The LION experiment

  • LENR is an extremely vague term to describe a wide range of different nuclear reactions. The problem is that we don't have the reactions pinned down at all, so we can't differentiate well what exactly is happening. What I'm saying is that EVOs produce a wide range of stimulation that seems to induce one or more nuclear reactions which fall under the general term LENR - even though a few of these possible nuclear reactions could be deemed a little more hot.


    As I've said before, EVOs are the shotgun approach to LENR. Basically, imagine trying to kill a werewolf without knowing what type of metal worked. One solution could be to make a shot gun cartridge with pellets of dozens of different elements. You might not be able to pin down what element slayed the monster, but you would end up alive and the werewolf would be dead. This is what I'm saying is probably the case with EVOs and LENR. Except that I expect that a few different types of pellets in the cartridge are effective at inducing LENR to various degrees.

  • LENR is an extremely vague term to describe a wide range of different nuclear reactions. The problem is that we don't have the reactions pinned down at all, so we can't differentiate well what exactly is happening. What I'm saying is that EVOs produce a wide range of stimulation that seems to induce one or more nuclear reactions which fall under the general term LENR - even though a few of these possible nuclear reactions could be deemed a little more hot.


    As I've said before, EVOs are the shotgun approach to LENR. Basically, imagine trying to kill a werewolf without knowing what type of metal worked. One solution could be to make a shot gun cartridge with pellets of dozens of different elements. You might not be able to pin down what element slayed the monster, but you would end up alive and the werewolf would be dead. This is what I'm saying is probably the case with EVOs and LENR. Except that I expect that a few different types of pellets in the cartridge are effective at inducing LENR to various degrees.

    There are some low powered LENR systems where EVO's are not produced like bacteria and the the-dennis-cravens-golden-ball-reaction (see below). How can you explain that?


    The Dennis Cravens Golden Ball reaction

  • Diamonds have a low work function but are not conductors.


    Certainly diamonds such as natural type IIa, across specific planes / axes, are among the world's best electrical insulators, shared with some varieties of polystyrene and perhaps ultraclean PTFE. Low electron emission work function is often identified with high bulk electrical resistivity.


    But, thermally diamonds can be the worlds best conductors:


    https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000747


    https://www.google.com/url?sa=…Vaw2Dvi0JrXGXALq9PlIXfynq


    Thermal conductivity, especially in specific orientations is closely associated with effective electron mass. Apparently reprising aspects of W-L theory.





  • There are some low powered LENR systems where EVO's are not produced like bacteria and the the-dennis-cravens-golden-ball-reaction (see below). How can you explain that?


    The Dennis Cravens Golden Ball reaction

    I have not said that EVOs explain every single anomalous nuclear effect, but they seem to be a unifying mechanism among a broad range of LENR systems. Since EVOs can scale down so small, I don't dismiss the idea of bacteria producing "heavy electron" like clusters that can induce transmutations. I don't know a huge amount about Craven's experiment.

  • The transmutation of e;ements withing living systems is currently an area that has recaptured the interest of a number of researchers, particularly in the old Soviet Bloc countries. I have no opinion of the validity of the research, except to say that I have met one of its foremost scientists, Vladimir Vyssotsky and found him to be very smart and very diligent in his approach to everything he does.


    Here btw, is a US Army research paper on the topic. http://rexresearch.com/goldfein/goldfein.htm

  • In response to Axil's suggestion at ECW, here are some images of the diamond pads before and after the bake/soak treatment. The first two images are of the raw pads, still attached to the green resin backing sheet. The first image is with side lighting only, and shows the color of the diamonds tinted by reflected light off the backing, . The second image is with through-the-lens direct lighting, and shows bright gold-tinted reflections from the polished nickel backing of the disc. Some of the gold color is also reflected back through the diamonds, giving them more false color.



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    The third image is of a pad removed from the D2O soaking after two weeks. The changes are subtle, but some details may be revealed after further study. The small area in the central red circle is a facet plane that happened to be horizontal to the disc, which enabled a look at higher magnification with some depth of field. The result in image 4 is pretty cool, lots of tiny tetrahedral crystals growing out of the surface. The smallest ones visible are around 1 micron, and because of the wide range of dimension seen, there are likely to be many sub-micron ones as well.


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    I'm not saying that these nano-scale features resulted from the bake/soak treatment. I wasn't looking in the raw material, but having seen this, I would surely have a closer look with SEM (if I had one).

    AlanG

  • Forgive me for missing the discussion, but I'm curious what the empirical basis is for using diamonds? Or is this the result of a suggestion following someone's flight of fancy? Presumably this is something LION is using? That begs two related questions: has he controlled for diamonds/not-diamonds? And what are the observables that lead one to suspect that LION has something?

    So far I have gathered that it is the coloration and destruction of the inside of the tube, but that doesn't sound like an adequate basis for concluding anything, so I suspect it must be something much more than that. (I am sure Bob G.'s video has the answer to these questions, but I'm reluctant to sit through it, and I think the answers to these questions will be of general interest, so I go ahead and ask them.)

  • Lion is using diamonds, the same source of diamonds that AlanG has shown above. I guess you missed the X-ray photos and the particle track photos I posted in here? I (and others) are working on replicating LION's discovery of what appears to be LENR stimulated by heavy-water treated diamonds. How he started using this method of triggering something very strange is not at presnt known to me, I have only met him once, but over the next few months it should become clear.


    magicsound - Love the triangles- will go look for some on my diamonds. Below are closer to 'true colour' reflected light shots of diamonds baked for 7 days- but not soaked.






  • I saw the photos in passing, but I was unable to make a connection to the use of the dual tube LFH furnace, and so didn't know how they factored into this story. So if I understand the situation now, the particle tracks from x-ray exposure are the main interesting observable reported by LION (unless I've messed up this description). Am I right in thinking that with heavy-water treated diamonds, there are strange tracks, and without heavy water, there are no strange tracks?


    How is the dual tube LFH furnace used in the experimental protocol? How is a conclusion of "possibly LENR" in contrast to "possibly something strange" drawn here?

  • I've reviewed the thread, and it seems that in addition to the strange tracks, there is this observable:


    Results obtained seem remarkable, and include extended periods of self-sustain.


    So there is presumably calorimetry going on together with a calculation of energy-in versus energy-out.


    I gather that there is "fuel" consisting of heavy water treated diamonds that goes into one of the tubes of the LFH furnace, and some kind of control in the other tube. LION runs the experiment and sees something that leads him to a conclusion of self sustaining heat. And then after the experiment is run, he examines the fuel. He sees strange tracks in x-ray exposures in the heavy-water treated diamond fuel, and does not see strange tracks in x-ray exposures of the stuff placed in the control tube.


    Have I messed up any details in this description? How many of these details have MFMP and LFH succeeded in replicating so far?

  • How many of these details have MFMP and LFH succeeded in replicating so far?


    We are still in early days of replication, with at least two in development - Alan Smith's at LFH and my own at Magicsound Lab. We will both be using LION's fuel preparation and loading as close as the known details allow. Alan Smith has kindly supplied me with an LFH Friendly Robot reactor, as used by LION.


    Because there wasn't formal calorimetry of the first two reported LION tests, I have taken that on as the focus of my replication. Full calibration will start next week, as soon as some more sheathed thermocouples arrive.


    Time permitting, I'll try to stream the calibration data live, using the Plotly screen we set up for GS5.4 (Link TBD)


    AlanG


  • If you have a few minutes...


    Here is a video that shows a verity of strange tracks from the LION reactor ash/structure.


  • Diamond-diamond_macle2.jpg


    maccles


    Triangular shaped diamond.


    The diamond on the diadisk might be recrystallizing as a maccles diamond.


    Zincblende structure


    A zincblende unit cell

    The space group of the Zincblende structure is called F43m (in Hermann–Mauguin notation), or 216.[12][13] The Strukturbericht designation is "B3".[14]


    The Zincblende structure (also written "zinc blende") is named after the mineral zincblende (sphalerite), one form of zinc sulfide (β-ZnS). As in the rock-salt structure, the two atom types form two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices. However, it differs from rock-salt structure in how the two lattices are positioned relative to one another. The zincblende structure has tetrahedral coordination: Each atom's nearest neighbors consist of four atoms of the opposite type, positioned like the four vertices of a regular tetrahedron. Altogether, the arrangement of atoms in zincblende structure is the same as diamond cubic structure, but with alternating types of atoms at the different lattice sites.


    Examples of compounds with this structure include zincblende itself, lead(II) nitrate, many compound semiconductors (such as gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride), and a wide array of other binary compounds.


    slide_7.jpg


    It might be that the absorption of the deuterium into the diamond is producing a recrystallization of the structure of the diamond as deuterium occupies the voids in the crystal structure of diamond.

  • Nice image- of a heavily 'maccled' rough diamond.



    https://www.degruyter.com/view…010.3451/am.2010.3451.xml


    Influence of the fluid composition on diamond dissolution forms in carbonate melts


    Abstract

    The influence of СО2 and Н2О on the morphology of diamond dissolution in carbonate melts was studied experimentally at pressure 5.7-7.0 GPa and temperature 1400-1750 °С, using a BARS multi-anvil apparatus. It has been established that diamond dissolution in fluid-free carbonate melts starts with the development of positive trigons on the {111} diamond faces, followed by truncation of crystal edges by trigon-trioctahedral surfaces, and finally by the transformation of diamond into spherical dodecahedroid-like morphology. Diamond dissolution in СО2-bearing carbonate melts also begins with the formation of positive trigons on the {111} faces and development trigon-trioctahedron surfaces on the edges. Dissolution form changes from trigon-trioctahedron to dodecahedroid with increasing loss of initial weight. Addition of more than 8 wt% of Н2О into the carbonate medium changes the orientation of the trigons and the secondary morphology of diamond. At the beginning of the process, negative trigons and ditrigonal (shield-shaped) dissolution layers developed on the {111} faces. Dissolution form of diamond in water-bearing melts is tetrahexahedroid, which is most similar to rounded natural diamonds. The results obtained allow us to regard the morphology of trigons and dissolution forms as an indicator of the composition of the diamond dissolution medium. The experiments suggest that the morphology of diamond during dissolution is controlled by the presence of water in a system. Our data show that the СО2/(СО2+Н2О) ratio by weight value was <0.81 during natural diamond dissolution.


    I think that what this abstract says in simple words is that when diamond is dissolved by water, trigons appear on the surface of the diamond.

  • Because there wasn't formal calorimetry of the first two reported LION tests, I have taken that on as the focus of my replication. Full calibration will start next week, as soon as some more sheathed thermocouples arrive.


    Time permitting, I'll try to stream the calibration data live, using the Plotly screen we set up for GS5.4 (Link TBD)

    It's been two weeks. When are we going to see news of the replication attempts?

  • Replication using fuel tubes prepared by LION will begin at some still uncertain date in April. Our team at LFH, and 'MagicSound' in the USA are starting tests with tubes prepared according to the LION protocol before the end of this month. I should point out that 'staring from cold' it takes 37 days to prepare the diamond elements in the fuel, and a further 2 days to assemble a fuel tube and seal it. Much of this is of course simply waiting time.

  • Replication using fuel tubes prepared by LION will begin at some still uncertain date in April. Our team at LFH, and 'MagicSound' in the USA are starting tests with tubes prepared according to the LION protocol before the end of this month. I should point out that 'staring from cold' it takes 37 days to prepare the diamond elements in the fuel, and a further 2 days to assemble a fuel tube and seal it. Much of this is of course simply waiting time.

    Alan,


    If your preparation includes any energy use (heat, evacuation, size reduction etc),

    are you keeping a log?

    It should probably be included in any Grand Total Heat calculations.

  • If your preparation includes any energy use (heat, evacuation, size reduction etc),

    are you keeping a log?

    It should probably be included in any Grand Total Heat calculations.


    No, it should not. This would be like including the heat of glass blowing to form a glass cell; or the heat used by the equipment used to mine the iron ore to make a steel cell; or the heat needed to generate electricity to power the computer that records the measurements. The only heat you should measure is that which goes into the cell during the experiment, or the chemical potential energy of the cell contents when the experiment starts. There is no starting potential energy in most cold fusion cells. The cell contents are inert. They are mostly water and metal.