ASTOUNDED - Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges (Rossi's Mirror Effect Reactor and more!)

  • The title of this post is my new description or term for the vast bulk of phenomena associated with cold fusion and LENR, along with other exotic energy technologies. When a reactor is in an ASTOUNDED state, atypical spheromaks (simply meaning compact toroids derived in less than commonly accepted methods used in hot fusion projects) induce a variety of nuclear effects that result in the discharge of energy reaching or exceeding unambiguous levels. Basically, cold fusion reactors that have truly ASTOUNDED researchers use one or more methods of forming spheromaks - often nano or micro-sized plasmoids that fit the profile of Kenneth Shoulders exotic vacuum objects - that bombard or interact with their fuel, which optimally has been loaded with hydrogen until an embrittled metal hydride surface layer has formed. Although such a prior embrittlement may not be required to achieve all effects associated with an ASTOUNDED condition, secondary "electron cluster" production during lattice disruption or fracture may faciliate self sustaining cycles of energy production. The conditions for hydrogen (protium) implantation and EVO production may sometimes overlap, such as when an radio frequency excited plasma is used to produce both atomic hydrogen and spheromaks (EVOs).


    Viewing LENR from the ASTOUNDED perspective also provides clarity on why certain methods utilized by successful researchers and replicators seem unusually successful. For example, :!:Me356's fuel conditioning methods (likely using corona discharge sputtering and ion implantation in an argon-hydrogen enviroment) and applied plasma generating frequencies become logical. Moreover, Rossi's likely use of lithium hydride doped nano-diamonds (multiple patents explain how lithium n-type doping utilizing the agent lithium hydride reduces the nano-diamond work function) carefully applied to his higher work function nickel electrodes to produce spheromaks for LENR triggering is perfectly logical. Utilizing the well known principles and established know how of spheromak control from the hot fusion field, we can consider additional possibilities such as the use of permanant magnet(s) behind the cathode to provide the spiraling force that helps form spheromaks by augmenting the natural magnetic field generated by their own motion or the use of a magnet on each end to produce the "magnetic mirror" trapping effect to stabilize and hold spheromaks in the center of the gap. In such a state, LENR reactions could take place due to ion collision in the gap due to bunching effects (even if the trap doesn't fully hinder plasma flow) in addition to on the surface of the electrodes.


    My supposition is that in all of the most successful LENR experiments, removal of contaminant gases in the atmosphere or metal lattice interior, utilization of optimal surface structures or particle sizes, reduction of emitter work function, adequate levels of hydrogen embrittlement, and spheromak generation techniques (streamers from high voltage sources, hot tungsten filaments possibly thoriated, RF plasma generation, electrical impulses through the fuel, high frequency harmonics through resistors, three phase windings to create optimized "rotamak" rotating magnetic fields, or even high rate thermal/pressure cycling of co-deposited hydrogen embrittled layers to produce lattice damage,) came together to achieve fantastic results.


    I'm interested in hearing the thoughts of members of this forum about the various methods of producing an ASTOUNDED state.

  • By the way, I think carefully doped nanozdiamonds, of various sizes, carefully bonded to embrittled nickel powder (probably degassed in vacuum and heat and the sputtered with hydrogen and argon) would work well and release huge numbers of EVOs that would produce excess heat. If a lead to ground were connected to the reactor body, an electric current might even flow. The current would probably be in the form of “cold electricity.” Also, if plates were placed around the reactor, I expect that track marks would be found for the strange radiation emitted.

  • The following page has a lot of info about what I think Rossi is doing with the Quark, except I think he is using far less input power due to using lithium doped nanodiamonds and producing many small spheromaks (which may combine in the middle) rather than one large one.


    https://www.ialtenergy.com/electron-power-systems.html


    So the critical components of the Quark E-Cat QX would be.


    1 - Power supply that prevents arc discharge and perhaps produces many small waves of spheromaks once the gaseous environment has became conductive in the abnormal glow discharge region. Remember, the abnormal glow discharge region is the part of the curve in which Shoulders and Pauko and Alexandra Correa worked not to mention Moray. With nano-diamonds in the abnormal glow discharge region, a tiny voltage increase can produce spheromaks.


    2) Two hydrogen embrittled nickel cathodes implanted with lithium doped nano-diamonds through the use of lithium hydride.


    3) One or more permanent magnets producing the required mirror effect trap to bunch up the spheromaks to induce fusion of hydrogen and lithium. As a secondary effect, energy may be produced if electrodes are hit with spheromsks tgat would emit neutrons and induce isotopic shifting. My guess is thst in this device he doesnt want the nickel to heat up significantly because that would damage the diamond structures. Instead, he wants the bulk of the heat to be produced in the plasma.

  • There are two types of LENR active agents at play. It is important to not confuse them by grouping them together.


    The first type of LENR active material is the preprocessed and metastable metallic hybrid that has been researched by Holmlid. The second type is the EVO that is produced spontaneously and instantly when nanoparticles are condensed from metallic vapor after a discharge of an arc into a metal substrate.


    Metallic hydrides are produced by a many weeks long "fuel" preparation process that precedes reactor activation. Both Rossi and ME356 produce this preprocessed fuel as a prerequisite step that precedes the loading of that fuel into their reactors.


    The second type of LENR active material is generated dynamically as a near instantaneous process that usually occurs in dirty plasma based systems. These LENR active agents have been identified as EVO by Ken Shoulders and is generated by systems like the Proton 21 arc discharge experiment into copper, the


    HIGH-ENERGETIC METAL NANO-CLUSTER PLASMOID AND ITS SOFT X-RADIATION

    Klimov A., Grigorenko A., Efimov A., Sidorenko M.,Soloviev A., Tolkunov B., Evstigneev N., Ryabk ov O


    http://www.newinflow.ru/pdf/Klimov_Poster.pdf


    The SunCell by R. Mills, The Piantilli system, the Mizuno system among others.


    As a general rule, preprocessed fuel requiring a fuel preparation step is based on metallic hydrides, and on-the-fly generation of the LENR reaction is based on EVO generation in a dirty plasma.

  • Axil,


    I disagree.


    First, there is no need to treat nickel powder or wire for weeks before usage. Me356, whom I believe utilizes a corona glow discharge sputtering and proton implantation process, has claimed to be able to adequately treat fuel in a short period of time -- less than an hour if I remember correctly. Moreover, other replicators have been capable of inducing LENR with ordinary nickel powder mixed with additives such as LiAlH4. What matters is simply getting a sufficient quantity of hydrogen into the metal to create an embrittled hydride layer. If this is achieved, the next step is to bombard the fuel with a spheromak produced via one of multiple methods (RF creating streamers in plasma, direct electrical discharge through the fuel, usage of a hot thoriated tungsten rod/wire, or by mixing in properly doped nano-diamonds with a very low work function reduced even further by boron or lithium. When a spheromak impacts the fuel nuclear reactions may be produced in a number of different ways. If the strikes were energetic enough, the KE of protons smashing into the surface may induce thermonuclear fusion. Likewise, in a wide array of documents, spheromaks striking targets are proven to release neutrons. Moreover, the explosion of electrons upon destruction of the EVO may induce extremely powerful "surface plasmon polaritons" across the roughened surface (from sputtering or careful choice of powder sizes and textures) on the target metal. These SPP may induce nuclear reactions that could damage the lattice. Any of these will create further structural damage and fracto-emission. Through the fracto-emission process, when damage to the metal lattice induces the emittance of electrons and additional EVOs, additional nuclear reactions can be induced. These reactions can induce more resulting in a self sustained "excited state" that can last for days. If you are capable of adequately creating a very brittle layer(s) of hydride, you may even be able to achieve the desired fracto-emission with high rate thermal and pressure cycling, in the same manner as Piantelli and Focardi achieved.


    An embrittled hydrogenated surface is not required for excess heat production. So in one way, EVO strikes alone can induce LENR. However, an embrittled layer of metal hydride can allow for self sustained production of EVOs. These two phenomena, actually three if you include SPP, are absolutely linked. In the Quark, however, I think Rossi is attempting to keep most of the nuclear reactions taking place in the restricted central channel of the capillary tube that would act to confine the very low "cost" spheromaks together - perhaps in a magnetic mirror trap.


    I do NOT dismiss the possibility of other LENR mechanisms, but I'm convinced that the combination of EVOs, Surface Plasmon Polaritons, and fracto-emission are the primary mechanism for the bulk of "cold fusion."

  • http://electronclusters.com/in…amond-spheromak-emitters/


    The Protocols for Creating ASTOUNDED States in LENR Systems; or, The Beauty of Lithium Doped Nano-diamond Spheromak Emitters


    By The Director


    There are many names that have been used over the last century to describe the organized torodial structures of electrons that Kenneth R. Shoulders referred to as EVOs (Exotic Vacuum Objects). Regardless if these self organizing clusters are referred to as strange radiation, ectons, high density charge clusters, electron clusters, micro ball lightning, compact toroids, or several other terms, they all represent the same fundamental construct. Perhaps the most well recognized term in mainstream science would be spheromaks. These toroids composed of electrons and positively charged ions, both extracted from plasma, have been generated up to large sizes (up to a meter), compressed (down to centimeters), accelerated (to fractions of the speed of light), and annihilated (slammed into targets or each other) for multiple purposes: to induce hot fusion reactions, generate emissions such x-rays or neutrons, and to produce beam weapons with extremely high destructive power and ranges. What’s important to note is that the research by military research facilities and hot fusion startups into the capabilities of spheromaks has typically been focused on large scale versions of these plasmoids. Although the study of these macro-scale entities is certainly a worthwhile endeavor – perhaps having already inspiring the development of exotic inertia-less propulsion drives (do a quick Google search for the Fluxliner Alien Reproduction Vehicle) – very little investigation into the tiny micro-scale varieties of spheromaks has been performed. However, even if unknown by most individuals knowledgeable about or even “skilled in the art” of LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions), extremely small spheromaks are the likely the nearly universal catalyst of what may or may not be accurately described as, “cold fusion.” Moreover, they have likely been the source of power (either extracting energy from the zero point energy field, inducing nuclear reactions, or both) in a wide variety of so called “free energy” systems. This article, however, will focus primarily on the creation and application of small scale spheromaks (closer in form factor to Shoulders EVOs) to induce an ASTOUNDED state of excess energy production described by the acronym, “Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges.”


    An explanation of what constitutes a spheromak should be provided before continuing. Mainstream scientists for decades, at least since the 1980s, have been able to produce large scale (centimeters to multiple meters in diameter) self sustaining, self stabilized toroid flows of electrons and positive ions. These “donuts” of plasma are composed of an outer sheet of electrons flowing in one direction and an interior sheet of heavier positive ions moving in the opposite direction. The result is a self-contained structure that could be visualized, very roughly, as similar to a toroidal inductor wrapped with copper wire as used in modern electrons. In a spheromak, the fields produced are very similar to those in such a toroidal inducter: a poloidal magnetic field travels circularly in the interior ring of the torus, a secondary toroidal magnetic field (perhaps weaker) travels through the center hole exterior to the surface of the ring, and an electric field of magnetic vector potential travels through the hole as well. These structures can be created simply by projecting a group, bunch, or beam of electrons – with adequate kinetic energy – through a gaseous medium. The linear motion of the electrons (charged particles) produces a magnetic field that manipulates the geometric positioning of the particles (electrons and positive ions) along the beam. Rings like patterns of moving electrons are formed that could be considered as a series of magnetic rings or “coil turns.” Since magnetic field lines start to focus through the interior of these rings (like in a typical solenoid coil) the ends eventually attempt to connect together, achieving the most electromagnetically stable condition. Applying an externally generated magnetic field (from a permanent magnet or electromagnet) to provide helicity can augment this process. The application of a rotating magnetic field (as used in rotamak configurations) enhances the spheromak formation process to an even greater degree.


    Kenneth R. Shoulders, perhaps at the start not familiar with spheromaks, discovered a method of generating the exact same structures, except at a smaller scale with higher mass/energy densities and far greater energy efficiency. Instead of using powerful high-amperage electron beams utilizing heated thermionic emitter cathodes and then applying a series of additional externally generated magnetic fields, he used tiny sharp needle like points and extremely fast high voltage but low current pulses to produce the same geometric forms. In a typical experiment, a sharp tip of wire serving as a cathode is provided with a short pulse of high voltage. The micro-scale explosion that takes place on the surface of the cathode produces a burst of electrons, positive ions, and metal vapor spray: all moving at high velocities. Pulled right out of this “soup” a spheromak that he described as an “Exotic Vacuum Object” was formed. Starting in 1980, he began a research project with Harold Puthoff (now a sub-contractor for the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program) and Bill Church (of Church’s Fried Chicken). Shoulders quickly learned about the mysterious properties of these plasma structures. For example, they were capable of being accelerated to high speeds – fractions of the speed of light – for very low energy inputs. Even more interestingly, they were capable of snatching up and carrying along heavy ions for no extra energy cost: somehow their intense electric fields were screening over 99.99% of their mass, inertia, and charge along with the positive ions they carried. This brings up another very important issue: electrons have like charges that should make them repel against each other. However, the electrons composing EVOs are capable of overcoming their mutual repulsion. One speculation is that electron-positron pairs cohered from the zero point energy field appear (due to the intense magnetic and electric fields present) and act as a dielectric to screen the majority of the mutual repulsive electrostatic force. Likewise, the positive ions often en-trained in the EVO (this is not always the case because this class of spheromak can be created in vacuum via pure field emission) may also screen a portion of the electric charge allowing for the electrons to draw closer to each other than would normally be possible.


    Through further experimentation, Kenneth Shoulders discovered that the protons or heavy ions accelerated by EVOs could contain extremely high levels of anomalous kinetic energy. Upon striking an anode or target plate, traditional thermonuclear reactions could be produced. Powerful RF emissions, x-rays, and gamma rays were also detected upon EVO impacts, along with a burst of electrons from the destabilization of the structure. In fact, for as long as the EVOs existed, they would emit a continual, ongoing spherical “spray” of electrons with high kinetic energies (typically 2-50keV). The electrons and longitudinal waves from these starbursting electrons could be collected as electrical output. Additionally, upon an EVO impacting an extractor electrode or the anode, additional electrical power could be extracted. In some tests the electrical output collected was thirty times or more the input required to produce the EVO, not factoring the output that was not collected in the form of x-rays, light, heat, and reflected electrons. Analysis of anode or target plate material showed characteristic track marks, pits, and borrowed holes. These marks were virtually always present and the repeating patterns and geometric forms could be instantly recognized. In the presence of these traces, the proof of EVO impacts, transmuted and isotopically shifted atoms could be found. In particular, even when transmutations were not identified, isotopic shifts (changes in the numbers of neutrons in the same element) were always present.


    Moving on from simply using sharpened cathodes, Kenneth Shoulders discovered other ways of producing EVOs or what he apparently did not immediately recognize as micro-scale spheromaks. One method was applying radio frequencies to a low pressure gaseous atmosphere. The streamers that would be formed in the gas would always be lead by an EVO as they moved along. He discovered that these toroids formed more easily in heavier gases (argon, krypton, or xenon) rather than in light gases such as hydrogen. Now, years later, we know this is because spheromaks containing heavier ions have a stronger magnetic field running through the interior of the torus (which can be described as the poloidal magnetic field) which tends to reduce the toroidal magnetic field (running exterior to the body of the torus through the center hole) which magnifies the electric field running through the center hole of the torus. In short, the result is that due to the greater difference in mass between electrons and positive ions, the EVO forms more readily and is more stable. He conjectured that these structures in plasmas formed due to acceleration and bunching of electrons in the ionized conductive environment. But he didn’t stop there. His research soon brought him to the conclusion that EVOs are also formed during fracto-emission of brittle substances (more on this later in this article), the collapse of cavitation bubbles, the breakdown of dielectric electronic components such as capacitors, and many other events. Even the natural phenomenon of ball lightning – not to be mistaken by advanced aerospace vehicles virtually transforming themselves into a macro-scale spheromak – is explained by these toroidal plasmoids.


    These ubiquitous structures, found everywhere, fascinated him for years and his research project continued. In 1986, after preparing a number of patent applications involving the creation and utilization of EVOs, he was informed the government was ready to slap a secrecy order on them immediately upon submission. To combat this, he summarized all of his findings in a very rare, privately published book entitled, “EV – A Tale of Discovery” that he distributed to many of his closest friends and associates. When the government demanded the names and addresses of the individuals he mailed the book to, he simply responded by saying his computer ate the list! For some reason, they relented and allowed the patents to go through, which are now available with a simple patent database search of his name. He continued researching the technology and published a large number of writings, mostly short works of a few to a dozen pages, on his personal website. Since his death, the website has closed but the articles are still available and archived on multiple other websites. They provide a wealth of information, including his ideas on how EVOs were intimately connected to the zero point energy field, low energy nuclear reactions, the technologies utilized by UFOs, and perhaps even the structure of matter and the universe.


    Now, since we have an idea of what EVOs are, let’s examine the early cold fusion work of Piantelli and Sergio Focardi utilizing nickel and hydrogen. In the 1990s, these two researchers utilized a variety of different processes to prepare the surface of bulk nickel samples to adsorb (adhere to the surface), dissociate (break apart into individual atoms), and absorb (pull into the interior of the metal lattice) molecular hydrogen. To accomplish this, they used various methods of degreasing the surface of the nickel, removing surface layers of nickel-oxide (a barrier to the desired processes mentioned above), and degassing the nickel to remove trapped oxygen and other contaminants that were present in the lattice. With extreme effort they were successful. Upon carefully preparing a sample, placing it into a hydrogen environment, and adjusting various parameters such as pressure and temperature, they could measure high degrees of hydrogen absorption. Suddenly producing a rapid fluctuation in either the temperature or pressure would be the next step. This would produce what they described as an “excited state” in which not only excess heat was produced but the emission of radiation and charged particles. Please note that for the quantity of excess heat produced, the amount of radiation emitted was minuscule. If traditional thermonuclear fusion reactions were responsible, they would have both been irradiated to the point of death, repeatedly. But they were fine and experienced no ill effects from the relatively small, easily shielded quantities of emissions that accompanied the high magnitude of excess heat. The active fuel layer in these experiments was very thin: only a tiny quantity of the bulk nickel could be generating the heat. Nevertheless, excess heat in the range of a couple hundred watts at a coefficient of performance (meaning energy input vs. energy output) of around two to three was achieved: very good but not ASTOUNDING.


    Then, a few years later, after the testing above had been completed, Andrea Rossi started his work into nickel-hydrogen cold fusion reactions. His device, called the Energy Catalyzer or E-Cat for short, in many tests seemingly produced far higher levels of output. Before disclosing the existence of his technology publicly, he asked Sergio Focardi to examine his systems, measure the inputs and outputs, check his methodologies, run the numbers, and either confirm or deny his findings. The massive excess heat – kilowatts of output with COPs in the hundreds – stunned Sergio Focardi who confirmed Andrea Rossi’s findings. The two then began collaborating together. Soon, Rossi’s blog, The Journal of Nuclear Physics, opened, and Andrea Rossi openly disclosed his findings with the world – while keeping the nature of his “catalysts” and several important industrial secrets to himself.


    One of the first revelations about Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology to be disclosed is his usage of nickel powder with a higher surface area that Focardi and Piantelli’s bulk rod, wire, or bar. The surface area was also enhanced due to the specific type of nickel powder, which was later learned to be carbonyl nickel powder. The particles of carbonyl nickel are covered with spikes and surface protrusions. Obviously, the first benefit here is a far larger potential surface area to allow for a greater total quantity of hydrogen absorption. More hydrogen absorption would produce a denser and deeper layer of “nickel-hydride” near the surface which, due to its brittle nature, would be susceptible to fracto-emission upon breakage or fracturing. However, simply increasing the surface area wasn’t enough; Andrea Rossi obviously had many more optimizations at his disposal.


    The talk going around the web for a few years now leads to the obvious conclusion that he utilized palladium, in conjunction with nickel, in his earliest systems. There is a very good reason for the usage of this element: it adsorbs, dissociates, and absorbs hydrogen extremely rapidly. Palladium can almost be considered a sponge for hydrogen. However, it has another very useful purpose which is acting as a reverse spillover catalyst when applied in small particle sizes over another metal. Nano-particles of palladium covering a larger nickel particle (perhaps one micron in size) would act as a catalyst and split the molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen. The individual hydrogen atoms would then “spillover” onto the nickel to be absorbed (skipping the energy intensive adsorption and dissociation steps). By using such a catalyst, the development of a thin layer of nickel-hydride could be accelerated. The small nickel particle size combined with the catalytic action of palladium nano-islands scattered on the surface would allow for a high degree of embrittlement. This was enough to boost the excess heat output in early E-Cats far beyond what Focardi and Piantelli achieved. The fracturing of the highly embrittled layer produced a truly ASTOUNDED state that was unambiguous in his successful tests. But Andrea Rossi, constantly attempting to improve his technology, didn’t stop there.


    By the time he performed his first public demonstration or shortly thereafter, I expect that he was no longer using palladium. Instead, he was using other methods to both, sometimes perhaps simultaneously, bombard his fuel with atomic hydrogen and produce spheromaks inside of his reactors to interact with his fuel. One simple method would be to have used a very hot tungsten wire, perhaps thoriated to reduce the work function, to both produce atomic hydrogen and emit electrons (some of which could form spheromaks). Since he’s admitted to using tungsten for certain applications in some of his reactors, this is certainly plausible. Yet another method of atomic hydrogen and EVO generation he has admitted to is the use of a radio frequency generator that would ionize the gaseous interior of his reactor cavity. Again, both atomic hydrogen and spheromaks would be generated. Upon a spheromak striking the embrittled fuel,fracto-emission would produce even more electrons that could form compact toroidal structures. Many cycles of fracto-emission could be produced that could result in a self sustaining mode of operation, perhaps assisted by small, continual RF input.


    At some point, Andrea Rossi started using lithium, in various forms such as LiH (lithium hydride) and LiAlH4 (lithium aluminum hydride) as fuel additives mixed in with the nickel. This eliminated the need for a hydrogen tank, but it also opened the door to several other beneficial effects. For starters, lithium aluminum hydride and lithium hydride emit atomic hydrogen when they decompose. So, for a brief time before the gas recombines, the nickel in the reactor will be exposed to an “easy to absorb” form of hydrogen. This recombination process can take place quickly; perhaps the reason for ramping up the temperature of an E-Cat slowly (gradually letting out a little atomic hydrogen at a time) or cycling the lithium and hydrogen between the solid and gaseous forms. Eventually, after a sufficient quantity of hydrogen has been absorbed into the nickel, a sudden high rate change of temperature can induce fracto-emission resulting in EVO generation, nuclear reactions, and excess heat.


    An additional benefit of lithium is that when applied to a metal, it lowers the “work function” or the barrier that inhibits electrons from being emitted from the metal into the environment. Simply having some of the nickel covered with a layer of lithium might augment EVO production. But Andrea Rossi thought of an even better additive, which by itself or especially doped with lithium or another appropriate agent such as boron, could lower the work function even further: nano-diamonds.


    Micro or nano-scale diamonds doped with lithium, boron, or other appropriate agents can be bonded to metals such as nickel and serve as very effective electron emitters. They are actually used in cathode electron beam generators in a variety of industries. In addition to the internally generated spheromaks produced by fracto-emission, these nano-diamonds when stimulated electromagnetically, electrically, or thermionically (by heat) could project EVOs that would induce nuclear reactions. One way in which they could produce nuclear reactions would be picking up protons and accelerating them – via the anomalous acceleration effect – into the metal lattice at energy levels capable of producing classical thermonuclear fusion either with nickel or lithium atoms. Yet another would be for them to disguise themselves as “heavy electrons” (in a manner similar to muon catalyzed fusion), slip through the electron shells of various nearby materials, and induce nuclear reactions. Additionally, EVO strikes produce neutrons which could produce energy via isotopic shifting. There are also other mechanisms that have been speculated that would generate excess heat – resulting in an ASTOUNDED state.


    Andrea Rossi has developed a potentially revolutionary, if further verified, technology called the E-Cat QX. What we know for a fact is that it utilizes lithium-hydrogen plasma in the very narrow diameter channel (a fraction of a millimeter wide and only a few millimeters long) of a quartz tube between two nickel electrodes. The test results – which are promising but still need reproduction by a third party – seem to indicate massive excess heat production for a tiny quantity of input. Recently, he performed a public demonstration in Sweden and the video is available on YouTube. After triggering with a high voltage DC impulse and then applying additional series of smaller amplitude frequencies, the device was able to heat up a flow of water, allegedly producing over twenty watts of thermal power (probably much more due to the calculations being very conservative) for an average input that was far less than a watt, equaling a COP in the hundreds.


    I highly suspect that the E-Cat QX functions in a very similar manner to a conventional “hot fusion” spheromak generator with three major differences: a much smaller overall size, a different configuration, and the usage of extremely low work function lithium doped nano-diamonds on the nickel cathodes. Since we know he used nano-diamonds in other configurations of devices, it makes perfect sense he is using them on the electrodes of this device; otherwise, he’d need much higher voltages to generate the EVO generating discharges. With these additives on his cathode, he is able to create potentially millions of tiny nano to micro scale spheromaks with every small fluctuation of his voltage. After the first high voltage impulse ionizes the channel, establishing a condition of “abnormal glow discharge” the production of spheromaks takes place in a very efficient manner. In fact, most of the energy required for their generation likely comes from electron-positron pairs being cohered from the zero point energy field. This makes his device not only nuclear but also something even more profound and revolutionary.


    He’s also likely utilizing one or more permanent magnets to either enhance the formation of the EVOs (therefore reducing the energy cost to create them) and potentially trap them in a “magnetic mirror” configuration. A well known scientific fact is that a charged particle will move away from a region of dense magnetic field lines to a zone of lower density. So, for example, a permanent magnet placed behind the cathode would push electrons off the surface towards the anode, while also providing the helicity needed for their organization into spheromaks. If in addition another magnet was placed on the opposite end behind the anode, there would exist two regions on either side of the channel with a higher density of magnetic field lines. The spheromaks created would cluster in the center of the very narrow channel in the region of lowest field density. They might exist there as individual entities or combine into a larger, yet still tiny, spheromak. Upon additional discharges, as in some hot fusion spheromak fusion arrangements, the toroids of electrons would collide in the center region. When this happens, the conditons may exist for fusion reactions between the hydrogen and lithium ions, yielding alpha particles (helium nuclei consisting of two protons) that would loose their kinetic energy upon collision with other molecules and produce heat. Other emissions may also take place that could help keep the channel ionized.


    I suspect the above configuration is likely for a couple of reasons. First, I suspect he wants to protect the surface of his nickel electrodes, which may be covered with lithium doped nano-diamonds. If they were to reach temperatures anywhere close to those in the center of the tube, the diamonds would degrade and the device would stop functioning at such a low voltage. So, it may be ideal to keep the nuclear reactions taking place near the center of the quartz tube, away from the electrodes. However, there may be a mode of operation in which the electrodes play a more important role, especially if permanent magnets are not used to produce a trapping zone. Kenneth Shoulders, apparently never having tested very low work function nano-diamond emitters, claimed that he could produce more electric power from an EVO strike on his cathode than was required to produce the electron cluster to begin with. My guess is that with Rossi’s setup and specifically selected emitters, the electrical output from EVO strikes on the anode could soar! Both the power out in watts and the efficiency of the process (COP) could be far higher than in any of Kenneth Shoulders experiments. Interestingly, the power produced may be in the form of “cold electricity” as described by a series of “free energy” pioneers that have used vaguely similar configurations that would likely produce huge quantities of EVOs from an abnormal glow discharge. This “cold electricity” does not behave in the exact same manner as ordinary electricity (it seemingly has super conductive properties and doesn’t seem to be effected at all by back EMF). If Andrea Rossi hasn’t learned how to tame this form of energy, this might be an explanation for the anomalous heating in his power supply which consumes around sixty watts of active cooling. Potentially, this form of output, once fully understood, could offer some unique advantages.


    From looking at the principles at work in Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat reactors, we can gain an understanding of the protocols and techniques that allow for an ASTOUNDED state to be created. However, spheromaks (again, referred to by many different names) are also involved in a multitude of other exotic technologies. One example is ultra high efficiency, apparently overunity, HHO or “Brown’s Gas” systems. Instead of using a high current and an electrolyte to produce an apparently anomalous quantity of gas compared to the power ran through the cell, ordinary water can be used with small gaps between plates or tubes – if the electrodes are conditioned to be covered with millions of tiny micro-needles! When powered with a high frequencies at appropriate voltages, these micro-needles emit discharges (obviously a form of spheromak) that generates copious quantities of HHO with anomalous properties. Moreover, cold fusion and heat production systems utilizing ultrasound or other methods of producing imploding cavitation bubbles emit spheromaks. Nikola Tesla, E.V. Gray, Moray, and a host of other researchers have been using — even sometimes if unaware — spheromaks to extract energy from the vacuum and produce nuclear reactions.


    With the concepts of what’s required to achieve an ASTOUNDED state in our minds, let’s go over a quick review of the critical concepts to producing a powerful LENR effect. These guidelines will be more oriented towards Andrea Rossi’s powder based systems than the E-Cat QX, but the mechanisms at play in all of his systems are very tightly linked.


    A) Utilize high surface nickel powder or very thin wire with spike covered, roughened surfaces. This will allow for more fuel material to be involved in the reactions. Carbonyl nickel is an acceptable choice. To roughen a wire or plate, sputtering with argon in a corona discharge could work.


    B) Clean and degas your nickel to remove surface oxides and trapped interior gases. This is important because oxides are a barrier to hydrogen uptake and interior gases take up space in the lattice where you want the hydrogen to go.


    C) Utilize some method of dissociating atomic hydrogen and embedding protons into your fuel to create a metal hydride layer: coatings of palladium nano-particles acting as spillover catalysts, hot tungsten wires, radio frequency generators, high voltage AC/DC glow discharge, release of atomic hydrogen from LiH or LiAlH4, cycles of sputtering and ion bombardment in a hydrogen corona discharge, high frequency harmonics applied to resistor heating elements, and a range of other techniques. Simply putting clean nickel into a hydrogen environment is not enough. The fuel must be bombarded with atomic hydrogen in one way or another. This creates the critical nickel-hydride layer that’s susceptible to fracto-emission.


    D) Create EVOs using one of a number of different methods and have them interact with your fuel! There’s a lot of overlap with letter “C” above, but I’d especially suggest the usage of radio frequencies generators (perhaps designing your whole system as a conical resonator to achieve the ionized plasma for a lower input power), spark gaps between electrodes, direct current discharges through the fuel, and the usage of low work function elements (such as lithium) to further optimize very low work function emitters (like nano-diamonds). There are very specific processes for doping nano-diamonds with lithium or other elements in the patent literature. To be blunt, it doesn’t look as easy as just mixing everything together in a glove box and filling a reactor tube. But if properly doped and bonded with a secure contact to the nickel surface, nano-diamonds can become copious emitters of spheromaks.


    E) Experiment with magnetic fields to augment and accelerate the organization of EVOs from free electrons. Try permanent magnets producing field lines cutting across your reactor in different directions: the added helicity from the “swirl” of the vector potential around the field line can help the electrons structures form strings of loops and then reconnect their ends. In particular, a three (or even four) phase solenoid or heating element wound around a reactor could not only produce a magnetic field but a twisting (rotating) magnetic field as in a mainstream “rotamak.” This could augment enhance EVO production even further.


    How to enhance LENR reactions doesn’t have to be mysterious anymore. I’m not saying that there isn’t a lot of details about the physics we don’t understand, but I think with the principles in this article we can push forward to build working, powerful systems that produce ASTOUNDED states of excess heat production. Inducing LENR with spheromaks will turn “hot fusion” research programs upside down; because individuals such as Andrea Rossi will have approached the task from the opposite direction. Instead of going for large spheromaks in giant systems, he utilized smart and efficient techniques to produce copious itty bitty electron clusters. Once this low hanging fruit is proven as valid to the world, or possibly even before, other applications of these compact toroids may be revealed. For example, the anomalous craft flying in our skies, the majority of which are likely human built craft, could be revealed to the world. I’ll be looking forward to hearing all the details about how their macro-spheromak propulsion drives work. Actually, I’ll be even more interested in learning how the drives in recovered extraterrestrial space craft worked! Extracting unlimited energy from the vacuum, screening mass, nullifying inertia, allowing for faster than light speeds (actually changing the speed of light in the local environment), spheromak technologies can open up the galaxy to mankind!

  • Director Note that in Parkhomov-like reactions with LiAlH4, the decomposed LiH coats and wets to the Ni powder. LiH is an ionic hydride, and in its molten state supplies monatomic hydrogen H- ions directly to the surface of the Ni. This corresponds well to Piantelli's theory that it is H- on the surface of the Ni that is drawn into the Ni surface grains, and is responsible for LENR within his rod's surface grains. Piantelli believes LENR occurs within each "right sized" grains on the surface of his rod. He goes through a preparation process to prepare the rod by orienting the grains all in one direction to have the rod ready to be stimulated to induce LENR. The triggering he applies then stimulates a thermal wave (non-fourier heat transfer) within his pre-aligned rod grains. The triggering is very subtle. I believe the result with LENR may become an active thermal wave resonant structure, wherein the thermal wave transiting Piantelli's rod grains are responsible for the LENR. There could be SPPs and/or EVOs associated with the grain boundaries in such a system being stimulated as the thermal wave transits across the grains.

  • One important point that Director missed in his analysis and invalidates many of his assumptions is the fact that the EVO is a superconductor. The fact that the EVO and its partner metallic hydride is a Bose condensate implies that the particle that makes up these solitons are bisons. Electrons are not bosons and therefore cannot makeup the contents of these solitons. The electron must therefore be transformed into a boson. The EVO can persist for hours, days, or longer which implies a very high or infinite quality factor or Q factor. This means that the EVO is a superconductor with no resistance to current flow.


    The Director should sit back and think about how electrons become bosons. This will inform his thinking on this subject profoundly.

  • Director Note that in Parkhomov-like reactions with LiAlH4, the decomposed LiH coats and wets to the Ni powder. LiH is an ionic hydride, and in its molten state supplies monatomic hydrogen H+ ions directly to the surface of the Ni. This corresponds well to Piantelli's theory that it is H+ on the surface of the Ni that is drawn into the Ni surface grains, and is responsible for LENR within his rod's surface grains. Piantelli believes LENR occurs within each "right sized" grains on the surface of his rod. He goes through a preparation process to prepare the rod by orienting the grains all in one direction to have the rod ready to be stimulated to induce LENR. The triggering he applies then stimulates a thermal wave (non-fourier heat transfer) within his pre-aligned rod grains. The triggering is very subtle. I believe the result with LENR may become an active thermal wave resonant structure, wherein the thermal wave transiting Piantelli's rod grains are responsible for the LENR. There could be SPPs and/or EVOs associated with the grain boundaries in such a system being stimulated as the thermal wave transits across the grains.


    Lithium could be forming a metalized hydride in a fuel preparation step that produces fuel for these reactors. The amount of pressure required to metalize a lithium hydride is 1/4 that needed to metallize hydrogen. If this reformation of lithium into a metallized hydride molecule is occurring, then the lithium isotope used in this process must be a boson. That means that the lithium isotope must be either pure or enriched in lithium 7.


    I beleive that both LION and conway have had positive results by using enriched lithium 7 in their fuel preparation process.


    http://theworldofsmall.blogspo…8/bosons-or-fermions.html


  • Director Note that in Parkhomov-like reactions with LiAlH4, the decomposed LiH coats and wets to the Ni powder. LiH is an ionic hydride, and in its molten state supplies monatomic hydrogen H+ ions directly to the surface of the Ni. This corresponds well to Piantelli's theory that it is H+ on the surface of the Ni that is drawn into the Ni surface grains, and is responsible for LENR within his rod's surface grains. Piantelli believes LENR occurs within each "right sized" grains on the surface of his rod. He goes through a preparation process to prepare the rod by orienting the grains all in one direction to have the rod ready to be stimulated to induce LENR. The triggering he applies then stimulates a thermal wave (non-fourier heat transfer) within his pre-aligned rod grains. The triggering is very subtle. I believe the result with LENR may become an active thermal wave resonant structure, wherein the thermal wave transiting Piantelli's rod grains are responsible for the LENR. There could be SPPs and/or EVOs associated with the grain boundaries in such a system being stimulated as the thermal wave transits across the grains.


    Hello Bob Higgins,


    Thanks for responding to my thread!


    The process that you outline above, described by Piantelli, makes me think even more so that EVOs (AKA spheromaks) are probably generated due to nano-scale fracto-emission in such high pressure zones between grains. Anytime charge separation takes place, EVOs can be emitted. For example, consider the fact that sticky postal tape when pulled off the reel produces x-rays, at least in vacuum. I can imagine resonating thermal waves becoming strong enough to fracture the lattice and induce LENR.


    I agree that SPPs and EVOs are involved; the two phenomena are closely related. I imagine a situation in which an EVO from a plasma impacts a sample of nickel powder and induces powerful SPPs in such hydrogen loaded zones of appropriate geometry. I've read that SPPs can be strongest where two fractures cross, for example, in the middle of an X shaped surface feature.


    In my mental model, I imagine an EVO strike on an embrittled material starting a chain reaction:


    1) The striking EVO - for example from an RF plasma - induces damage to the lattice and/or produces strong SPPs.


    2) Sufficiently strong SPPs induce LENR reactions that generate heat, perhaps induce fractures in the lattice, and emit more EVOs.


    3) These EVOs then impact the lattice and continue the cycle allowing "self sustained" operation for a period of seconds, minutes, hours, or even days (at a low level like Song Sheng reported) depending upon the conditioning of the material and the degree of embrittlement.


    One thing I think Me356's results tell us, if he has accurately conveyed the degree of success he has achieved, is that significant excess heat doesn't require super-extensive fuel processing. He once claimed to achieve excess heat after only treating his fuel for less than an hour (don't remember exactly how many minutes). My guess is that even if the fuel is not "optimal" a highly loaded nickel sample (perhaps sputtered in a corona discharge with argon to remove the oxide layer and then bombarded with protons in the same manner) can be induced to produce non-ambiguous levels of excess heat with the application of EVO strikes or other charged particles.

  • Quote

    Actually, I’ll be even more interested in learning how the drives in recovered extraterrestrial space craft worked! Extracting unlimited energy from the vacuum, screening mass, nullifying inertia, allowing for faster than light speeds (actually changing the speed of light in the local environment), spheromak technologies can open up the galaxy to mankind!


    Can you expand a bit on recovery of drives from extraterrestrial space crafts? Such as who did this and where is it published? In short, how do you know about it?

  • One important point that Director missed in his analysis and invalidates many of his assumptions is the fact that the EVO is a superconductor. The fact that the EVO and its partner metallic hydride is a Bose condensate implies that the particle that makes up these solitons are bisons. Electrons are not bosons and therefore cannot makeup the contents of these solitons. The electron must therefore be transformed into a boson. The EVO can persist for hours, days, or longer which implies a very high or infinite quality factor or Q factor. This means that the EVO is a superconductor with no resistance to current flow.


    The Director should sit back and think about how electrons become bosons. This will inform his thinking on this subject profoundly.


    I've been extensively studying spheromaks (AKA EVOs) because the literature is so rich with information. At least large macro-scale spheromaks for hot fusion and particle weapons (for the Strategic Defense Initiative in the 1980s-90s) have been created in a number of powerful systems - the same utilized for the previously classified Shiva Star project. The well established fact is that spheromaks are indeed composed of electrons, and, in most cases, positive ions from whatever gas is used in the generation device, typically "Marshall Guns." However, when they are in a stable mode, they do have an extremely high Q factor, because the shape and size of the toroid has formed to assume the most stable configuration. The electrons flow in sheets or tubes in one direction and the positive ions flow in the opposite direction. These electrons could be considered as "fluidized" and are most likely superconducting.


    And you are correct: EVOs can exist for days or longer. Interestingly, smaller spheromaks such as EVOs have a much higher energy AND mass density per unit volume than macro-scale spheromaks (often termed in the literature and defense papers as compact toroids). The higher energy and mass means that the fluidized electrons and positive ions are spinning at extremely high rates, probably in collective unified motion analogous if the identical to a BEC. Macro-scale spheromaks usually require magnetic containment (with permanent or electromagnets) to exist longer than several seconds. This is due to their relatively low energy and mass density. Trying to put two and two together, my thinking is that micro or nano-scale EVOs go black when they achieve an ultra-stable "force free" condition. In the form of "strange radiation" they get caught up in ferromagnetic substances such as nickel, but often can pass through materials such as thin aluminum without too much difficulty.


    What I find interesting is that a number of inventions over the past century producing very closely related conditions for EVO generation (for example T.H. Moray's glow discharge tubes, Nikola Tesla's extremely high frequency magnetically quenched spark gaps, E.V. Gray's systems, and SEVERAL others) produced a form of "cold electricity" that seemed to have superconductive properties. When used to power electric motors with heavy loads, such motors did not run hot at all. This mysterious form of electrical current even produced holes in the glass coverings of light bulbs: an effect that could be imagined as the remittance of an EVO. My guess is that even if EVOs themselves were flowing through the wires, the impacts of EVOs onto the anodes or collector grids used to produce the cold current were somehow imparting similar superconducting patterns that ran along the surface of the wires.

  • Can you expand a bit on recovery of drives from extraterrestrial space crafts? Such as who did this and where is it published? In short, how do you know about it?


    This is not a UFO or UAP (Unidentified Aerial Phenomena) or AAV (Anomalous Aerial Vehicle) forum, so I don't want to get too off topic. However, there have been a string of crash retrievals since probably before but starting around the time of the Roswell UFO Crash in 1947. I've been studying the topic, on and off when I'm not too involved in other topics, since I was a teenager. To start off, I'd suggest you listen to some of the presentations by the aviation historian Michael Schratt that are available on YouTube. He not only gives presentations on the history of classified air craft in the United States, but the history of UFO retrievals in the United States and around the world. For more details about a specific example of a craft that may be based on recovered ET technology, I'd suggest a quick YouTube search using the terms, "Fluxliner ARV" to read about a craft likely built by Lockheed, perhaps with the help of other aerospace firms, in the late 1950s or 1960s.


    In addition to extracting energy from the vacuum and allowing for nuclear energy release, spheromaks are the likely basis of UFO propulsion.

  • Director While it is possible that EVOs may be generated at Piantelli's rod surface grain boundaries, Piantelli's research suggested to him that the LENR was not occurring in the grain boundaries, but rather within the grains. He believes that the surface adsorbed H- ions were drawn into the "right sized" grains and the resulting energy delivered to the distributed number of atoms within his "right sized" grains behaving in a collective manner. He has a nice SEM and an expensive Bruker micro-XRD system to understand the size and orientations of his Ni surface metal grains. Piantelli would probably disagree that EVOs are complicit in his LENR.


    I have been working on a theory of the vacuum ether that includes an explanation for formation of Shoulders' EVOs. I think this new theory explains a lot of things including photons, phonons, charge clusters, how EM radiation propagates, dark matter, neutrinos, nuclear structure, and I am working out gravitation. There are also some LENR clues as well.

  • Hello Bob,


    I'll probably never be able to put it all together for a formal paper because it is so broad ranging, but I have a tentative theory about this phenomenon bouncing through my head. Here is a tiny part. The fundamental basis is that short duration, powerful impulses (electrical or matter based) cohere and organize the fluctuations of the ZPE field so that electron positron pairs are extracted. This leads in almost every free energy or gravity manipulating technology to spheromak production with a variable portion of the formation energy cost provided by the vacuum. The form factor may vary, but these structures (which in some cases may be composed of more fundamental charge carriers than even electrons) contain stored excess potential energy from the vacuum. Moreover, due to their intense fields, they continue to extract energy from the vacuum. This energy may continually sustain the structure or be the energy supply for emitted radiation in some cases - an EVO as a good example. I agree with Tesla that matter has no energy that is not provided by the environment. By doing things such as creating linear beams of vector potential free of curl or a magnetic component (from at least one perspective) we might even be able to collect excess electrical power due to Lenz Law no longer being applicable. But even in such systems, impulses applied to charged particles may induce self organization into structured plasmoids that can intensify the fields involved, cohere the ZPE field to a greateraI degree, and pump out more energy to our side of the aetheric veil.

  • Bob Greenyer has corrected me - Doh! I was saying that Piantelli professes that it is the H+ ion on the surface that is absorbed and it is the H+ ion that is in the ionic hydride, LiH - IT IS THE H- ion! I knew that - it was just old age kicking in. Thanks Bob G! So, you may see the previous posts edited to correct that mistake and not leave a wrong trail in the record. Of course the mistaken text will not show in the quoted text and I am unable to fix that.


    Director I don't really agree with your theory, but I commend you for thinking out of the box. I don't think ZPE is required to explain charge clusters, but an understanding of the true nature of the vacuum ether is probably needed.

  • Bob,


    If you could provide an explanation of your theory of the vacuum ether, I'd appreciate it. I've been fascinated with the vacuum ether for a long time. I've came across some fascinating papers that have really helped formulate my perspective. One of these is Don Hotsons (hopefully I'm getting his name right) articles written for Infinite Energy magazine about the electron positron sea. I've also read multiple papers about "Fluidic Electrodynamics" that have really adjusted my thinking. Basically, there are countless analogous features of electrodynamics and hydrodynamics that are directly comparable. This would be impossible unless the scalar potential and magnetic vector potential of Maxwell's ORIGINAL equations (before Heaviside came along) are real physical entities, not just mathematical creations. If you consider that we live in an energy dense aether of "something" (my best theory is electron positron pairs), the concepts of magnetic vector potential (electric field) and the smoke ring like swirls in the wake of the magnetic vector potential (magnetic fields) become less mysterious. With the content of the paper of Fluidic Electrodynamics in mind (will have to dig up the reference sometime for you) combined with the effects produced by Eugene Podkletnov's gravity impulse generator that produces a spheromak plasmoid discharge between a superconducting cathode and a smaller metal anode resulting in a beam of pure force extending for miles, I can no longer accept the notion that the magnetic vector potential isn't a physical reality. So I'm very open to the existence of an ether, and what I've learned (especially in the past few months) has really opened my mind to many new ideas.

  • Not off the top of my head. What are those structures?

    Sorry for the delay. between you and axil posts of late, I was feeling like i'm dragging my feet for nothing. In the past few years I have observed a number of very old and very interesting things on the internet. starting from a single silhouette. After hunting down things like the waffle rock I realized what i was looking at.

    To get a better understanding I started biulding them to see what they would do. After a lot of testing and some reading similar processes, It seems no one has tinkered with this formula.

    Many of these " identified as tombstones ect" are spent particle reactors. I did some destructive testing to learn how the hematite would self align within the design and so on.

    I have started building the smallest and most easily built unit for a show and tell. Just as the photo It has all the functions as described from some of the posts from the two of you.


    8 cathodes rotating magnetic fields and center hub, ect. I would rather not claim any function other then describe the processes and particle mix, hematite, carbon, porcelain ect. When I'm done, I would like to have my peers evaluate.

    Its a hard build and will take time.

    You are welcome to elaborate on the design but for the point "I'm no scientist" This just fell in my lap unexpectedly.

    Trout

  • Director,


    When your nano diamonds begin to produce lots of EVOs that induce a copious amount of LENR nuclear fusion reactions, isn't it inevitable that the NAE (Nuclear Active Environment) within seconds or minutes will be destroyed by the ensuing high energy radiation thus terminating the reactions?


    And within hours or days the unfortunate demise of the NAE will be probably be shared by the successful but insufficiently protected LENR researcher. Hopefully he will die happy, at least he made it to the history books and to the physics books as well.


    Do you have any idea how to handle these problems?

  • 1) The E-Cat QX, T.H. Morays discharge tubes, and other similar systems that seem to have produced copious small spheromaks from low work function emitters or surfaces have allegedly operated for significant periods without degradation. I suspect there are at least two issues to consider. First, induce the nuclear reactions in such systems AWAY from the emitters so they experience less damage from heating, sputtering, and radiation. This is important. The patent literature describes how various emitters such as micro (sub-millimeter) diameter hollow cathodes can degrade in high current conditions. I think operating in a lower current NON-ARC DISCHARGE regime is critical. I'll be interested in learning if a quark can continue operating for years at a time or if the emitter life time is shorter.


    2) The types of emissions will vary depending on the voltage applied (inducing different kinetic energies), the elements in the plasma, and how the spheromaks are made to produce nuclear effects - compression, ramming into each other, hitting targets, etc. The combination of H and Li in the E-Cat QX probably emits fewer fast neutrons than if deuterium was used. Probably, the emissions are mostly beta particles that don't escape the reactor. I expect some x-rays are also generated. Researchers should use caution and employ radiation detection methods. I'm not overly concerned about this issue. Tesla worked with super high voltage spark discharges and beam tubes for many decades and lived to old age.