MFMP:LFH - LION2 100% Replication well beyond LION1

  • Regarding step 2 in the LION fuel preparation as follows:


    "2) Place discs in aluminum camping pan and bake exposed to ordinary atmosphere in household oven at 200C for one week."


    What this procedure could generate is nanocavities in the surface of the diamond showing the Ryvita effect:


    dlcburn2.gif


    Damage Craters seen after Field Emission Testing of Diamond Films

    CVD diamond and DLC films are routinely tested for field emission of electrons. After testing, the surface of the films often exhibit morphology changes, from small indents to large craters. This pit generation process is similar to the spark processing done by Mizuno performed on nickel and palladium materials.


    It is inside these cavities were metallic hydrogen forms via Pauli Uncertainty Principle compression. The bonds of diamond are the strongest to be found in nature and are less likely to fail under the high pressure conditions that occur when metalizing hydrogen. These bonds are strong enough to hold hydrogen in compression for extended periods of time. The crystal structure of CVD diamond also is hexagonal thus providing an ideal template for the growth of metallic hydrogen inside these cavities.


    These cavities are produced through oxidation where carbon in the diamond surface is converted to Co and Co2. The time that this erosion process is allowed to continue impacts the dimensionality of the cavities. Baking for an overlong period would produce cavities that were too large, and a too short bake duration will produce cavities that are too small.


    Regarding step 3 in the LION fuel preparation as follows:


    "3) Before they can drop in temperature, drop hot discs through funnel into 100ml bottle of room temperature 99.8% purity deuterium oxide and allow them to soak for unknown duration."


    This step allows the hydrogen to find its way into the diamond cavities. The duration of this step should not be critical to the metallic hydrogen formation process but according to Holmlid this timeframe may require weeks of exposure. The metallic hydrogen is contained inside these cavities and will gradually escape over time. These disks will provide the means to transport the metallic hydrogen into the reactor.


    The purity of the deuterium oxide is critical because the formation of metallic hydrogen inside the microcavities on the surface of the diamond is destroyed by any isotopic impurity in the isotopes of hydrogen.


    In summary, there is an ideal baking time for the diamond coated disks. The soaking time is not that critical but an overlong period may begin to destroy the cavities on the surface of the diamond. Once the reactor begins operation, the diamond will deteriorate as the LENR reactor increases in activity leaving the nickel substrate.

  • Diamonds can be oxidized at 200 ℃?

  • The deuterium doping the diamond surface is NOT penetrating deeply. What's happening is that the diamond surface dissociates the deuterium heavy water vapor into H and OH groups that bond with the diamond surface. This process can take place to a certain extent at ROOM TEMPERATURE, but from what I've read the bonding is enhanced at higher temperatures. In one document, a diamond surface was exposed to 800C super critical steam. Now, there are other doping techniques that are very different. For example, you can bombard the diamond surface with H atoms in a plasma, and the protons will borrow below the surface. Using this method you can achieve higher levels of doping. The same method can be used with oxygen. But if you use oxygen by itself, you can then add an additional very thin surface layer of another dopant like lithium that will reduce the work function to an even lower degree and produce a Negative Electron Affinity.


    The good thing about using oxygen and lithium is that the oxygen holds on almost like a "glue" to the diamond surface (but it doesn't create an NEA by itself) and then the lithium bonds powerfully (due to it's small mass compared to heavier elements) to the oxygen. The combination allows for the greatest Negative Electron Affinity to date, except maybe when caesium is used. However, caesium has a higher mass so it doesn't bond as tightly to the oxygen layer and cannot withstand as high of temperatures.

  • Diamonds can be oxidized at 200 ℃?

    Quote

    Diamonds are carbon crystals that form deep within the Earth under high temperatures and extreme pressures. At surface air pressure (one atmosphere), diamonds are not as stable as graphite, and so the decay of diamond is thermodynamically favorable (δH = −2 kJ / mol).[18] So, contrary to De Beers' ad campaign extending from 1948 to at least 2013 under the slogan "A diamond is forever",[44] diamonds are definitely not forever. However, owing to a very large kinetic energy barrier, diamonds are metastable;

  • Apparently, the unusual observation is melted SiO2, which takes a high temperature? SiO2 can alloy with a number of oxides and be melted at a much lower temperature. Could this be happening just on the edge?

  • I have seen many melted halogen bulbs.... Bent, distorted, large bulges in the quartz glass.... The filament just as far from the glass as when new....

    Of course there was a thread, either here or at ECW, on tungsten filament light bulbs making LENR, which was supposed to be the "real" reason they were banned.... (Not to be confused with the debunked-but-still-cherished-by-some Hg transmutation in fluorescent bulbs story).

  • Great stuff!!! Very interesting to see a move away from the combination of transition metals and H/D.

    A few thoughts on the observations based on the proposed de-excited s-process LENR model:

    - Is diamond carbon involved in the reaction, or is it forming the nuclear active environment (NAE)? Definitely forms the NAE. Looks like there may be a 4x augur resonance for: H(n>1) -> H(n=1/9). So perhaps carbon is a catalyst too!!!

    - There is a strong possibility that diamond carbon has a completely different nucleus structure than other forms of carbon, so available carbon data (ionisation energies, etc.) may or may not be applicable to diamond carbon. See: subtleatomics.com/atomic-nuclei

    - There's a fair bit of copper in the setup, so this could also be acting as a catalyst. Cu is a key catalyst via transitions of H(n>1) -> H(n=1/3) and H(n=1/9). See: subtleatomics.com/electrons

    - Once you have H(n=1/9), the rest is easy!!!... Once you understand what H(n=1/9) really is...

    - Al may also have a D resonance for H(n>1) -> H(n=1/3).


  • To try to answer your question. And ask some of my own.


    - it seems like diamonds are an integral part of the mix. FWIW Andrea Rossi has mentioned using diamonds too.

    - the diamond-carbon nucleus is different? I know the lattice is - but the nuclear stuff is new to me- thank you - I'll check it out.

    - these systems have worked AFAIK with and without Cu inside the fuel tube itself. BUT- I do agree about the potentially catalytic nature of Cu.

    - "Once you understand what H(n=1/9) really is...." Can you clarify that?



    ETA Re "the diamond-carbon nucleus is different" - that is not what is suggested, the comment on subtleatomics is I am sure referring to lattice structures etc. Same old nucleus.

  • Not to be confused with the debunked-but-still-cherished-by-some Hg transmutation in fluorescent bulbs story


    I don't consider the Hg transmutation possibility debunked; what I've heard is another, slightly hand-wavy but still significant possibility raised that does not involve LENR, but something that is still in need of further testing to verify. :) (What if in general the differential isotope migration explanation is mistaken, and what's really going on is LENR? Perhaps the Hg transmutation possibility is still cherished by me.)

  • LION claims that the disks are soaked in D2O for at least one month. This would prevent prompt accurate replication of the effect.


    <2018-02-05 22:40>

    LION

    Hi BOB,

    A THOUSAND times THANK YOU. Simply stunning images and as always your Passion and Curiosity and Science Nous shines through. I can't even begin to express the pleasure it gives me that you, who have worked so very hard for so long, should have these two reactors to analyse and share with the LENR Community. You are a Star, BOB, an absolute Star, may the Community TREASURE you.


    Engineer48

    Hi Lion,

    Is the image of the blob that of melted fuel discs which were pre wrapped in Cu wire?

    BTW how long did you soak the fuel discs in the liquid Deuterium? Did you heat the liquid? If so what temp and time, duty cycle et.

    Will probably join Alan and Bob in a replication effort.

    Thanks for your efforts.


    LION

    Hi Engineer 48,

    I am not sure what the Blob is. Soaking= minimum of a month. The Deuterium was room temp.

    All the best.

  • LION pretreatment process: the fuel plate soaked in heavy water for a month. Did he not need to dry before he put it into the reactor?

  • I am not sure about the gas environment inside the fuel tubes, but suspect that there's a whiff of Deuterium gas in there. We will know more soon I hope. On the topic of soaking in heavy water, I suspect that there could be an electrochemical aspect to consider. There is a kissing-cousins relationship between this and the various types of nickel-graphite cells - especially when you consider that abrasive diamonds contain many lattice imperfections and umpurities, hence their generally non-transparent appearance.


    http://benchmarkminerals.com/e…e-called-nickel-graphite/

  • As far as I recall from past discussions, one of the methods used for producing these industrial diamonds is chemical vapor deposition. I'm wondering if the lengthy process summarily described by LION for preparing these disks (possibly requiring in total anything between 45-60 days or more) could be greatly accelerated by producing suitable complex particles with a carbon plasma arc in a metal salt solution, a colloidal solution of small metal particles, or by using highly impure carbon electrodes for the arc.


    Speculatively, doped diamond-like structures with incorporated O and H atoms could also be formed this way. However this wouldn't really be a "replication" anymore, but something quite different.

  • Speculatively, doped diamond-like structures with incorporated O and H atoms could also be formed this way. However this wouldn't really be a "replication" anymore, but something quite different.


    Agreed. I am a bit of a purist about 'replication means replication'. Hardly anybody can resist adding a few bells and whistles to 'make it their own, My own preferred twiddle would be electrochemical loading as used for palladium/deuterium wet cells. But not yet.

  • As far as I recall from past discussions, one of the methods used for producing these industrial diamonds is chemical vapor deposition. I'm wondering if the lengthy process summarily described by LION for preparing these disks (possibly requiring in total anything between 45-60 days or more) could be greatly accelerated by producing suitable complex particles with a carbon plasma arc in a metal salt solution, a colloidal solution of small metal particles, or by using highly impure carbon electrodes for the arc.


    Speculatively, doped diamond-like structures with incorporated O and H atoms could also be formed this way. However this wouldn't really be a "replication" anymore, but something quite different.


    I'm all for an EXACT replication of the LION reactor. However, while the nickel-diamond abrasive discs soak in deuterium for a month, I think quasi-replications could be accelerated dramatically. I've been studying the doping of diamond obsessively over the past while, and I'm convinced that the diamonds coating the discs are only being doped to a very limited degree.


    First of all, we'd have to decide what dopant we wanted to use. If wanted to use deuterium or hydrogen, exposing the diamonds to reasonably high temperature water vapor for lets say an hour could be highly effective. In my opinion, it would provide far more OH and H bonds on the diamond surface. In LIONs setup, the diamonds are only exposed to water vapor for seconds as the discs cool.


    Secondly, if we want to go with PURE hydrogen terminations, we could place the diamond pads in a heated hydrogen atmosphere and/or plasma for several hours. The energetic plasma would yield a higher coverage than the heated hydrogen, though.


    Thirdly, I'd really like to experiment with oxygen-lithium doped diamond. In this type of doping, the oxygen bonds with the diamond to produce a powerful bond that produces a positive electron affinity - the opposite of what we want. This can be achieved by placing the diamond discs in a pure ozone environment under a powerful UV light source for a length of time. However, by then exposing the oxygen coated surface to lithium, the top layer of lithium both experiences a very powerful bond so that it can survive high temperatures AND produces the most intense NEGATIVE electron affinity recorded to date. From memory, hydrogen terminations provide a -1.3 eV NEA but oxygen-lithium can achieve -4.5 ev NEA.


    But, we'd have to consider the importance of hydrogen embrittled nickel. My guess is there is very little hydrogen embrittlement taking place during the soaking of the nickel-diamond abrasive pads. Hydrogen is bonding to the diamond surface, but I doubt hardly any is being absorbed into the nickel. My suggestion would be to take some ordinary nickel discs with NO DIAMONDS, expose them to a hydrogen based corona discharge that would create a nickel hydride layer, and place them in between each of the doped diamond disks. This way, when EVOs or strange radiation is emitted, they would impact an embrittled nickel material to produce fracto-emission.


    Of course we don't HAVE to use diamond at all! I think there is a LOT of potential just using high carbon wire (such as me356's Ni 200 alloy) which is documented in the literature to precipitate graphite. When exposed to atomic hydrogen, the graphite will be degraded and the remains will start forming diamond like sp3 bonds! So you end up not only with embrittled nickel, but also nickel wire with doped diamond emitters that when stimulated with high frequency RF may spray out EVOs!

  • I am not sure I have no idea what the function of diamond is, but I think it might have something to do with the crystalline surface structure, which may have a catalytic effect and that leads me to the idea, if maybe someone can experimentally verify if sphalerite can be used as a catalyst instead of diamond?

  • Rends


    As sphalerite (also known as zinc-blende) is a complex and variable purity zinc suphide compound, I think the big question would be 'in what system would such a material be cetalytic'? I think even if you could find a LENR system in which some examples of the naturally occurring mineral would work, some others would not. However, if you mean pure crystals of sphalerite type, you are once again talking about ~ amongst other things -diamond.;) So the answer is a qualified 'yes'

  • This is a control for the LION system. In the RH port is a (pure) silver coated alumina tube wrapped in a double-layer of copper wire- only contents air and a 10cm K-type thermocouple. In the LH port is a plain tube- no silver, no wire wrapping. Matched 10cm thermocouple inside it. A control for the control, if you like. The first image shows the base temperature in the LH port, the second shows the temperature difference between ports. (T1-T2) This indicates that the oxidation of Cu wire is not particularly exothermic. Will keep this running for 48 hours and then retrieve the wire-wrapped tube for examination and comparison with Bob Greenyers 'post event' tube.