyst pieces with the hydrogen gas pressure in the mbar range. This can be seen in Fig. 16 using D2 gas. Note the visible cloud that scatters the white light generated by the interaction of the IR laser with D(0). It is then also possible to observe small laser-initiated particles glowing with white light for a few seconds in the deuterium atmosphere. They move with a velocity of a few m s-1 and can collide and bounce from surfaces inside the apparatus while glowing continuously. This can be seen in a small video attached with one frame shown in Fig. 17. It is likely that these particles consist of D(0) and that the process giving the white light is the condensation of hydrogen Rydberg matter D(l) onto the particle of D(0), as discussed further below. [...]



    Quote

    Fig. 16. Photo of the atmosphere in the apparatus after laser running for an hour at a few mbar D2 pressure. An aerosol is observed in the vacuum.



    Quote

    Fig. 17. This is part a movie CIMG00373.mov. Use a program like Apple Quick Time player which makes it possible to step one frame at a time. Laser repetition time 100 ms, each frame is within 1 ms. Light emitting particles move after the laser shot with a few m s-1 during 10-20 ms and collide with the chamber walls, still radiating white. Camera Casio Exilim EX-ZR200 mode HS1000 with 224x64 pixels.


    Furthermore, a press release was also associated with the paper.

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…ssrelease_2019shortengpdf


    Attached also to this comment.

  • It’s interesting the recent finding about particles with pentaquarks are like a “composite quark molecule” of a Kaon meson and Boson.


    Apparently this is associated with the Lambda resonance. If I recall correctly from previous reading about Kaons production this Lambda nucleon resonance is used in Kaon factories such as Delphi, Triumf etc. maybe a particle physicsist working in this area can correct me if I’m wrong.


    I know we are talking about energies of 1500 MeV or something like that with this resonance but it does make me wonder if it relates to Holmlids work in someway. Perhaps due to collective resonance effects or something.

  • StephenC

    According to Holmlid's proposed nuclear processes, D mesons or Tau leptons as intermediate particles can't be ruled out, but their lifetime is too short to be measured with the currently used detection methods. This is to say that probably almost any particle within 2×proton masses may be formed, including exotic ones, or - just my speculation - possibly even heavier ones if more than two protons could interact at the same time in the same process.


    This is briefly discussed in the latest open access paper that was previously linked, in section 8. Some excerpts below.

    https://doi.org/10.1088/1402-4896/ab1276



    [...]


  • A question for any Holmlid experts as follows: Does Holmlid calculate the amour of any increase in the density of the positive charge concentration in the core of the Ultra dense hydrogen cluster?


    I am wondering if there is any correlation between the decreased distance from the positive core (as assumed by MILLS) from the positively charged cluster that the electron cloud experiences (i.e depressed electron orbitals)

  • Furthermore, a press release was also associated with the paper.

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…ssrelease_2019shortengpdf


    Attached also to this comment.


    Regarding:




    This muon generator is still a proliferation risk. If any process produces neutrons. then this process is a proliferation risk.

  • Does Holmlid calculate the amour of any increase in the density of the positive charge concentration in the core of the Ultra dense hydrogen cluster?


    I am wondering if there is any correlation between the decreased distance from the positive core (as assumed by MILLS) from the positively charged cluster that the electron cloud experiences (i.e depressed electron orbitals)


    I'm not sure I understand what you mean exactly; it's probably better if you rephrase this question in different terms or make a clearer example. He does calculate on theoretical grounds and infer by time-of-flight measurements and other methods how exactly the distance between atoms shrinks compared to ordinary matter, but that's probably not what you wanted to know?


    Just in case though: ultra-dense hydrogen in its lowest energy state is stated to have distances between the nuclei shrunk by exactly 2/α compared to ordinary matter (Rydberg matter here) in its lowest energy state, with α here being the fine structure constant. The density of the material increases accordingly.


    You could try checking out section 3.3 here: https://iopscience.iop.org/art…96/ab1276/meta#psab1276s3


    Which refers to Hirsch here: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.0139.pdf in particular the section around equation (21) which considers three different scales of matter related by the same proportion.

  • Which refers to Hirsch here: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.0139.pdf in particular the section around equation (21) which considers three different scales of matter related by the same proportion.


    Hirsch did some good work related to super conduction. As soon as you see a new factor 1/α this implies that mass changes its orbit structure and in fact is orbiting on one more radius. The problem with Holmlids explanation is that it violates basic rules of mechanics that were used to define e.g. the Bohr model. But this also holds for Mills explanation that only works with a square increasing central force.

    By coincidence this is exactly the nature of 2D magnetic coupling.

    As soon as all physicists understand that (almost) all real mass is spinning EM mass, then the mystery around many physical effects will disappear. Super conduction is in fact spin current as Hirsch shows and not just cooper pairs = spin coupled electrons. Electrons in a spin current are not free they are only free to choose a nucleus to move on to a next spin orbit.

    All physical systems try to find a minimum energy state. If an orbit spawns two nuclei then the average wavelength increases and energy is freed like in the formation of H2 from 2H. In dense Hydrogen this "happens" in SO(4) space where as for H2 we can use classic models for a first approximation because the 1/α only works on 2 loosely coupled dimensions that gives a small residual error only.

  • For what it's worth, in his latest publications Holmlid has often cited works by Mayer and Reitz, so the possible implications of his findings on geological processes are probably at least considered:

    Other openly accessible papers are available from Frederick Mayer's Researchgate page.


    Only loosely related, but I found this from the link above kind of amusing:


  • This is fascinating science, could be another way of generating muons for D fusion:

    New Nuclear And Subnuclear Exotic Decays
    D. B. Ion1,2, Reveica Ion-Mihai3, M. L. Ion3
    1
    Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, Bucharest Romania
    2 TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
    3
    Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest, Romania
    Abstract: In this paper new nuclear and subnuclear exotic decays are investigated. Some theoretical problems of the
    pionic radioactivity, such as fission-like models, applicable to all kind of exotic nuclear and subnuclear decays are
    presented. The induced nuclear and subnuclear decays are discussed. Moreover, using the recent results on the
    spontaneous fission half lives T SF of the heavy nuclei with Z³ 100 new predictions on the pionic yields in the
    region of superheavy elements are presented.
    Key words: Spontaneous fission, p - fission, hyperfission, deltonic fission, induced fission, etc.
    1. New exotic nuclear and subnuclear radioactivities
    The traditional picture of the nucleus as a collection of neutrons and protons bound together via the
    strong force has proven remarkable successful in understanding a rich variety of nuclear
    properties. However, the achievement of modern nuclear physics that not only nucleons are
    relevant in the study of nuclear dynamics but that pions and the baryonic resonances like D’s and
    N* play an important role too. So, when the nucleus is explored at short distance scales the
    presence of short lived subatomic particles, such as the pion and delta, are revealed as nuclear
    constituents. The role of pions, deltas, quarks and gluons in the structure of nuclei is one of
    challenging frontier of modern nuclear physics. This modern picture of the nucleus bring us to the
    idea [1] to search for new exotic natural radioactivities such as: ( *
    p, m,D, N , etc.)-emission during
    the nuclear fission in the region of heavy and superheavy nuclei.

  • Looks like the pion yield can be engineered by inducing fission which increases the probability of the pion channel by many orders of magnitude - (probably classified info in fusion thermonuclear bomb research since the pion>muons released must have potentiated the D fusion reactions) Could be useful for generating muons for inducing cold fusion too. Now where did we store all that nuclear waste pumping out muons?



    Photofission Accompanied by Pion Emission
    A. S. Iljinov and L. N. Latisheva
    Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences,
    pr. Shestidesyatiletiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow, 117312 Russia
    Received May 28, 2002; in final form, September 9, 2002
    Abstract—For the nuclear-fission process induced by photons of energy in the range 150 < Eγ <
    600 MeVand accompanied by pion emission, the total cross section; the angular and differential distributions of pions; the excitation-energy, mass, and charge distributions of compound nuclei; and the mass
    distribution of the fission fragments are predicted on the basis of the cascade–evaporation–fission model.
    These features are compared for the cases of nuclear fission induced by photons and protons of initial energy
    in the same range. c 2003MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica”.
    1. INTRODUCTION
    It is well known that the fission of nuclei into two fragments is accompanied by the emission of
    neutrons, photons, protons, and extremely light nuclei (d, t, α, ...) [1]. Since a rather large amount
    of energy (about 200 MeV) is released in the fission of a heavy nucleus, the emission of a pion is also
    possible, however. The emission of a pion upon the spontaneous fission of heavy transuranium nuclei was
    predicted in [2]. Only an upper bound on the ratio of
    the π-channel probability1) to the total spontaneous fission probability was established in the experiments
    reported in [3], wπf /wSF < 10−11.
    In [4], it was shown that the probability of the π channel is many orders of magnitude higher in
    induced fission than in spontaneous fission, and basic features of π fission induced by protons of energy
    in the range 150 < Ep < 600 MeVwere predicted
    there. Thus, it is reasonable, both from the experimental and the theoretical point of view, to begin
    studying π fission at projectile energies in the vicinity of the pion-production threshold, where the pion production mechanism is well known.


    Can draw parallels to Holmlid's pion > muon work, a spontaneous rate of production enhanced by laser irradiation of UDD.

  • Once stable ultra-dense clusters are formed, they may engage in nuclear reactions spontaneously (on their own, without the application of energetic impulses like a Nd:YAG laser) at a slow rate - including D+D fusion when deuterium is used - but the energy of condensation is such that in watt-scale experiments it can account for all or most of the excess heat observed within relatively brief periods of time. The former effect does not rule out the other. This is also in the excerpt I posted - did you read it?


    Alternatively one might craft a reactor where, using larger amounts of hydrogen, only the energy of condensation is used. BLP/Randell Mills' reactors could be a possible example where this happens.


    I think you might be quoting the interpretation of researchers who never considered the possibility that stable dense hydrogen clusters could be formed.


    I had some time for Holmlid observations of UDD vs Winterberg speculative theory behind UDD when these were coherent. But that does not cover H.


    Once Holmlid himself morphed into UDH as well - losing coherence with possible theory and also losing the ability to disprove the theory (e.g. if it is UDD then you know these things don't happen with H) - it becomes much less plausible.