ASTOUNDED - Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges (Rossi's Mirror Effect Reactor and more!)

  • Vanadium in water added to the top of mixed carbon/mortar is an interesting thing to see a month later. But I dont know if its helps.

    I have no idea of what you're doing, but if you also add potassium carbonate you will have something close to the formulation used for industrial catalysts in petrochemistry (composed mainly of iron oxide/hematite and potassium oxide or carbonate as the active agents, plus other oxides in small amounts for structural stability and indirectly also carbon).

    However, in that case carbon is inherently added in controlled amounts (completing the catalyst preparation/activation) during operating conditions when the catalyst reacts with the cracking/decomposing hydrocarbons molecules.

    To make this information more in-topic, perhaps some of the graphite and iron carbide phases formed on the catalysts contribute to their excellent chemical activity in a manner similar to that of the doped nanodiamonds described in the last few pages.


    Deuterium bonded to the surface of diamond maintains a negative electron affinity up to 1250C at which the deuterium breaks off. Hydrogen maintains the same intensity of NEA but only up to 1100C.

    I propose that the LION reactor and versions of the E-Cat using nano-diamonds and either deuterium or hydrogen as dopants (zero lithium) will work almost the same. With added lithium, I suspect there is no difference. In a reactor with an active plasma, there will be no difference even without lithium due to the fact the diamond surface will be constantly regenerated and EVOs will be hopping out of the plasma anyway reducing the need for doped diamonds

  • Bob,

    This document I think explains how Rossi could have been growing whister or nanotube like emitters on his high carbon, graphite extruding nickel. The atomic hydrogen in the plasma can actually start forming diamond like bonds in the carbon and stimulate the formation of ascending whiskers. Add a little lithium or hydrogen to dope the tip and an EVO emitter could be the result. Yet again, though, I think for a long time Rossi relied on producing EVOs externally to his fuel. They would crash onto the embrittled nickel and induce fracto-emission. I think those were whiter EVOs that more immediately exploded on impact. The ones from diamond may be black EVOs or strange radiation.…Vaw2uIrL5hCR_SWofzYmdpQLv

  • @Director I worked with some folks that were growing diamond films for the NEA as electron sources in field emission display development. That's where they discovered that the facets of the diamond allegedly having NEA, instead had CNTs growing out of that face that were responsible for the emission. The CNTs were too fragile for reliable long life emission even in the best possible gettered vacuum. This was a commercial activity and probably wasn't published, planning instead to keep it a trade secret.

    Bob Greenyer claims that after examining the side of the fuel discs of the LION reactor covered in diamonds, he sees that they are severely corroded. I think this could mean that in this specific situation, the doped diamond surfaces themselves, even without CNT, are of sufficiently low work function to emit the type of strange radiation that's triggering the anomalous phenomena and excess heat. Maybe I'm wrong, though.

    What I'm curious about now is if Rossi had been intentionally exposing his nickel powder to methane gas for a period of time during pre-processing. The combination of an atomic hydrogen plasma with a small percentage of methane could actually grow diamond formations on the nickel. I'm especially curious about this now, because years ago someone with a many, many years of experience in LENR suggested this to me in a private email.

    So what do you think about processing nickel fuel (let's say wire) by slowly conveying the wire under an intense corona discharge in a hydrogen environment with a percentage of methane? I've read that in such CVD methods of producing diamond films, the greater the quantity of atomic hydrogen the greater the percentage of diamond instead of graphite will be produced. In addition, I've read that by seeding such a metal with diamonoids or nano-diamonds, an even greater extent of diamond formation can be produced.

    I can then imagine when the above fuel is put in the active reactor being exposed to hydrogen and lithium that the work function of the diamond surfaces may be reduced enough for field emission (from light or RF stimulation) and thermionic emission.

  • Here are two quotes from someone very experienced in the LENR field.

    "Rossi hit upon this somewhat by accident. He was using a nickel catalyst to explore ways of making a fuel by combining hydrogen and carbon monoxide and apparently, observed quite by accident, that his [apparatus] was making extra energy. So then he explored it from that point of view and, apparently, over a year or two, amplified the effect."

    "My statement is based on the claim by Rossi that he was initially exploring coal gas as a source of fuel using a Ni catalyst. Coal gas is an impure mixture of CO and H2. I assume this work resulted in his accidental discovery of excess energy from nickel and H2. The role of carbon is unknown, but it would not be a catalyst for a nuclear reaction in any case. Rossi apparently created the same conditions as did Piantelli, but on a larger scale. The nuclear active environment has yet to be identified in either case. Carbon might participate in creation of this environment, but just how this might occur is unknown."

    From my review of online literature about the synthesis of diamond in CVD systems, I've learned that a nickel substrate can be used with a hydrocarbon (usually methane is mentioned) and an atomic hydrogen plasma to produce diamond like films and sometimes even spires or whiskers. These layers are often highly doped in hydrogen so they exhibit a Negative Electron Affinity. When heated, they eject electrons freely. My guess is that when these EVOs encounter a hydrogenated nickel lattice the result is fracto-emission. Also, some of these EVOs may be "heavy electrons" that catalyze fusion in a manner similar to muon catalyzed fusion.

    I am more confident than ever that Rossi has always used work function reduction and EVO production as his primary LENR catalyst.

  • About FT Catalyst, we know a water/gas shift reaction described as:

    CO+H2O = CO2 + H2 as well as we could do CO in insu.. if we use 2 catalysts for example "iron and nickel" ( cat and mouse) because water/gas shift reaction is a reverse reaction drived by temperatures change.....

    I have to add today about my last hypothesis that we could switch easily O by Li so we should find something as:

    CO+H2O = CO2 + H2 switched by LiC+ LiH2 = Li2 C + H2 something like that.

    I need help here from real chemists to finalize exactly this formula / hypothesis.

    As you can see in files attached, C + Li + H are common mix to improve H breathing from Li.

    I imagined this hypothesis for at least 2 years. it comes back with the return of carbon, thanks to Director.

    no one is apparently able to criticize her ??


    Rossi said that he spent every waking hour for six months tweaking the size
    and shape of the tubules to provide maximum performance. Maybe he found the
    miniature wave guide frequency that matches the energy hole by trial and

    axil , do you remember where the quote from Rossi comes from?

    Also, I remember a very early article in which someone who went to visit Rossi claimed that Rossi said the tubercules increased the output by a thousand fold.

    I'm convinced that the tubercules were heavily doped diamond like whiskers created by the interaction of the carbon already on the nickel, maybe hydrocarbons he added like carbon monoxide or methane, and atomic hydrogen. I think he added additional elements such as potassium, lithium, and others to further reduce the work function to create a Negative Electron Affinity.

    Heat alone could produce EVOs in these systems via multiple methods (fracto-emission and thermoelectric emission), but externally produced EVO strikes could create surface plasmon polaritons that would induce these whiskers to launch their own EVOs. Also, rotating magnetic fields could assist the formation.


    Andrea Rossi on finding the right Nickel powder

    Already from the beginning, Rossi looked at the powder form of the fuel because he wanted to increase the surface area of the Nickel so that more entrance points per volume unit for the hydrogen gas could occur.

    Andrea Rossi stresses that, although one might first think “the finer the better” because the finer the powder the more surface area per volume you get, this is not the case. Because in order to reach useful reaction rates with hydrogen, the powder needs to processed in a way that leads to amplified tubercles on the surface.

    The tubercles are essential in order for the reaction rate to reach levels high enough for the implied total power output per volume or mass to reach orders of magnitude kW/kg – this level of power density is required for any useful application of the process.

    Rossi tells that he worked every waking hour for six months straight, trying dozens of combinations to find the optimal powder size for the Energy Catalyzer, or E-Cat. He further stresses that specific data about the final optimal grain size cannot be revealed, but can tell us that the most efficient grain size is more in the micrometer range rather than the nanometer range.

    Andrea Rossi on the secret catalyst

    In most physics related forums on the internet, physicists are speculating at this point about what the function of the secret catalyst or “secret sauce” really is. An earlier popular speculation was that the “secret catalyst” was used to separate the Hydrogen molecules into Hydrogen atoms, which are then more easily absorbed by the Nickel lattice.

    Today we are proud to be able to add a new piece of the puzzle to that discussion by questioning wether the substance is used to amplify the prominent tubercles on the surface of the grains. This speculation makes sense since we have been told that both surface area and surface texture has a big impact on the reaction frequency.

    If the tubercles on the surface did not affect the reaction itself they would then only affect the loading time of the Hydrogen into the Nickel lattice and not the reaction rate inside the lattice. For all knows from what Rossi has told us, that doesn’t seem to be the case and a qualified guess would be that the reaction is most intense at the surface of the powder.

    Andrea Rossi is still working on several elements and substances to improve the catalysts for the Hydrogen-Nickel reaction, and he has been doing so for the past four, five years. The most effective catalyst found so far, was at one stage abandoned in the search for an even more effective one, but was later reinstated because, overall, it proved to be the most effective one.


    Andrzej Badzian and Teresa Badzian

    Materials Research Laboratory

    The Pennsylvania State University

    University Park, PA 16802

    HP/HT crystallization of diamond from carbon solutions in metal like Ni and Co was a subject of controveersy on catalytic versus pure solvent role of these metals. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate formation of oriented inclusion of Ni (Co) carbides (defected NaCl type structure) commensurated with diamond lattice. In addition to inclusions, interstitial metal atos were detected by x-ray topography of forbidden 200 reflection. These findings seem to give preferance to the active, catalytic roles of metal atoms in surface reactions. (1)

    As extensions of these observations were have undertaken a search for formations of Ni phases in connection to CVD diamond growth environments, It was obvious that nickel metal will not be a proper substrate for diamond heteroepitaxy because only graphite would be formed in such environments. The formation of graphite can be avoided when nickel hydride is formed before diamond growth is initiated with the help of microwave plasma CVD. (2)

    We pose a question about analogy between HP/HT process and CVD process with Ni participation. Formation of nickel hydride is considered in analogy to the role of pressure in formation of nickel carbide (NaCl-type structure). We think that the relative stability of nickel hydride sustains the NaCl - type structure for a ternary phase Ni-C-H which is formed in the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma.

    Experiments on the role of Ni were conducted using different substrates: thin film of Ni on single crystal diamond, film of Ni on CU, crystals of ternary phase Ni-C-H on graphite. The last substrate was prepared by the deposition of NiH from hydrogen plasma in contact with Ni substrate onto graphite. The ternary phase Ni-C-H melts at 1150C. In contrast to Ni metal, this phase shows the Raman line at about 1000 cm-1. Diamond nucleate on the ternary phase crystals as well as on new sites of graphite. Oriented growth was observed on Cu covered with Ni film.

    In conclusion we observed an active role of Ni in CVD microwave plasma diamond growth process by formation volatile NiH and solid ternary phase

  • From the above papers and the others I have read, there seem to be a number of variables in play that allow for diamond coatings and structures to form on nickel.

    1 - First, there must be a source of carbon. Already, Ni 200 alloy nickel wire has internal carbon which has been stated in the literature to precipitate on the surface as graphite (this is when there is no hydrogen present). Nickel carbonyl powder will obviously have some percentage of carbon. Additionally, carbon can be provided by adding a hydrocarbon gas such as carbon monoxide and/or methane.

    2 - A predominantly hydrogen plasma (with lower quantities of hydrocarbons) will deposit graphite on the surface of the nickel. However, the hydrogen plasma then will proceed to do two things: create a nickel hydride layer (which helps with the formation of diamond) and break apart the graphite and form diamond. Basically, the atomic hydrogen is what makes sure diamond forms instead of graphite. The higher the percentage of atomic hydrogen to hydrocarbon in the plasma, the greater the percentage of diamond will form compared to graphite.

    3 - The hydrogen that helped create the diamond will actually dope the diamond as well, allowing for a Negative Electron Affinity. Then adding a bit of lithium to the plasma would even further enhance the Negative Electron Affinity.

    So if I were to build an older (wire or powder based) device, I'd use the following steps: unless I wanted to skip them by adding doped nanodiamonds from an external source like LION is doing.

    First, place the high carbon nickel wire or powder in the reactor. I'd expose it to heat and vacuum to remove trapped gases.

    Second, heat the reactor with a resistor, add hydrogen, and create plasma with a RFG, super hot Tungsten filament, or some other means. I'd let the atomic hydrogen embrittle the nickel for a period of time to create a nickel-hydride film.

    Third, after I was satisfied that a sufficient nickel-hydride film had been produced, I'd introduce some small quantity of methane or carbon monoxide to the reactor. The hydrocarbon would add graphite to the nickel-hydride film on the surface of the wire or powder. Simutaneously, the atomic hydrogen would break apart the graphite and allow diamond to preferrentially form. By altering parameters such as temperature, pressure, ratio of hydrogen/carbon, and other parameters the geometry of the diamond could be altered to produce either films or whiskers or nano-tubes.

    Fourth, I'd add a small percentage of a work function reducing dopant such as potassium or lithium. This would coat the surface of the already hydrogen doped diamond and enhance the Negative Electron Affinity.

    At some point during the above process, EVOs would start to be produced and excess heat would begin. Please note that the EVOs would be coming from multiple sources: hopping out of the plasma and striking the nickel, due to fracto-emission from EVO or proton strikes on the nickel-hydride, and emerging from the NEA diamond coatings or spires.

    There are many parameters to play around with here. A lot of the know how would only come from trial and error testing.

  • I just discovered that a Russian has built something roughly similar to the Quark.

    High effective heterogeneous plasma vortex reactor for
    production of heat energy and hydrogen…742-6596/980/1/012040/pdf

    Basically, between nickel electrodes, they stimulate the formation of a plasmoid composed of various gases including inert gases (such as helium) and even steam. The result is copious x-ray radiation (on the soft end) and excess heat. Basically, they produced a very crude spheromak that induced a wide range of nuclear reactions. I think the Quark does the same thing, but in a more refined manner. I think this is an amazing beginning, and I hope other teams will start building spheromak generating reactors. The good news is that there's already a LOT of know how available on how to produce, stabilize, stimulate, and even destroy these plasmoids.

  • Reading the paper.

    They have some fun equipment, and have measured soft x-rays from a electric pulse induced gas plasma. So far so good.

    The estimates of power budget are very unconvincing, and results (even with unconvincing estimates) only a little above unity. They themselves show that there are large errors in the calorimetry, which depends on calibration across systems with different characteristics.

    There is also the standard caveat for any measurments using pulse power. In these circumstances electric input power is difficult to measure directly and naive measurement can be heavily distorted by EMC - detecting and correcting this porblem is not trivial (for most measurement methods) and many researchers do not even consider it and therefore have unknown additional errors.

    Soft x-ray emission from lab plasmas is expected:…88/0029-5515/21/6/007/pdf

    To have any support for the hypothesis that this type of plasma induces nuclear reactions you would need one of:

    • high energy product emission
    • very careful calorimetry with all issues (there are inherently very many issues) checked.
    • strong experimental coherence with some highly predictive theory that also explained, in detail, how the nuclear reactions happened.

    On a theoretical basis: emergent effects that would allow nuclear reactions and just possibly deal with high energy products are sort-of imaginable in a metal lattice. In a plasma they are much less imaginable because:

    • You do not have any possible coherence
    • You do not have a lattice

    So why these many reports of strange behaviour in plasmas? Well, the only strange results reported so far are calorimetric and as above these plasmas are particularly difficult to measure for power in/out.


  • You do not have a lattice

    Agreed, but unlike "hot fusion" in LENR work we often have an electrode / plasma interface. Therefore we cannot discount the possibility that the lattice of a solid electrode is involved and might contribute or enable coherent effects. Once again I point to the Lipinski's WIPO application. There the solid lithium is clearly in the presence of a plasma or at least an ionized gas, and it is likely at that interface that the claimed multi MeV alphas originate.

  • When EVOs form due to fracto-emission when a metal lattice fractures via hydrogen or deuterium embrittlement, nuclear reactions take place.

    When EVOs form due to the discharge of electricity through metal powder fuel loaded with hydrogen or deuterium, nuclear reactions take place.

    When EVOs form due to RF, microwave, or other methods and interact with metal powder fuel loaded with hydrogen or deuterium, nuclear reactions take place.

    When EVOs form in a gaseous environment with metal nano-particles from cathode erosion between electrodes (especially when a percentage of a noble gas such as argon/xenon are added), nuclear reactions take place.

    When EVOs formed in Papp's cylinder due to the combination of a spark discharge, external magnetic field, and electrode configuration which resulted in a piston being pushed along with a powerful burst of EMF, nuclear reactions took place.

    When T. Henry Moray connected the output of his antenna and rectifying devices to his various tubes filled with gases which resulted in enormous quantities of electricity being produced, EVOs formed and nuclear reactions took place.

    When E.V. Gray produced a spark discharge and "split the positive" capturing the resulting output with receiving cages to power loads, EVOs formed and nuclear reactions take place.

    When Randell Mills runs high current through molten metals with a percentage of hydrogen, EVOs are formed and nuclear reactions take place.

    When cavitation bubbles in water or other liquids collapse and create a plasma, EVOs are formed and nuclear reactions can take place.

    When Nikola Tesla used a primary spark discharge for his coils that was operated at a high rate and quenched before significant current could flow, EVOs were formed and nuclear reactions took place.

    I could go on and on with ten more examples. However, I think the simple truth is that LENR isn't a unique phenomenon or technology, but simply one variation or manifestation of a phenomena that has been at the root of a wide array of exotic technologies.

  • Maybe the point of keeping everyone derailed looking.... keeps them from realizing there is no need for it .Again... I don"t see a , nuclear reactions as a volcano erupts but it shore makes a lot of lightning~

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