LENR is occurring in SAFIRE

  • David, I have already studied the Wikipedia article on plasma double layers, thank you.


    What evidence do you have to support your proposition that plasma double layers were present in the Lugano experiment?

    HGB,

    You know, me and friends are independand researchers.

    The main problem for us or other team is to find enough time for LENR, both money.

    Nobody never gave us some gifts to help research.

    Today Rossi is criticized for the way he works therefore some teams with no more clear results as Brouillin or Mills made the same, in few words , oversell their "discoveries" to try to touch more easily some guys as Dewey Weaver or others, for example.

    This is why i couln't share more about what i know, sorry.

    DF

  • lenr-forum.com/attachment/5213/lenr-forum.com/attachment/5216/ Plasmoids Flying Off in the Safire Video


    lenr-forum.com/attachment/5217/lenr-forum.com/attachment/5215/


    In the Safire video, there are apparently microplasmoids flying off the Langmuir probe and the active

    plasmoid surface that they were attempting to analyze by using the probe. Earlier, with the first Langmuir probe, you can see white patches on the surface. I think

    those areas were in an active plasmoid state. Maybe the whole surface was. As I explain in my articles, atoms can change state from the dormant state to active plamoid

    states. In the active plasmoid state, they exhibit ball lightning properties such as the ability to make material disappear (convert atoms to energy or transport them). That is why I

    think the first Langmuir probe disappeared. It would be interesting to see a slow motion video of a probe disappearing like that. I could not see that the disappearance of the probe

    was gradual in the video at the speed the video was shot.


    Above are four screen shots from the video. I put numbers by interesting plasmoid tracks 1 through 5.


    Here is the first one.lenr-forum.com/attachment/5213/

    In the above, at point 40:41 you can see by numbers 1 and 2 two separate plasmoids with comet-like tails. That is a fairly common type of plasmoid. In 2016, I saw a red

    ball lightning with a tail that was about 2 or 3 inches in diameter (about the size of a golf ball) with a red tail about three feet long. However, unlike these,

    the tail on that was zigzagged, just like you would see with a zigzagging lightning bolt. The above plasmoids are common, see the following pictures by Shoulders

    and Urutskoev.

    lenr-forum.com/attachment/5219/

    This picture was taken by Ken Shoulders who used a fast camera to capture the picture. You can see the tail that is either a physical part of the plasmoid or a streak in the photograph.

    Compare this to the one caught on film by

    Urutskoev about the year 2000.

    lenr-forum.com/attachment/5222/

    This isn`t a photograph. The plasmoid touched the nuclear emulsion (plastic sheet coated with emulsion) and left

    the streak above. You can see the head and the streamers off the sides just like on a comet. The above pictures were taken from

    an article I wrote about plasmoids and planetary markings. In the video I made with Gary Hendershot in 2014, I showed a lot

    of planetary plasmoid marking pictures. There is a clear similarity of planetary plasmoid markings as described by people on the thunderbolts.info site about

    their Electric Universe theory and natural ball lightning on earth and experimentally produced microplasmoids.


    Photographs of flying plasmoids and the traces caught on photographic film or nuclear emulsions or other types of

    particle detection materials look similar. The next image is off of a video shown by Shoulders of a ball lightning precursor

    of lightning. It isn`t lightning, it is a picture of a very fast moving ball lightning that led a visible lightning bolt. It moved too fast

    to see. In the video (shown on my video on the Smartscarecrow channel in 2014), you can watch the ball lightning going from right

    to left across the screen. This was going very fast with a very fast camera. So the tail isn`t a streak, but is actually a part

    of the plasmoid.


    lenr-forum.com/attachment/5225/


    After a few seconds, the ball lightning leaves the screen, then the bolt lights up quite brightly. See the Video Plasmoid Paradigm for more.

    At Number 3 on the first picture, you can see a material pit. It looks similar to plasmoid pits commonly seen in various plasmoid and transmutation experiments.

    It is similar to plasmoid pits as in the following pictures by Shoulders and on Mars.


    In the next picture at 4, there is a paired plasmoid. Plasmoids can form long chains. They often pair.lenr-forum.com/attachment/5216/

    You can see lots of plasmoids. There is another faint pair to the right of the 4.


    lenr-forum.com/attachment/5228/




    The above has the pits of a paired plasmoid. The figure was taken off my one of my articles.


    lenr-forum.com/attachment/5229/


    The two sets of paired pits are on Mars. See my Planetary Plasmoid articles on my site:

    plasmoid-revolution.com You can find a lot of pictures like these there. The pits are too

    similar to be random. The first group has inner humps and the second group has inner pits

    Notice the characteristic spacing between the pits relative to the size of the pits. In both cases,

    nearly identical objects hit simultaneously. The pits are quite beautiful actually. There are pictures

    of plasmoid string pits (many plasmoids) in the Smartscarecrow video and my Planetary Plamoid

    articles.


    At point 5 in the picture below, you can see a bright round mark. That was a commonly found kind

    of plasmoid mark that Matsumoto caught on his nuclear emulsions around 1992 to 1993. He called

    them white holes. There has been a lot of discussion (starting before Matsumoto) of ball lightning

    having something to do with black holes or white holes. I feel the ideas sometimes make sense, and often don`t.


    In order to understand these plasmoids, people need to switch paradigms off the QM and Relativity theory.




    In this last photograph, some of the anomalous phenomena of plasmoids are pictured. If these objects in the Safire

    videos are real ball lightning-like plasmoids, these types of sharp turns should happen.


  • As I explain in my articles, atoms can change state from the dormant state to active plamoid

    states. In the active plasmoid state, they exhibit ball lightning properties such as the ability to make material disappear (convert atoms to energy or transport them).


    Interesting to note the similarities between what you wrote and Rydberg Matter:

    - A set of excited atoms can change state and condense to clusters (plasmoids) called Rydberg Matter,

    - Rydberg Matter has been proposed as an explanation for ball lightning because presenting the same characteristics,

    - Rydberg Matter of hydrogen can switch to an ultra condensed form which, following Holmlid, "disappears" in converting atoms (baryons) in relativistic mesons.

    Actually, you can replace "plasmoid" in your whole text by "Rydberg Matter" and it works every time.

  • Julian Bianchi wrote:



    Interesting to note the similarities between what you wrote and Rydberg Matter:

    - A set of excited atoms can change state and condense to clusters (plasmoids) called Rydberg Matter,

    - Rydberg Matter has been proposed as an explanation for ball lightning because presenting the same characteristics,

    - Rydberg Matter of hydrogen can switch to an ultra condensed form which, following Holmlid, "disappears" in converting atoms (baryons) in relativistic mesons.

    Actually, you can replace "plasmoid" in your whole text by "Rydberg Matter" and it works every time.


    I used to try to understand Rydberg Matter as a type of plasmoid. I think atoms are a type of dormant plasmoid. I don`t think anyone would claim that Rydberg atoms behave in the was I think active ball lightning-like plasmoids behave.

    I said that large plasmoids hit planets and leave large pits many kilometers in diameter. Do you think Rydberg Matter does that? Would you say that Rydberg Matter does the same?

    Ball lightning can visually bore through glass (they are big), and a different behavior is that they pass through glass without boring and without leaving apparent effects in the glass. Do you

    think Rydberg Matter can do that? Would they leave large holes?


    Have you seen anyone declaring that the filaments that Dash photographed and analyzed in the early to middle 1990s were Rydberg Matter? It has been so long, I forgot if people were saying that.

    I thought about it and came to the conclusion that there is possibly an overlap along with a lot of confusion and misunderstanding. I mean all atoms are plasmoids. But I am not sure anyone ever claimed that ball lightning (of the anomalous kind present in transmutation devices, with all the anomalies I describe about it) is a Rydberg Matter. One of the big problems with studying ball lightning and with literature about ball lightning is that the really anomalous behaviors are ignored or misunderstood by both observers and by scientists. Ball lightning is SO MISUNDERSTOOD that when people use the word, they have all sorts of definitions, and few understand it even as a conventional plasmoid as understood back in the 1960s. Few understand anything substantial.


    Who is Holmlid? What exactly did he say about atoms disappearing? Under what conditions? Has anyone put his name to asserting that Shoulder`s plasmoids were Rydberg Matter?


    I am thinking about writing another article. I am wondering if you can explain these phenomena as Rydberg Matter behavior.

  • Rydberg Matter of hydrogen can switch to an ultra condensed form which


    Hydrogen = Proton + sometimes electron...


    I would never talk of Rydberg matter in connection with Hydrogen. The proton is a particle! The question always was how will the proton be embedded into condensed matter. On the other side Rydberg Potassium is just a special ionization state of K nothing more. Here the question is: How do the Rydberg electrons organize themselves?


    What Holmlid sees is Spin-stabilized matter. We have strong indications that the proton can acquire a higher (lower over all energy) spin state. But this has nothing to do with its electron. It is also not predicted by QM and is not covered by classical J+ quantum numbers...


    Just wait for the theory!

  • Material Effects of Plamoids in the SAFIRE Device


    I posted a post about Plasmoids in the SAFIRE Device yesterday. Here is a continuation. The above picture has the numbers 6 and 7 because I described points 1 to 5 yesterday.


    In the above picture, at point 42:00, this is a color picture showing two plasmoids at Numbers 6 and 7. The size difference is interesting. I am wondering if this is because one is much closer than the other one to the camera, or there are big size differences between the plasmoids. Again, you can see the big pit or set of pits on whatever that is at the right side. I suspect those are plasmoid craters. The way ball lightning-like plasmoids can leave craters is anomalous.


    However, even more startling morphological change happens when a spot of atoms in a piece of material change state to be active plasmoids. The atoms start to transmute and move even though the rest of the object is still in the solid, dormant, usual state of atoms. For example, in Dash`s articles from the early to middle 1990s such as one or two articles published in Fusion Technology, he described an object that he used in this experiments that was set aside in a petri dish, and over time, they noticed it changed shape, filaments grew, and material analysis evidenced isotopic and elemental changes.


    In the below Figure by Dash that I republished with his permission my 2008 article, you can see on the right the elemental analysis.

    Savvatimova was another who described even more startling effects, though I never saw pictures from her group. There described whole

    regions moving around, submerging, arising and changing shape over time after their experiment was finished.


    Atoms: Atoms are not what people claim. And attempts to understand them or plasmoids from a QM viewpoint are passe. However, I

    appreciate it when I see that people are really trying to understand these very anomalous phenomena using QM hypotheses as their starting

    point because it is important to see how far people can go modeling atoms and ball lightning-like plasmoids in all their forms and states in a

    conventional way using QM and Relativity theory as standpoints.


    The atoms were are usually familiar with are in 4 states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. There have been two newer states discovered in

    the last few years. Atoms can shift states to a 7th state I call the PLASMOID STATE. I`ve been writing about this for a long time. This shows

    that atoms can state shift between dormant atoms and plasmoids in active plasmoids states.


    I wonder if the above materials are still transforming or did the atoms shift back to the dormant state. I wonder if anyone know.


    Paradigm change: People reading this blog have told me and commented that they don`t understand why I keep talking about history and

    paradigmatic change in my posts. I keep writing about this because the only way to understand both the anomalies being discovered about

    plasmoid behavior and the anomalies being discovered about atomic behavior (transmutation, morphological change, etc.) is to understand

    these behaviors and effects from a new plasmoid standpoint. There needs to be a gestalt shift. Young people and the inexperienced (as Kuhn

    wrote) are the ones who can have these gestalt shifts. So I am writing this to try to encourage people to think of these objects from new

    principles. QM is passe. It works for the phenomena that accords with the theory, but doesn`t work with RADICAL ANOMALIES such as these.


    Kuhn wrote about paradigm shifts: A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. One of the problems I`m having trying to explain to people about

    the need for the development of the new plasmoid paradigm is that they are unfamiliar with these concepts and the work of Kuhn. He wrote that only

    the young or inexperienced in physics can have paradigm shifts.


    Radical anomalies: Radical anomalies of the kind that enables or necessitates paradigm change in physics generally are observed during ``crisis periods``

    in physics as Kuhn described in his book. These crisis periods last about 20 years. There was such a crisis period from about 1972 to 1992 or so as

    experimenters kept finding transmutation and plasmoid anomalies....along with other radical anomalies. These will only be understood via paradigm shift.


    How to have a paradigm shift: To have a physics paradigm shift, try to understand plasmoids without reference to QM theory or any other old theory.

    Try to understand these phenomena experientially the way Shoulders advocated. He wrote about this a lot actually. This is why it is important

    to actively research these phenomena experimentally and stop dismissing these phenomena as ``strange`` but inconsequential side effects in all the

    experiments they`ve been discovered in. The presence of these in an experiment means that physical processes are happening that almost no one

    really understands at all. They imply: that material in the device is converting to active plasmoid states (there are at least 2 if not a range) or that somehow

    what we call energy is forming plasmoids.


    If you are young or inexperienced enough, reading the literature including my articles on plasmoid-revolution.com will help.


    Plasmoid shifts happen at 80 year intervals: I`ve written about this extensively. It is evident by reading the history of science that major

    paradigm shifts in physics happened at intervals between 73 and 87 years. I tried to explain why this happen via a simple model that is based on

    this concept of gestalt shifting and the principle that only the young or inexperienced have such shifts.


    Continuing with their SAFIRE video:


    At point 42:15, they pointed out the anomalous crater. So it was a crater. I am only now watching this part of the video. They don`t know what caused it or the anomalously

    intense luminosity and radiation frequency changes.


    At point 43:40 I noticed a bunch of what I call ``ditches`` that I suspect are plasmoid tracks. In the middle 1990s, I found such tracks on the lexan casings of the experiments

    carried on in Miley`s Lab with microspheres. Pictures I took that include plasmoid marks are: http://www.sciencejunk.org/oldsite/ELEWIS9.html

    and http://www.sciencejunk.org/oldsite/ELEWIS8.html

    Dash and others have noticed similar `scratches.` But of course, much better analysis of such ditches has been done by other researchers more recently.


    Point 44:04: The person speaking seems unfamiliar with Miley`s work and all the problems that happen when one uses SEM microscopy to try to pin down the elemental and

    and chemical changes. This was always the criticism that Miley had about Matsumoto`s earlier massive transmutation and elemental shifts. This is why they did NAA

    analysis in conjunction.... In the 1990s, people were saying the SIMs results were inaccurate. If people treat this work in the way they treated Matsumoto`s and Miley`s they``ll simply

    say the results are inaccurate.


    Below, here is the picture of what I`m suspecting are plasmoid scratches at pint 43:41. They look very much like those on the outside of Dash`s electrode as

    shown in the FUSION TECHNOLOGY article, and I suspect that if examined for elemental composition, they`d find the same kind of elemental

    shifts that Dash found upon examination of the tracks along with the sloshing residues along the side if these really are plasmoid ditches

    and not some scratches caused mechanically. 




    This video is very interesting.


    Point 43:43: At this point, he talks about ``white stuff.`` He starts to talk about elemental changes.

    I want to point out that under the microscope, Miley`s electrodes I examined also had much change of color. I suspected this was because new minerals had formed.


    Point 44:31: He says the outside `wasn`t affected at all.` I wonder if they consider the scratch marks above as simple mechanical

    scratch marks. Or if they considered them.


    As I wrote, they look very much like plasmoid marks I`ve seen on Dash`s and other`s pieces. Especially in that some are double grooves.


    I hope what they don`t do as many seem to do when they find these type of anomalies: not focus on the plasmoids.


    At 49:14: He shows the analysis chart of elements. They are going through the same procedure as Matsumoto and Miley did decades ago.

    Then Urutskoev, Savvatimova, later...

    EDX, SIMS,....... But they were ignored. Will this be.


    Point 51:47 They are making the same mistake because they don`t know about atoms in a plasmoid state. Material seems to flow (`melting` isn`t the right word)

    at temperatures below the materials normal melting point when in contact with an active (white state or bright) plasmoid or when the

    atoms are in the plasmoid state themselves. When in contact with an active plasmoid, the atoms shift states. They should keep looking

    at this sample to watch for continual elemental and morphological changes. He claimed the anode was only heated to 1,000.


    Point 52:13: They are finding the same ``fracture`` along grain boundaries many have found. Matsumoto was the first to study this and publish

    a good article about it. It was based on that work of around 1991 that I first had the conception of micro ball lightning in the electrodes. I told this

    idea to Matsumoto, and he accepted it and went on to do a lot of good micro ball lightning and plasmoid research that was ignored.


    Microscopic equipment has improved over the last 30 years! I have a concern for them. They are going through the same steps toward being

    ignored by everyone that everyone else including Miley went through. This group of people actually do study plasmoids. However, they do it

    from the 1960s viewpoint and never seemed to appreciate Shoulders`` work or my own, even though the thunderbolts.info site does

    have one of my articles I submitted for the site. Until they understand the anomalous behaviors of plasmoids, they will never understand these

    phenomena and anomalies they are finding. And their research will hit the same dead end. Even Matsumoto`s and Shoulders and Urutskoev`s

    research was ignored. They are rediscovering the same phenomena already discovered by many other groups and seem unaware they

    are following the same old tracks.



    Point 53:41: They seem unaware of the more seminal articles of Matsumoto and Shoulders.








  • SAFIRE provides insight into the basic mechanism that drives the LENR reaction. The basic mechanism of the LENR reaction is obscured by many overlaying and interconnected secondary reactions that are all considered to be the cause of the LENR reaction, but they are not the basic causation mechanism. For example, plasmoids are one of these many secondary LENR mechanisms. Plasmoids produce the basic causation mechanism, but the plasmoid is just one of many secondary layers of causation.


    SAFIRE shows the basic LENR causation mechanism revealed in its most basic form. Within the outermost double layer of the plasma double layer shell structure, fusion of hydrogen is occurring. The only thing that exists in that double layer is hydrogen. The fusion that is occurring is devoid of any secondary mechanisms that confuse the causation mechanism. The LENR reaction is happening as a result of the organization of the hydrogen in that double layer.


    Safire_double_layer_shells.jpg


    The fusion of hydrogen is produced by the LENR reaction because hydrogen is fusing into helium 3 and no tritium is being produced. The pressure of the hydrogen in the outermost double layer is ambient, so pressure is not a factor. There is no metals involved or cracks, rough surfaces, plasma discharges, plasmoids, and the numerous other secondary LENR causation factors that produce the basic LENR causation mechanism.


    The LENR reaction is produced by the organization of the double layer. This structure is produced by the adjustment of the pressure of hydogen and the voltage of the electric current that is producing the double layer.


    015.jpeg




    11%2BDL-diagram.jpg


    The coulomb barrier is made inoperative by the chiral polarization of the spins of the electrons and protons that comprise the hydrogen plasma. The plasmoid produces this chiral polarization of particle spins, so does all the other secondary LENR causation mechanisms. But it is the separation of the subatomic particles within the double layer by their spin handedness that is causing the LENR reaction.

  • I used to try to understand Rydberg Matter as a type of plasmoid. I think atoms are a type of dormant plasmoid. I don`t think anyone would claim that Rydberg atoms behave in the was I think active ball lightning-like plasmoids behave.


    Some have. Starting with Manykin himself as early as in 1982. Unfortunately most articles of Manykin were written in Russian. Only a very few are in English and still less available in an electronic format. If you have access to a good university library, you may find one of those (all by Manykin et al):

    - On the nature of ball lightning. Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 52(7) 5 (1982).

    - Ball lightning is very much like Rydberg matter, isn’t it? In A. G. Keul (ed.) Progress in Ball Lightning Research: Proc. VIZOTUM, p. 54, Salzburg, Austria (1993).

    - Decay of long-lived excited states of condensed matter and the problem of ball lightning stability. J. Moscow Phys. Soc., 8 19-22 (1998).

    - Rydberg matter and ball lightning. In: 6th International Symposium on Ball Lightning: (ISBL99) ; Proceedings ; University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium (1999).


    I said that large plasmoids hit planets and leave large pits many kilometers in diameter. Do you think Rydberg Matter does that? Would you say that Rydberg Matter does the same?


    Rydberg Matter has been proposed to exist in space in various publications. Here is one. I don't know if this corroborates what you claim.


    Who is Holmlid? What exactly did he say about atoms disappearing? Under what conditions? Has anyone put his name to asserting that Shoulder`s plasmoids were Rydberg Matter?


    Leif Holmlid is a Swedish professor. His publications. According to his work, Rydberg Matter of hydrogen can condense to an ultra-dense form that can spontaneously transform (and as such "disappear") in relativistic mesons, mainly neutral kaons. Holmlid published much on this subject. Here is one.


    For the rest, I don't know, sorry.

  • https://www.dropbox.com/sh/sp7…uUL0v3NrkY7BPYPKDA_a?dl=0


    Just a reminder the Safire team, and Olafson...among many others, will be at the ICCF21 this June to discuss these issues. Hopefully they have some new insights. Along with Forsley of Global Energy Corp. (GEC), there should be some newsworthy inside information being passed on.


    If the SAFIRE project is now espousing as a general policy to enter the LENR field, that would be very exciting. IMHO, what is happening in SAFIRE is the purest distillation of the LENR reaction that has so far been discovered. The processes that are underway in the SAFIRE experiment would make a superior SunCell design featuring a very low input energy profile and no molten metal complications.


    The SAFIRE project introduces the concept that the Sun's energy might be produced in double layers of plasma in which LENR reactions are taking place.

  • I like the SAFIRE fusion system in that it is capable of demonstrating extreme power density. It can generate clean fusion energy without any radioactive activation or radiation. The COP that SAFIRE is capable of generating is 2,000,000(out)/200(in) watts = 10,000 or maybe even 20,000,000(out)/200(in) watts = 100,000.

  • The problem I found when people tried to explain Ball Lightning as Rydberg Matter (as I used to study in the 1990s and the 2000s) is that they might know enough QM to write something plausible, no one of them knew much about ball lightning. That is the problem with many BL publications. The authors seem completely unaware of Shoulders``, Matsumoto`s etc. experimental studies that displayed results matching the more anomalous characteristics of macroscopic natural ball lightning in the atmosphere: the ability to pass through glass without leaving a mark or damage to the glass, the ability to bore nice round holes in the glass without fracturing the glass, the ability to state shift between black and white (dark and bright) states, massive transmutation

    effects associated with them and some even more bizarre phenomena.


    The people who write and try to model ball lightning as some sort of QM effect don`t ever address and try to explain these anomalous phenomena. So their theories, models, hypotheses are basically useless. Shoulders`` himself avoided all QM explanation or modeling... for good reason.... and Matsumoto tried, but toward the end there, I think his ideas fell out of what

    people thought were plausible or made sense.


    If anyone can point me to any QM model that explains the above behaviors (that is the challenge for anyone trying to model them), then I`d wonder if they can also explain the more bizarre behaviors. Few people ever even consider them. But no theory for what people call ``LENR`` will be complete without an explanation for the ball lightning plasmoid effects since these are ubiquitous in all transmutation experiments (even Iwamura`s) as far as I can tell, and no explanation, model of plasmoids will be well valid or even relevant I think (except in special cases) unless they address and comprehend the above anomalous effects in my opinion.


    As I`ve written since I first started to publish in the early 1990s, I don`t actually believe in LENR since I don`t believe in nuclei. Read my book and articles about this. I think that dormant

    atoms and active plasmoids are both plasmoid states. Shoulders himself didn`t believe in nuclei either. People should find this instructive and drop all reference to nuclei when modeling

    both plasmoids and transmutation effects, in my opinion, if they can. Whoever had more experiential understanding of plasmoids than Shoulders except for maybe Matsumoto.


    For my articles (most published), please see plasmoid-revolution.com What hasn`t been published as far as I am aware of though are my articles on Planetary Plasmoid markings. For that, I got much information from the thunderbolts.info website that the SAFIRE people support and write for (they also make cosmological videos). Does anyone have problems reading my site or the links. Above Shane D. says the links in the first blog article above don`t work. Sometimes, thunderbolts.info doesn`t work for some reason.

  • The problem I found when people tried to explain Ball Lightning as Rydberg Matter ...


    The plasmoid is one of the most ubiquitous causes of LENR, but it is not the underlying cause in the SAFIRE reaction. The plasmoid is a complicated and hard to understand cause of the LENR reaction. The plasmoid is full of quantum mechanical and optical complications that make it very obscure and intractable, but it is the mechanism that most LENR developers are using to produce the LENR reaction. SAFIRE produces energy from hydrogen proton proton fusion without the introduction of any metal into the plasma stream. It is the internal organization of the plasma itself that produces the LENR reaction.


    The SAFIRE LENR reaction is a totally pure and uncomplicated LENR reaction. It is a wonderful and informative case study of how LENR works.


    The plasmoid is usually the starting point in the creation of the LENR reaction. The plasmoid reduces down eventually after much complicated QM gyrations to produce the underlying factors that really produces LENR. But not any type of plasmoid can produce LENR. It takes a special kind of plasmoid to produce LENR. It takes a petal condensate soliton to create the type of quantum mechanical mechanisms that result in LENR. In other words, the petal condensate soliton will generate the same activity that SAFIRE can naturally instantiate in the double layers of its plasma format.


    When we insert a bit of metal into one of the double layers of the SAFIRE plasma, we can derive the petal condensate soliton on the surface of that metal. This ability to move up from a basic causation level to a more complicated levels shows us that the LENR reaction can be symmetric. The Hutchison effect uses this reaction symmetry to produce LENR effects in metals. This ability to move up the causation chain unlocks the quantum mechanical toolkit of the petal condensate soliton that the LENR reaction uses and makes them accessible at a macro level.

  • The proton proton (PP) fusion reaction is the most enigmatic nuclear reaction that you will ever run across. This reaction has concerned me a lot and still confuses me.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…0%93proton_chain_reaction


    Proton–proton chain reaction


    500px-Fusion_in_the_Sun.svg.png


    The PP reaction should not occur, but it is said to occur as the power source of the Sun as well as all the other stars because there is so much hydrogen involved in the energy cycle of the Sun.


    "In the Sun, deuterium-producing events are rare. Diprotons are the much more common result of proton–proton reactions within the star, and diprotons almost immediately decay back into two protons. Since the conversion of hydrogen to helium is slow, the complete conversion of the hydrogen in the core of the Sun is calculated to take more than 10^10 (ten billion) years."


    The PP reaction should be impossible to happen here on earth, but there is evidence that helium is being generated in all sorts of LENR systems. Why does LENR make PP fusion possible or possible very likely to occur?


    The reason for a vibrant PP reaction to occur in LENR is the huge increase in the likelihood of weak force reactions. LENR boosts both the strength and probability for the weak force to manifest by huge amounts.


    We have seen this sort of weak force amplification happen in the transmutation of Ni58 to Ni62 and Ni64. In the Luano test, all the natural nickel isotopes were converted into Ni62. Where did all those extra neutrons come from to transmute all the Ni58 to Ni62?


    LENR generates a massive increase in the strength of the weak force that converts all those protons into neutrons. The weak force is there to change protons into neutrons to balance out and stabilize nuclear reactions.


    The occurrence of PP fusion in SAFIRE is actually a LENR reaction. The chiral separation of particle spins into right and left handed helicity produces this massive increase in the weak-force.


    In SAFIRE, protons are forced together so forcefully that they form diprotons. Diprotons are unstable and normally, the protons in that pairing are forced apart by like charge repulsion. But instead, the hyper-strong weak force then transmutes these diprotons into deuterium. Now the deuterium is easily transmuted into Helium 3 when another proton merges with the newly created deuterium.


    Rather that taking 10 billion years for deuterium to form from diprotons, it takes instead picoseconds in the LENR environment established by particle chirality.

  • There is not much of a difference between the SAFIRE architecture and the experimental setup of Alan's experiment.

    4766-the-test-png


    Alan can change the input power format to DC current, the hydrogen to protium, and add the ability to change the pressure of the hydrogen. Alan can add a few diodes in this power circuit to get a DC current source, and that source might not need to be a high voltage one.


    What the SAFIRE project does to get the double layer plasma structure to form is to adjust the voltage and current as independent variables together with the pressure of the hydrogen until they see the development of the double layer structure in the plasma.


    It would be wonderful if LookingForHeat or some other willing experimenter could reproduce the SAFIRE plasma structure as a way to test the LENR reaction even if that inspection is done at a primitive level..

  • I think that phase 1 of SAFIRE is doable for an amateur. A glass enclosure that holds hydrogen as seen below might be within the capabilities of the the amateur scientist. Unlike many other types of LENR experiments, the experimenter knows that LENR will occur in any metal inserted into one of the double layers. The sub atomic particles that comprise the plasma are LENR active. An experimenter can use these SAFIRE features to perform all sorts of interesting LENR based activities.



    It might be that the SunCell is demonstrating the same plasma based LENR reaction as SAFIRE is. The SunCell can produce self sustained plasma based reactions that can last for minutes. It would be informative if the SunCell reaction can be produced using SAFIRE methods. This could inform Mills that his theory of the reaction may not be the correct one and that his patents might need to be adjusted accordingly to add LENR to his thinking. The SAFiRE reaction looks like an open source reaction freely available to anyone to use in reactor development.


    See some Phase 1 experimental action in SAFIRE.




  • I think that downsizing the SAFIRE experiment will work. The key to the reaction is the formation of the double layer. I now beleive that the new Rossi SK reactor is using a pure plasma reaction like SAFIRE.


    It would be interesting if someone can ask Rossi if the SK rector is covered by the same patent as the QX. If not, the SK reactor is a pure plasma reaction that does not use fuel and an open source one at that.

  • There is not much of a difference between the SAFIRE architecture and the experimental setup of Alan's experiment.


    Alan can change the input power format to DC current, the hydrogen to protium, and add the ability to change the pressure of the hydrogen. Alan can add a few diodes in this power circuit to get a DC current source, and that source might not need to be a high voltage one.


    Axil, thank you for recycling my illustration of a Meshuganon experiment. But in my mind the credibility of the previously claimed observations of these crazy particles has decreased from very low to close to infinitesimal.


    http://atom-ecology.russgeorge…/data-speaks-to-real-men/


    By the way, the power supply already is DC.

  • Axil, thank you for recycling my illustration of a Meshuganon experiment. But in my mind the credibility of the previously claimed observations of these crazy particles has decreased from very low to close to infinitesimal.


    http://atom-ecology.russgeorge…/data-speaks-to-real-men/


    By the way, the power supply already is DC.


    The Alan experiment has been conducted by young plasma students for over a 100 years. This goes to show that there is not much new under the Sun. The glow tube experiment is a demonstration of the Goldstein–Wehner law.


    See


    http://campus.mst.edu/aplab/index_files/PlasmaTheory.pdf


    Plasma Theory for Undergraduate Education - Missouri S&T


    plasma_discharge_tube_480x357.jpg


    The SAFIRE experiment is the spherical version of this plasma tube experiment. The Double layers are produced in the plasma tube as well as in the spherical SAFIRE mode. What Alan did with the metal foil is identical to what SAFIRE did by inserting the Langmuir Probe into the double layer. The two experiments produced the same LENR effect when the metal was inserted into the double layer. In both these systems, the interaction between the metal and the double layer is to produce a population of surface plasmon polaritons that merge to generate a polariton BEC.


    In this plasmoid generation mode of the LENR reaction where the petal Condensate intercepts the energy output that the double layer reaction produces, that energy is reformatted in the singular way that the petal condensate is constrained to produce as a analog black hole. That reformatting process includes a very wasteful segment of the total output. The condensate produces muons (aka Meshuganon) with that fraction of total output energy that is essentially lost to the far field. Muons has a long delay time and they travel a long way from the place in which they were created. As Alan has observed, the generation of gamma radiation when the tube is heavily shielded is a sure sign that muons are being produced by the inserted metal surface.

    In the SAFIRE reaction, no condensate is formed and therefor all the energy that the LENR reaction produces in the formation of helium is retained as heat output. I predict that Helium 3 will be detected in a spectrogram of the gases in the glow tube over some extended period of its operation. Excess heat will also be produced by the glow tube in the same why that SAFIRE produces excess heat.


    Alan should take the glow tube experiment to ICCF-21. The SAFIRE people will greatly profit from the Muon demo.

  • Someone who calls himself Axil wrote:


    ``When we insert a bit of metal into one of the double layers of the SAFIRE plasma, we can derive the petal condensate soliton on the surface of that metal. This ability to move up from a basic causation level to a more complicated levels shows us that the LENR reaction can be symmetric. The Hutchison effect uses this reaction symmetry to produce LENR effects in metals. This ability to move up the causation chain unlocks the quantum mechanical toolkit of the petal condensate soliton that the LENR reaction uses and makes them accessible at a macro level.``


    Could I ask what your name is. Is it Axil. What is your last name. You wrote the above sentences as if you personally have inserted ``a bit of metal`` into the double layers of the SAFIRE plasma. Are you personally working with this group. If so, I have questions.


    One question, though they maybe said so in the video, is actually how hot the electrode gets by their estimation and also how hot does the plasma, or any part of the plasma that is involved with the transmutation, actually get. I only watched the video once, and didn`t even watch the whole thing, so I don`t know what temperatures they think they are reaching.

  • Ed,


    Axil is a "Verified" member, which means we know who he is. Not his real name, but he has good credentials. Which reminds me of...along with your detailed observations, there are many unexplained, but verified physical phenomena looking for a home in the standard model:


    Lightning in the eyewall of a hurricane beamed antimatter toward the ground


    Date: May 21, 2018


    Hurricane Patricia, which battered the west coast of Mexico in 2015, was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere. Amid the extreme violence of the storm, scientists observed something new: a downward beam of positrons, the antimatter counterpart of electrons, creating a burst of powerful gamma-rays and x-rays.


    Detected by an instrument aboard NOAA's Hurricane Hunter aircraft, which flew through the eyewall of the storm at its peak intensity, the positron beam was not a surprise to the UC Santa Cruz scientists who built the instrument. But it was the first time anyone has observed this phenomenon.


    According to David Smith, a professor of physics at UC Santa Cruz, the positron beam was the downward component of an upward terrestrial gamma-ray flash that sent a short blast of radiation into space above the storm. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were first seen in 1994 by space-based gamma-ray detectors. They occur in conjunction with lightning and have now been observed thousands of times by orbiting satellites. A reverse positron beam was predicted by theoretical models of TGFs, but had never been detected.

    "This is the first confirmation of that theoretical prediction, and it shows that TGFs are piercing the atmosphere from top to bottom with high-energy radiation," Smith said. "This event could have been detected from space, like almost all the other reported TGFs, as an upward beam caused by an avalanche of electrons. We saw it from below because of a beam of antimatter (positrons) sent in the opposite direction."


    One unexpected implication of the study, published May 17 in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, is that many TGFs could be detected via the reverse positron beam using ground-based instruments at high altitudes. It's not necessary to fly into the eye of a hurricane.

    "We detected it at an altitude of 2.5 kilometers, and I estimated our detectors could have seen it down to 1.5 kilometers. That's the altitude of Denver, so there are a lot of places where you could in theory see them if you had an instrument in the right place at the right time during a thunderstorm," Smith said.


    Despite the confirmation of the reverse positron beam, many questions remain unresolved about the mechanisms that drive TGFs. Strong electric fields in thunderstorms can accelerate electrons to near the speed of light, and these "relativistic" electrons emit gamma-rays when they scatter off of atoms in the atmosphere. The electrons can also knock other electrons off of atoms and accelerate them to high energies, creating an avalanche of relativistic electrons. A TGF, which is an extremely bright flash of gamma-rays, requires a large number of avalanches of relativistic electrons.


    "It's an extraordinary event, and we still don't understand how it gets so bright," Smith said.

    The source of the positrons, however, is a well known phenomenon in physics called pair production, in which a gamma ray interacts with the nucleus of an atom to create an electron and a positron. Since they have opposite charges, they are accelerated in opposite directions by the electric field of the thunderstorm. The downward moving positrons produce x-rays and gamma-rays in their direction of travel when they collide with atomic nuclei, just like the upward moving electrons.

    "What we saw in the aircraft are the gamma-rays produced by the downward positron beam," Smith said.


    First author Gregory Bowers, now at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and coauthor Nicole Kelley, now at Swift Navigation, were both graduate students at UC Santa Cruz when they worked together on the instrument that made the detection. The Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) mark II was designed to observe TGFs up close by measuring x-rays and gamma-rays from aircraft flown into or above thunderstorms.


    Getting too close to a TGF could be hazardous, although the risk drops off rapidly with distance from the source. The gamma-ray dose at a distance of one kilometer would be negligible, Smith said. "It's hypothetically a risk, but the odds are quite small," he said. "I don't ask pilots to fly into thunderstorms, but if they're going anyway I'll put an instrument on board."

    Smith's group was the first to detect a TGF from an airplane using an earlier instrument, the ADELE mark I. In that case, the upward beam from the TGF was detected above a thunderstorm. For this study, the ADELE mark II flew aboard NOAA's Hurricane Hunter WP-3D Orion during the Atlantic hurricane season.


  • One question, though they maybe said so in the video, is actually how hot the electrode gets by their estimation and also how hot does the plasma, or any part of the plasma that is involved with the transmutation, actually get. I only watched the video once, and didn`t even watch the whole thing, so I don`t know what temperatures they think they are reaching.

    Putting things into context...



    I have been interested in SAFIRE as a possible LENR platform since 2015 when I saw a video where some unexplained reactions were happening in the phase 1 SAFIRE experiment. Two of these unexplained reactions held exciting possibilities as aout-of-the-box LENR reaction. First, transmutation of an element on the hydrogen gas with an atomic weight of 3 was being produced. and second, huge bursts of energy were produced which ranged up to 20 million watts of power.


    Even way back then, SAFIRE information mentioned that there was LENR going on in SAFIRE. But the SAFIRE system is comprised of just hydrogen...no palladium...no nickel...no metal...how could LENR be occurring in SAFIRE. This situation was very interesting and possibly revealing.


    Now in 2018, the new status report video shows how a metal interacts with the double layer that forms in a hydrogen plasma. The tungsten probe should have easily withstood the temperature in the plasma. The temperatures in the plasma is well under the melting point of tungsten. Yes, the electron energy level (7.5 Ev) is equivalent to a black-body temperature of 80,000C , but electron energy levels are not temperature levels.


    The tungsten probe should have withstood the environment in the double layer. Instead, the tungsten probe vaporized in nanoseconds...it did not first melt. A thick tungsten probe version partially vaporized but what remained looked unaffected. But its interior was transmuted into various other elements even when its surface remained pure tungsten. Anther telling revelation is that the alumina insulation held up well in the double layer.


    The .thunderbolts. crew has been interested in double layers in plasma since .thunderbolts first began as a primary format that appears in plasma in space.


    http://www.thunderbolts.info/eg_draft/eg_chapter_6.htm


    We learn from this old paper that the SAFIRE experiment is the spherical version of this plasma tube experiment. The Double layers in plasma are produced in the plasma tube as well as in the spherical SAFIRE plasma mode. What Alan/Russ did with the metal foil in their plasma tube experiment is identical to what SAFIRE did by inserting the Langmuir Probe into the double layer. The two experiments produced the same LENR effect when the metal was inserted into the double layer. In both these systems, the interaction between the metal and the double layer is to produce a population of surface plasmon polaritons that merge to generate a polariton BEC.


    The Alan/Russ plasma tube experiment has been conducted by young plasma students for over a 100 years. This goes to show that there is not much new under the Sun. The glow tube experiment is a demonstration of the Goldstein–Wehner law.


    See


    http://campus.mst.edu/aplab/index_files/PlasmaTheory.pdf


    Plasma Theory for Undergraduate Education - Missouri S&T


    plasma_discharge_tube_480x357.jpg


    Detecting double layers in plasma physics is the first thing that these students learn is plasma school. But the most telling clue is the production of gamma radiation when the emissions of the metal interaction with the double layer plasma is shielded by a metal foil. This shielding method is how Holmlid built his peer reviewed muon detector. What the Holmlid experiment is producing and what metal irradiation by plasma is producing is the same thing...polaritons.

  • Now in 2018, the new status report video shows how a metal interacts with the double layer that forms in a hydrogen plasma. The tungsten probe should have easily withstood the temperature in the plasma. The temperatures in the plasma is well under the melting point of tungsten. Yes, the electron energy level (7.5 Ev) is equivalent to a black-body temperature of 80,000C , but electron energy levels are not temperature levels.


    axil : The base of the LENR reaction is the synchronization of the nuclear magnetic moments of the involved nuclei. The requirement for catalysts is a low level "nuclear gamma-state" with a reasonable magnetic moment 183W has two low energy gamma states that are reasonably low and compatible with the proton magnetic moment quantization.


    The energy in rotations is not accounted for in temperature statistics as it is usually "not" interacting kinetically. But if the halve lives of the states of the involved elements are different then magnetic transfer will lead to low range XUV that immediately heats any probe.


    In fact 183W (abundance about 14.3%) is very attractive as the higher gamma state (99keV) has a shorter halve live than the lower state (46.48keV) what leads to a strong em-pulse with field reversion !!