US Navy (SPAWAR)/Global Energy Corporation/LENR

  • orsova Beyond this...Just an educated guess. No mention of their patents except what I wrote before the Nature articles.

    Google Corporation LENR Energy Patents: History and Skill-Set of the Inventors Greg Goble 2/11/19 4:41PM

    If you find any reporting on their patents let me know. I should keep this stuff on the Google LENR Patents thread...

    DARPA YFA Class of 2018 Awardees List…RPA_YFA_Class_of_2018.pdf

    Munday Lab is moving to UC Davis

    see our new webpage:

    Skill-Set at Research Gate…45788608_Jeremy_N_Munday.

    editor note: The 2016 article presents... “the idea of engineering the quantum vacuum to create novel devices and protocols for quantum technologies. The paper describes how the researchers converted vacuum fluctuations into real photons of microwave radiation that are correlated (coherence between photons in separate frequency modes). The coherence correlations are tunable.” (thanks yu/JRDMB on r/Physics at reddit for this synopsis) Here is the 2016 paper and University of Maryland News article

    “Coherence and Multimode Correlations from Vacuum Fluctuations in a Microwave Superconducting Cavity”

    By Pasi Lähteenmäki, Gheorghe Sorin Paraoanu, Juha Hassel & Pertti J.Hakonen; Published: 26 August 2016

    Nature Communications volume 7, Article number: 12548 (2016)


    The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous down conversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space.

    The Google Inc. LENR Energy Technology Patents

    “Enhanced Electron Screening Through Plasmon Oscillations” US 20190043624 A1…0043624&RS=DN/20190043624


    Inventors: David K. Fork (Mountain View, CA), Jeremy N. Munday (North Bethesda, MD), Tarun Narayan (Washington, DC), Joseph B. Murray (Laurel MD)

    Applicant: Google Inc., Mountain View CA; University of Maryland, College Park MD Appl. No.15/668436; Filed: August 3, 2017; Published: February 7, 2019


    Enhanced Coulomb repulsion screening around light element nuclei is achieved by way of utilizing electromagnetic (EM) radiation to induce plasmon oscillations in target structures (e.g., nanoparticles) in a way that produces high density electron clouds in localized regions of the target structures, thereby generating charge density variations around light element atoms located in the localized regions. Each target structure includes an electrically conductive body including light elements (e.g., a metal hydride/deuteride/tritide) that is configured to undergo plasmon oscillations in response to the applied EM radiation. The induced oscillations causes free electrons to converge in the localized region, thereby producing transient high electron charge density levels that enhance Coulomb repulsion screening around light element (e.g., deuterium) atoms located in the localized regions. Various systems capable of implementing enhanced Coulomb repulsion screening are described, and various nanostructure compositions and configurations are disclosed that serve to further enhance fusion reaction rates.

    “Target Structure For Enhanced Electron Screening” US 20190045617 A1…0045617&RS=DN/20190045617


    Inventors: Fork, David K. (Mountain View, CA); Munday, Jeremy N. (North Bethesda, MD); Narayan, Tarun (Washington, DC); Murray, Joseph B. (Laurel, MD)

    Applicant: Google Inc. Mountain View CA; University of Maryland, College Park MD Appl. No. 15/668499; Filed: August 3, 2017; Published: February 7, 2019


    Enhanced Coulomb repulsion (electron) screening around light element nuclei is achieved by way of utilizing target structures (e.g., nanoparticles) that undergo plasmon oscillation when subjected to electromagnetic (EM) radiation, whereby transient high density electron clouds are produced in localized regions of the target structures during each plasmon oscillation cycle. Each target structure includes an integral body composed of an electrically conductive material that contains light element atoms (e.g., metal hydrides, metal deuterides or metal tritides). The integral body is also configured (i.e., shaped/sized) to undergo plasmon oscillations in response to the applied EM radiation such that the transient high density electron clouds are formed during each plasmon oscillation cycle, whereby brief but significantly elevated charge density variations are generated around light element (e.g., deuterium) atoms located in the localized regions, thereby enhancing Coulomb repulsion screening to enhance nuclear fusion reaction rates. Various target structure compositions and configurations are disclosed.

    Editor note: Google has a powerful incentive to apply their vast resources towards bringing their LENR energy technology on-line as quickly as possible.

    Powering a Google Search: The Facts and Figures

    Nov 28, 2017 - Collectively, Google uses about 2.26 million megawatt hours per year to power its global data center operations, which is equivalent to the power necessary to sustain 200,000 homes.

  • So Team Google do seem to believe in cold fusion after all their negativity in their Nature paper using nanoparticle enhance Coulomb screening etc etc in their patents which have already been covered by a multitude of Japanese patents and others around the World. So nothing new here except their willingness to throw away vast lumps of cash on patents that will never work - when will they acknowledge Holmlid and Mizuno's work? Are they trying to re-invent the wheel? The only new and interesting snippet in NASA's work is showing transmutations in Pd:Ag alloys which would be stoichiometrically expected from nuclear proton/neutron absorption/desorption and muon formation within the metal lattice from these heavy atomic nuclei-great work guys-but when are you going to get round to using this knowledge to build a working fusion reactor?????:)

  • So nothing new here except their willingness to throw away vast lumps of cash on patents that will never work

    What does that mean? They are not spending anything on patents. I mean they have not licensed any patents. Granted, it costs them money to test a patented method to see if it works. Is that what you had in mind? It does not cost "vast lumps of cash."

  • Patent litigation by its very nature is an expensive business - that's what I mean, but as you say for TG it would be just a drop in the ocean of money spent on their project so far. There is just rather a lot of repetition when you compare patents arising from the different competing groups internationally,:)

  • Anyway we are working on another way of substituting muons for 'high energy electron clouds' but we need to raise the finance for the next stage of our experimental work. It involves using Kg quantities of expensive reactants to achieve sub-critical mass.:)

  • JedRothwell Yes they do. Two... I believe there is a thread here on this.

    "Google Corporation LENR Energy Patents: History and Skill-Set of the Inventors" Greg Goble

    Published 2/11/19 #LENR 2.0K views…istory-and-ski-1832540626

    “If you choose a harder problem to tackle, you’ll have less competition.” Co-founder CEO Google Inc Larry Page

    On February 7th 2019 two LENR technology patents assigned to Google Inc. became exposed/published. They were each filed on the same day a year and a half ago, August 3rd 2017. It’s hard to tell how long Google has had these inventors working on developing this LENR energy technology. At least a few years before the filing date of the patent, let’s say 2014 or earlier.

    The ‘Google Inc. LENR energy group’ (GILEG) comes as a surprise to many; which leads to speculation questioning how serious Google is in developing this technology. Yet the possibility of Google investing in the field was alluded to in a 2016 E-Cat World article:

    “Of course with his family ties to Google, one wonders how much his younger brother Larry might be paying attention to LENR now. The Alphabet company was formed to let Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin broaden their horizons and explore topics outside the traditional web/search field. Right now they have efforts going in areas such as longevity research, robotics, drone delivery, and capital investment. One wonders if they might see LENR as an important new area of innovation that should be explored.” - Frank Ackland

    Well it seems that Frank Ackland at E-Cat World was correct. In fact Google Inc. was developing these patents at the time of his article.

    This compilation provides information and links to works which will set many of these speculations and doubts to rest. The inventors are highly skilled and work in fields that are directly related to LENR research. Professor Munday attended an APS Meeting that held a seminar on cold fusion research.

    His lab’s research in metallic nanocrystals during hydrogen absorption and desorption, thin metallic film and co-depositation, nano physics and nano morphology/fabrication, photonics, plasmonics and the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) for energy to nanoscale forces and engineering the quantum vacuum, all of these provide experience for developing LENR reactor cores.

    Many questions come to mind which require further investigation and time to resolve. The following compilation, at the very least, is a good starting point.

  • After 50,000 views I think it is important to bring up the purpose of this thread.

    What is your opinion of the bold market entry claims made by GEC? Others and I have provided plenty of links to the history and science behind the claims to provide a basis for an informed speculative opinion. Mine is that this group is several years further advanced in the science than what is presented. Also, I am of the opinion

    they have are well into the applied engineering of this energy and have it powering DOD mobility (prototypes) for future use.

    Also, that their 'legitimacy. and claims strengthen those made by Leonardo Corp.

    NOW the BOLD claims for 2020 market entry are

    GEC is currently

    Negotiating several new SMG construction contracts ranging from 250MWe to 5GWe around the world.

    Developing Space Power for NASA - On Board, Propulsion, and Planetary

    Offering EV Power to the market.

    I started the thread in Feb of '18 with this post...

    Reviewing twenty five years of U.S. funded ‘cold fusion’ projects including patents, contracts, publications and public/private sector partnership efforts towards LENR energy applied engineering and LENR energy commercialization.…18-a-review-of-1822335542

    “I began to compile this review in the fall of 2017. The reason being, I had asked a few editors of LENR news sites what they thought of the claims being made by Global Energy Corporation. Each editor asked me to provide any recent follow up to those claims. None that I could find; so I decided to compile this review as a frame of reference for the question: What are your opinions of these claims?” - Greg Goble

    I would like to hear the opinions of LENR Forum members. I find it odd that there is little to no discussion at LENR sites about GEC or their claims. If Rossi, Brillouin, the MFMP, or Randy Mills, were making similar claims, it would be discussed, scrutinized, and become the focus of our attention.

    Please keep comments on topic... Are these claims truthful or a scam? If truthful, what affect might this have on others racing to LENR commercialization. GEC has developed LENR Transmutation of nuclear waste. How will this help or hinder the nuclear power industry? Why haven't these claims been presented by GEC at ICCF? Other questions are sure to arise; Please pose pertinent questions to this thread...

    Google Inc LENR and the DOD

    The Google Inc. CMNS energy technology development lead is Munday Labs. They are now at U.C, Davis. I'm adding Google to my list of U.S. government funded LENR energy development groups. All these teams converge working with Larry Forsley CTO and Vice President of GEC (a spin off company of the DOD) during their energy market entry.

    “Munday Receives DARPA Young Faculty Award”

    University of Maryland News Published August 30, 2018…darpa-young-faculty-award

    Associate Professor Jeremy Munday (ECE/IREAP) was selected by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to receive a Young Faculty Award (YFA) in recognition of his status as a rising star in photonics and quantum technology. Munday will receive a grant of approximately $500,000 to be used to further develop his research during the next two years.

    Munday received the funding for his research project, titled “Engineering the Quantum Vacuum.” Prof. Munday’s research project seeks to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum and its potential use for future technologies, including nanoscale electro-mechanical devices, chemical reactors, etc. His lab’s current research endeavors range from experimental probes of quantum mechanics (e.g. the Casimir effect) to photonics and alternative energy.

    DARPA’s Young Faculty Award program, sponsored by DARPA’s Defense Sciences Office provides funding, mentoring and industry and Department of Defense (DoD) contacts to awardees early in their careers so they may develop their research ideas in the context of national security needs. The selected researchers focus on concepts that are innovative, speculative, and high-risk.

    DARPA programs include basic science research performed on university and industry campuses and at research laboratories. This research may ultimately significantly advance a technology or application that is critical to national security. The long-term goal of the YFA program is to develop the next generation of academic scientists, engineers and mathematicians in key disciplines who will focus a significant portion of their career on DoD and national security issues.

    DARPA YFA Class of 2018 Awardees List…RPA_YFA_Class_of_2018.pdf

    Here a great paper about the

    SPAWAR/GEC/PineScie/VantagePartners project "Lattice Confinement Fusion at GRC".

    "Developments in Lattice Confinement Fusion" September 26, 2020 Published by: Kaiter Enless

    Author. Editor. Publisher.


    1) A.V. Subashiev, et al. 2017. Nuclear fusion by lattice confinement. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 86(7), 074201.

    2) A.V. Subashiev, et al. 2017. Strong screening by lattice confinement and resultant fusion reaction rates in fcc metals. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 407, 67–72.

    3) D. Buckthorpe. 2017. Introduction to Generation IV nuclear reactors. Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, 1–22.

    4) Caroline Delbert. 2020. NASA Found Another Way Into Nuclear Fusion. Popular Mechanics.

    5) Corey S. Powell. 2019. These New Technologies Could Make Interstellar Travel Real. Discover Magazine.

    6) Eberhard Haug, Werner Nakel. 2004. The Elementary Process of Bremsstrahlung. World Scientific.

    7) H. A. Bethe. 1947. Elementary Nuclear Theory: A Short Course on Selected Topics.

    Jan Wittry, Theresa L. Benyo. 2020. NASA Detects Lattice Confinement Fusion. NASA Glenn Research Center.

    9) Jean-Paul Biberian (editor). 2020. Cold Fusion: Advances in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. Elsevier.

    10) Jonathan Tennenbaum. 2020. NASA lands on a middle path to nuclear fusion. Asia Times.

    11) Larry R. Grisham. 2014. Nuclear Fusion. Future Energy. 199–211.

    12) Lyman Page. 2020. The Little Book of Cosmology. Princeton University Press.

    13) Matteo Barbarino. 2020. A brief history of nuclear fusion. Nature Physics.

    14) Michel Claessens. 2020. ITER: The Giant Fusion Reactor; Bringing a Sun To Earth. Springer.

    15) Michael Koziol. 2020. Spacecraft of the Future Could Be Powered By Lattice Confinement Fusion. IEEE Spectrum.

    16) National Research Council. 2013. Assessment of Inertial Confinement Fusion Target. The National Academies Press.

    17) Nuclear News Staff. 2020. NASA work on lattice confinement fusion grabs attention.

    18) Vladimir Pines, et al. (2020). Nuclear fusion reactions in deuterated metals. Physical Review C, 101(4).

    19) Vladimir Pines, et al. (2020). Novel nuclear reactions observed in bremsstrahlung-irradiated deuterated metals. Physical Review C, 101(4).

    Quote the article

    “Its only a question of money and time, like most things.” – Lawrence Forsley, physicist at the University of Texas and CTO of Global Energy Corp, on lattice confinement fusion scaling, 2020.

    Lattice confinement was pioneered by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons (though they did not use the term) during their tumultuous 1989 “cold fusion” experiments at NAWCWD...

    (gbgoblenote NAWCWD - Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division is dedicated to excellence in U.S. military weapons research, development, acquisition, test and evaluation)

    ... wherein they used a cathode composed of a special type of Palladium (Pd) to absorb the hydrogen isotope Deuterium (D) from heavy water (D2O). Despite promising claims of nuclear reaction, Fleischman and Pons’ work was ill-received (MIT derided the nascent technology by holding a mock wake) and consequently sidelined.

    Recently, researchers at NASA’s Glenn Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio, in pursuit of energy sources for deep space missions, experimented with this third process by utilizing Deuterium in Erbium (Er) and Titanium (Ti) structures maintained at ambient temperature, wherein kinetic energies were raised to plasma-comparable levels. Fusion was produced by condensing D atoms to 1 billion times tokamak density (1023 ions/cm3) in the metal substrate and using a neutron source (2.9 MeV gama exposure causing photodisassociation of D, which splinters d-protons and d-neutrons) to heat the fuel, prompting *d-d (energetic-static) and Oppenheimer-Phillips reactions, producing a neutron and helium-3 or a proton and tritium (which may also react, producing more energy). -end quotes

  • Unknown how they see upscaling. For example a private home unit would require about 10KW power capacity.
    All fusion reactions of this 'lattice confinement fusion' occur within a metal lattice. With KW power generation how would this be done without massive destruction of the metal lattice holding the required Deuterium?

  • Rob Woudenberg Forsley speaks of this in his ICCF21 presentation. More on this in the Space Act agreement. My hunch is shake and bake, at Plum Brook Station, one of the units they speak of. If passed for space worthiness (launch ready) then multiple units can be linked together ( in a safe-for-space tested manner) to provide even the megawatt power supply they speak of. In fact, I believe they have already done so and will disclose this within a year... two at the most.

  • Unknown how they see upscaling. For example a private home unit would require about 10KW power capacity.

    Yup. However, surge capacity might exceed that, and during hours when the air conditioning is on you might need more. So 10 kW plus battery storage for about an hour would be good. Without batteries I think the average U.S. house might need more like 20 kW. This is the size of a standby natural gas-fired emergency generator, which is enough to power your entire house. See:

    I think some sort of battery or super capacitor will be needed for momentary surge capacity.

    On the other hand, if the gadget produces both useful heat and electricity, as a cogenerator, then you need less surge capacity. You can use it as a heating furnace in winter and maybe use it to drive thermal air-conditioning in summer. That would depend on how efficient the generator is and how much Carnot efficiency you get out of the waste heat from the generator.

  • JedRothwell The Space Act Agreement aims for 80Kw thermal and 20Kw electric and I never knew what it meant till they announced the EV trickle charger for sale. Now I figure an 80/20 mix out of the same small reactor core.

    This was the extent of facts known in 2018. Recent 2020 disclosure links GEC with 'Lattice Confinement Fusion' and verifies their key role in the Advanced Energy Conversion (AEC) project, as well as other defense labs CMNS energy research. We now know that the AEC project led to nuclear dense energy converted to electrical current within the CMNS reactor. See the GEC trickle charger entering the market. We also see the Aerospace Corporation preparing to enter the market and (likely) the Google Inc. LENR research group now under a DOD contract. I assume this gives them access to all NASA knows and versa visa...NASA and Google are familiar partners in aeronautics as per the NASA/Google Cafe Green Flight Challenge. Can't tell if these two are working with GEC. The certainly know of each other.

    We also know the Space Act Agreement is almost over and can assume success with a measure of certainty, i.e. GEC EV trickle charger entering the market.

    Time for a 2020 Compilation folding in the old and the newly disclosed facts into one timeline.

    This is from 2018

    LENR at the NASA Glenn Research Center AEC Effort (advanced energy conversion) Greg Goble 3/19/18…ec-effort-alte-1823892680

    Consider the skills that each scientist participating in the NASA GRC, PineScie Consulting, Vantage Partners and Global Energy Corporation LENR energy group effort brings to the table (NASA GRC/PineScie/Vantage/GEC LENR). A preponderance are engineers specializing in turbo-machinery or aspects of rocketry for space and aeronautics. This leads one to believe they are primarily involved in applied engineering of LENR energy for Non-Radioactive Nuclear Flight (NRNF).

    First let’s touch on a quick review of the Global Energy Corporation (chapter 1) and take a look at a NASA PineScie purchase and a recent NASA grant awarded to PineScie Consulting.

    Lawrence Forsley joined JWK in 1995. Global Energy Corporation (GEC) was formed from the DOD SPAWAR Pacific JWK LENR research group. Lawrence Forsley and Pamela Boss come from this DOD SPAWAR/JWK LENR group; each now works for GEC. JWK and Global Energy Corporation hold certain licenced rights to SPAWAR patented advanced LENR energy technology, the U.S. government retains control of the application and market entry of this technology. Applied engineering has culminated in the GEC ‘GeNie’ reactor placed in unit with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine electrical generator. This unit is called the GEC ‘Small Modular Generator’ (SMG).

    The following is from the Global Energy Corporation website: Quote, “GEC is currently negotiating several new SMG construction contracts ranging from 250MWe to 5GWe around the world.” -end quote

    PineScie and NASA have two contract items worth reviewing in detail. The first one, a purchase from 2008, is all about electro-magnetic control of plasma charged lunar dust under the influence of streaming solar energetic particles; which becomes a platform for theoretical modeling and construction of LENR energy devices. The second is a grant at the GRC Advanced Energy Conversion project. Experts knowledgable about various LENR theories and well versed in contemporary LENR research may understand how the ‘Scientific Analysis of Solar Wind Plasma Charged Dust on the Moon’ furthers our understanding and control of the nuclear reactive environments of LENR. For others, the fact that NASA views such analysis, modeling and control as essential to the AEC project would seem to prove the point. Further reading strengthens this supposition.

    Quote the NASA 2009 PineScie Purchase synopsis - (see paragraphs 2 and 3) “Dr. Pines has recently developed the first lunar specific aspects of solar wind plasma, as well as worked on the fundamentals of dusty plasma transport and control. Dr. Pines has published in the fields of statistical physics, phase transitions, and plasma physics.” & “Dr. Pines has also developed the first micro-macro description of the microphysics of cloud formation - a task uniquely suitable for the conduct of the present technical program of Lunar Dust Mitigation. Since Dr. Pines is the sole developer of the theory that underlies the techniques of statistical description of such micro-macro processes...” end quotes

    Quote the NASA 2017 PineScie Award synopsis - Intro:

    The Advanced Energy Conversion (AEC) project at NASA Glenn Research Center investigates advanced materials concepts for heat production in various materials <redacted>. The AEC project is seeking theoretical and computational support for the project. This procurement aims at conducting performance-based tasks to assist NASA. (see paragraphs 3, 5 & 8)

    “The services required are used by the AEC researchers in design of advanced energy conversion processes and devices, and assist in collaborations with other Government agencies, including the Department of Defense.”


    “The contractor has successfully developed breakthrough theoretical understanding of key processes involved which are presently guiding the development of experimental work in the AEC project. These models and understanding have been incorporated into multiple patent applications jointly submitted and owned by the Government."

    "The contractor is the lead inventor of these patent applications and is leader in translating these inventions into a viable technology in support of the AEC project.” & “The initial feasibility period of the AEC project has resulted in a new fundamental understanding made by the Contractor of processes critical to NASA’s mission and national security and welfare."

    "The project is now entering a critical accelerated validation and development period, and the continuing support by the Contractor on all theoretical matters related to successfully guiding experiments and device construction is paramount for successful accomplishment of the program objectives as stated by NASA HQ and other Government agencies.” - end quotes

    The DOD SPAWAR/JWK LENR energy group and the NASA GRC/PineScie/Vantage LENR energy group now collaborate at NASA GRC on the Advanced Energy Conversion (NASA GRC AEC) project. These groups have been working together since 2015, most likely earlier. They have published two LENR research papers and a LENR energy technology patent. From these three documents is gleaned a working list of the lead researchers, authors and inventors from which the following skill set is compiled.

  • RobertBryant…#qt-news_science_products

    Mining the ocean floor... USGS 2020

    Currently, there is no large-scale mining of marine mineral resources anywhere in the world. However, a number of countries and companies are actively pushing forward with studies of resource potential, economic and environmental requirements for resource development, and pilot projects to evaluate deep-sea mining technologies.

    The USGS has been investigating marine mineral potential since the 1970s, focusing primarily on the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone, or EEZ. This region extends 200 miles from a country’s shoreline and gives the country control over the exploration and exploitation of marine resources in that area.

    "The minerals that the USGS has studied have fluctuated throughout the years, but in 2018, as part of President Trump's Federal Strategy on Critical Minerals, the Department of the Interior published a list of 35 mineral commodities deemed critical to the economy and security of the United States. That list and strategy have given focus to which mineral resources the USGS will prioritize in its marine research and its partnerships with agencies like the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration."

    Along the U.S. west coast, the Pacific Ocean, ocean floor, and winds above contain potentially vast energy and mineral resources. Developing these resources safely and wisely requires detailed information for each area of interest. One goal of EXPRESS is to inform ocean energy and mineral resource decisions.

    Ferromanganese Crusts: Sponges for Marine Minerals

    Deep on the ocean floor, iron and manganese gather to form metallic crusts on rocks and sediments. The crusts grow slowly, taking up to millions of years to form millimeters of crust. However, these crusts also act like a deep-sea sponge for elements dissolved in the saltwater. That makes them an attractive potential source for valuable and critical commodities like

    cobalt, manganese, rare earth elements, and tellurium.

  • Fantastic interview. A "pre-cold fusion" history of NRL research by a leading Navy cold fusion research team leader. Helps to put present development in perspective.

    Interview of Edward Byram and Talbot Chubb by Richard F. Hirsh on 1976 July 22,

    Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics,

    College Park, MD USA,…rary/oral-histories/31488


    In this interview, E. T. Byram and T. A. Chubb discuss the Naval Research Laboratory's role in the history of x-ray astronomy. Topics discussed include: E. O. Hulburt; Ernie Krause; Richard Tousey; Herbert Friedman; Geiger counters; solar x-rays; Sam Lichtman; V-2 rockets; Viking rockets; Aerobee rockets; solar flares; Robert Kreplin; J. E. Kupperian; Julian Holmes; American Science and Engineering; P. C. Fisher.


    I don’t know; there is a history of NRL. It was founded by a committee. Thomas Edison was maybe the chairman of that committee in 1924 or something like that.


    Thomas Edison made a recommendation that there should be a laboratory working for the navy that would contain competent scientist who could advise the navy on many things, and this recommendation of his was based upon what he felt or judged to be a lack of a sort of forefront [???] of technical guidance within the navy that existed during World War I. I think it was this recommendation that led to the establishment of NRL. I’m not a historian. There are several, as you say — at least three — histories that are available on it.


    Well, how did these [???] get established here?


    Mainly by Dr. Hubbard. Well, (Rocket) Walkathon Life — I don’t know how they originated. They got into the rocket technology and from that I guess it expanded into doing science.

    I think NRL has always had a very strong interest in the ionosphere, and wasn’t it Dr. Taylor who did some of the original ionospheric researches in conjunction with the Carnegie Institute. And of course there the problem and the interest arose because of the navy communications problems and the fact that it’s basically a world-wide service depends on having world-wide communications. And Dr. Page — I don’t know whether he ever received the credit for the heterodyne receiver or whether...

    No, that was somebody on the West Coast.

    I think he invented the heterodyne independently and maybe number 2, though; I’m not quite sure what the situation is but NRL really was right in the forefront of radio communications in the ‘20s, so there was that long tradition and then Holbert had his interest in the ionosphere and the air glow. He was truly an outstanding scientist who probably has really not received the recognition that he deserved. Remember his papers on the twilight...

    Byram: Yes.

    The color of the twilight sky and the analysis of the absorption when effect of ozone absorption when the sun’s rays came too long and slanted paths in the atmosphere.

    And when did the sounding rocket programs begin?

    Wasn’t that 1946 or 1945?


    In connection with that he developed Geiger tube (?) detectors, x-ray detectors; and again the bulk of the end window (?) mica tubes — mica and window Geiger counters, the Halogen (?) counters — really came out of his work here. Now, there are old German patents on Halogen (?) counters, but nothing ever came of those. But directly from his work were these which were used in the x-ray of fluorescence analysis and also these bag crystal orientations came. These mica windows tubes became almost universally used, and they were adapted after the war as the main detector used for monitoring low level radioactive radiations — the Radical instruments. And the PR 27 was the Geiger counter radiation monitoring equipment which was adapted by BOD, and [???] worked basically as a consultant to the Naval Bureau of Ships at that time that was responsible for this radiation detection equipment. And the thing that was very important about the Halogen tubes is that they didn’t go bad even if they were exposed to enormous quantities of radiation. They were basically the first permanent Geiger counters. And it really was from these detectors that came out of the x-ray astronomy business — I mean the x-ray analysis business — that really got Friedman and the rest of us into the rocket program, because these detectors turned out to have... Well, of course, they were useful as x-ray detectors, but much of the early work was almost as much directed toward the ultra-violet, and they also had sensitivity in the far ultra-violet but not in the visible and near ultra-violet ,and they led to the first really clear measurements of [???] radiations, for example, from the sun. But it really was through the sensor band that the optics — well, Friedman’s part of the optic division — got into the rocket program, and Krause came in through the spectroscopic end using photographic film as the primary recording.


    So it seems that people got into this through the back door.


    Well, there was an opportunity there and the detectors were there and so packages were put aboard. I don’t know whether it was the back door. It was just here was this new opportunity, and the rocket sound division was concentrating on doing their work on the first measurements of pressure, density, electron density, defining the structure of the atmosphere. And the optics division did the radiation work.


    My first experiment was on B 2 49.


    And what kind of experiment was that?


    It had Geiger tubes spanning the whole spectrum from very nearly the physical all the way down to x-ray, and every one of the detectors not only detected radiation. They all went into saturation. There was tremendously more radiation in that part of the spectrum than anybody ever expected.


    When did that....?


    1949, 10:30 a.m., September 29.


    And what were the Geiger counters picking up?


    X-rays from the sun, ultra-violet from the sun.


    And the responses were very clear because the rocket rose and you saw these signals only when the detectors were looking at the sun.


    And the detectors showed at which point the atmosphere became transparent to these radiations. That was the important part of it.


    How far down on the spectrum do these Geiger counters detect radiation?


    Oh, right down to 1/8 and that low. I guess we better say it’s six (?) rather than eight. (?)


    But definitely down into soft x-ray.


    Yes and all the way up to... around 2000.


    The hard part to detect in those days was to detect long-wave x-rays, not short-wave x-rays. You have to use thinner windows as you go to longer wavelength x-rays, and these were all window counters, weren’t they?


    Yes, I think, so.

  • Further along the timeline... A must read.

    "Cold Fusion Clean Energy for the Future"
    Talbot A. Chubb, Internet Edition, April 2008, Prepared by New Energy Times…ubbT-ColdFusionFuture.pdf

    Publication funding provided by
    Cold Fusion Energy Research Co.
    (Planned precursor to Cold Fusion Energy Foundation)
    Copyright © Cold Fusion Clean Energy for the Future 2008

    Dedicated to Yoshiaki Arata and Yue-Chang Zhang.
    Professor Arata recently wrote the following in reference to his cold fusion studies using nanometer palladium.

    "D2 gas instantly penetrate into the specimen and D atoms change into 4He instantly (no need time) and nuclear Fusion (4He and energy)is established perfectly under the following equation:

    2D + 2D = 4He + thermal energy
    ...... It is considered that this phenomena is the highest result in this century."

    Opportunity Knocks

    This book tells the story of cold fusion. We have a serious energy and environment problem. We also have an economic and social problem. We seek a healthy, happy society in which medical problems are addressed, needy older people are cared for, and children are educated to love learning and enjoy fellowship. The solutions to these social problems are labor intensive, yet need to be addressed without imposing excessive economic insecurity on the recipients. But we should not be discouraged. There are new technologies available to help us meet these needs. Cold fusion is one such technology. It can be a big help along the way to a better and more exciting world.

    A cold fusion reactor, i.e., an apparatus that promotes cold fusion, makes deuterons behave like electrons in a metal. When a heavy hydrogen atom is added to a metal, it loses its electron to the metal. The deuteron moves into the metal and occupies a position where it is surrounded by the metal atoms. The metal atoms are in an ordered array, which is embedded in a sea of electrons, called the "fermi sea". The atoms make room for the deuteron and the fermi sea neutralizes the deuteron's positive charge. Each deuteron has its own little volume. This is not the form of hydrogen that supports cold fusion. To get two or more deuterons to share the same volume one most go one step further. In a metal, electrical current is carried by the fermi-sea electrons, which act more like vibrating matter waves than like point particles. This behavior is part of the famous wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics. If electrons did not become very extended objects inside solids, there would be no transistors and no present day computers.