The LION experiment

  • I saw the photos in passing, but I was unable to make a connection to the use of the dual tube LFH furnace, and so didn't know how they factored into this story. So if I understand the situation now, the particle tracks from x-ray exposure are the main interesting observable reported by LION (unless I've messed up this description). Am I right in thinking that with heavy-water treated diamonds, there are strange tracks, and without heavy water, there are no strange tracks?


    How is the dual tube LFH furnace used in the experimental protocol? How is a conclusion of "possibly LENR" in contrast to "possibly something strange" drawn here?

  • I've reviewed the thread, and it seems that in addition to the strange tracks, there is this observable:


    Results obtained seem remarkable, and include extended periods of self-sustain.


    So there is presumably calorimetry going on together with a calculation of energy-in versus energy-out.


    I gather that there is "fuel" consisting of heavy water treated diamonds that goes into one of the tubes of the LFH furnace, and some kind of control in the other tube. LION runs the experiment and sees something that leads him to a conclusion of self sustaining heat. And then after the experiment is run, he examines the fuel. He sees strange tracks in x-ray exposures in the heavy-water treated diamond fuel, and does not see strange tracks in x-ray exposures of the stuff placed in the control tube.


    Have I messed up any details in this description? How many of these details have MFMP and LFH succeeded in replicating so far?

  • How many of these details have MFMP and LFH succeeded in replicating so far?


    We are still in early days of replication, with at least two in development - Alan Smith's at LFH and my own at Magicsound Lab. We will both be using LION's fuel preparation and loading as close as the known details allow. Alan Smith has kindly supplied me with an LFH Friendly Robot reactor, as used by LION.


    Because there wasn't formal calorimetry of the first two reported LION tests, I have taken that on as the focus of my replication. Full calibration will start next week, as soon as some more sheathed thermocouples arrive.


    Time permitting, I'll try to stream the calibration data live, using the Plotly screen we set up for GS5.4 (Link TBD)


    AlanG


  • If you have a few minutes...


    Here is a video that shows a verity of strange tracks from the LION reactor ash/structure.


  • Diamond-diamond_macle2.jpg


    maccles


    Triangular shaped diamond.


    The diamond on the diadisk might be recrystallizing as a maccles diamond.


    Zincblende structure


    A zincblende unit cell

    The space group of the Zincblende structure is called F43m (in Hermann–Mauguin notation), or 216.[12][13] The Strukturbericht designation is "B3".[14]


    The Zincblende structure (also written "zinc blende") is named after the mineral zincblende (sphalerite), one form of zinc sulfide (β-ZnS). As in the rock-salt structure, the two atom types form two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices. However, it differs from rock-salt structure in how the two lattices are positioned relative to one another. The zincblende structure has tetrahedral coordination: Each atom's nearest neighbors consist of four atoms of the opposite type, positioned like the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. Altogether, the arrangement of atoms in zincblende structure is the same as diamond cubic structure, but with alternating types of atoms at the different lattice sites.


    Examples of compounds with this structure include zincblende itself, lead(II) nitrate, many compound semiconductors (such as gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride), and a wide array of other binary compounds.


    slide_7.jpg


    It might be that the absorption of the deuterium into the diamond is producing a recrystallization of the structure of the diamond as deuterium occupies the voids in the crystal structure of diamond.

  • Nice image- of a heavily 'maccled' rough diamond.



    https://www.degruyter.com/view…010.3451/am.2010.3451.xml


    Influence of the fluid composition on diamond dissolution forms in carbonate melts


    Abstract

    The influence of СО2 and Н2О on the morphology of diamond dissolution in carbonate melts was studied experimentally at pressure 5.7-7.0 GPa and temperature 1400-1750 °С, using a BARS multi-anvil apparatus. It has been established that diamond dissolution in fluid-free carbonate melts starts with the development of positive trigons on the {111} diamond faces, followed by truncation of crystal edges by trigon-trioctahedral surfaces, and finally by the transformation of diamond into spherical dodecahedroid-like morphology. Diamond dissolution in СО2-bearing carbonate melts also begins with the formation of positive trigons on the {111} faces and development trigon-trioctahedron surfaces on the edges. Dissolution form changes from trigon-trioctahedron to dodecahedroid with increasing loss of initial weight. Addition of more than 8 wt% of Н2О into the carbonate medium changes the orientation of the trigons and the secondary morphology of diamond. At the beginning of the process, negative trigons and ditrigonal (shield-shaped) dissolution layers developed on the {111} faces. Dissolution form of diamond in water-bearing melts is tetrahexahedroid, which is most similar to rounded natural diamonds. The results obtained allow us to regard the morphology of trigons and dissolution forms as an indicator of the composition of the diamond dissolution medium. The experiments suggest that the morphology of diamond during dissolution is controlled by the presence of water in a system. Our data show that the СО2/(СО2+Н2О) ratio by weight value was <0.81 during natural diamond dissolution.


    I think that what this abstract says in simple words is that when diamond is dissolved by water, trigons appear on the surface of the diamond.

  • Because there wasn't formal calorimetry of the first two reported LION tests, I have taken that on as the focus of my replication. Full calibration will start next week, as soon as some more sheathed thermocouples arrive.


    Time permitting, I'll try to stream the calibration data live, using the Plotly screen we set up for GS5.4 (Link TBD)

    It's been two weeks. When are we going to see news of the replication attempts?

  • Replication using fuel tubes prepared by LION will begin at some still uncertain date in April. Our team at LFH, and 'MagicSound' in the USA are starting tests with tubes prepared according to the LION protocol before the end of this month. I should point out that 'staring from cold' it takes 37 days to prepare the diamond elements in the fuel, and a further 2 days to assemble a fuel tube and seal it. Much of this is of course simply waiting time.

  • Replication using fuel tubes prepared by LION will begin at some still uncertain date in April. Our team at LFH, and 'MagicSound' in the USA are starting tests with tubes prepared according to the LION protocol before the end of this month. I should point out that 'staring from cold' it takes 37 days to prepare the diamond elements in the fuel, and a further 2 days to assemble a fuel tube and seal it. Much of this is of course simply waiting time.

    Alan,


    If your preparation includes any energy use (heat, evacuation, size reduction etc),

    are you keeping a log?

    It should probably be included in any Grand Total Heat calculations.

  • If your preparation includes any energy use (heat, evacuation, size reduction etc),

    are you keeping a log?

    It should probably be included in any Grand Total Heat calculations.


    No, it should not. This would be like including the heat of glass blowing to form a glass cell; or the heat used by the equipment used to mine the iron ore to make a steel cell; or the heat needed to generate electricity to power the computer that records the measurements. The only heat you should measure is that which goes into the cell during the experiment, or the chemical potential energy of the cell contents when the experiment starts. There is no starting potential energy in most cold fusion cells. The cell contents are inert. They are mostly water and metal.