Chiral polarization is the KEY to the LENR reaction.

  • The key requirement of the LENR reaction is the chiral polarization of matter and energy. All particles can be Chiral polarized including photons. This polarization principle is most notably and purely demonstrated in the Papp fuel preparation process. The goal of that process is the left handedness polarization of the spins of 5 types of noble gases.


    Most hopeful Papp engine replicators do not spin chiral polarize the noble gas mix. Nobody understands the purpose of the Papp fuel preparation process.


    Generally, in the Papp fuel preparation process, radioactivity from thorium and x-rays are used to chiral polarize the spins of the five noble gases with left handed chiral spins. Radioactivity produces subatomic particles and photons that are always left handed chiral spin polarized. The use of radioactive materials loaded into the hollow electrodes (aka buckets) in the Papp engine maintains the left handed chiral polarization of the noble gases during the operation of the engine.


    When Papp developed the Papp engine, laser tech was not known, so Papp used radioactivity as the means to spin polarize the noble gases that powered the Papp reaction.

    Today, noble gas chiral spin polarization can be done without the need for radioactive material. Optical pumping is a very efficient method to control the atomic spin state through interaction with a resonant light beam carrying angular momentum. In the presence of a magnetic guiding field B and of weak relaxation processes, the net result of the repeated light absorption and re-emission cycles is a change in the relative populations of the involved atomic sublevels, i.e. creation of spin orientation. For chiral spin polarizing of noble gases currently used in industry, two routes are possible: spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP), with indirect transfer of angular momentum from a polarized laser beam to the noble gas nuclei via alkali metal atoms (usually rubidium), and metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP), with direct transfer of angular momentum from resonant laser light to He atoms. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations.


    For instance, SEOP directly operates at high pressure but is a slow process (several hours are required to polarize helium), while MEOP is a much faster process (it only takes seconds to polarize 100 cm3 of gas at 1 mbar), but only operates at low pressure (mbar). SEOP has been used for several imaging experiments, but MEOP is preferred because of its faster production rates and higher nuclear polarizations.

    An example of a He Polarizing Industrial Method

    The polarization apparatus is based on the method of optical pumping of metastable He atoms in a weak gas discharge at a gas pressure of about 1 mbar. The whole equipment is located in a homogeneous magnetic field B0 of 1 mT, which serves as a holding field and as quantization axis for the polarized He-nuclei. The polarizing and compressing system consists of three parts: The first part contains the He reservoir and getters for gas purification. The second part consists of the optical pumping volume. The optical pumping itself is done by two 15 W fiber lasers at 1083 nm. The five OP-cells have a length of 2.20 m. In order to maximize the light absorption the circularly polarized laser light is back-reflected at dichroic mirrors. The nuclear polarization of the He gas can be monitored during the OP-process by measuring the circular polarization of the 668 nm-light emitted by the discharge. The third part contains a mechanical polarization-conserving compressor driven by hydraulics.



    Fig_1_1_2.png


    In my own way of thinking, a linearly polarized laser vertical photon beam produced by a diode laser can be conditioned by an organic chiral spin filter (aka karo syrup) to convert the photon stream from a laser into a left handed chiral state. All organic matter is polarized left handed. A clear solution of d-glucose can convert the photon polarization in the required left handed polarization. The required photon stream must be linearly chiral spin polarized left handed. This conditioned laser beam could irradiate a small hole in a container from which a noble gas mix is flowing. The hole is small enough for the laser beam to cover the entire hole.


    6h30-40b.jpg


    In the picture, an intense source of light is polarized filtered into the LENR required left handed spin state.

  • There are many ways in which the LENR reaction can be generated. They are all based on chiral particle separation. The most pervasive method of chiral separation is the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The SPP is a double vortex of polaritons. The SPP is what is at the bottom of most LENR reactors. There is a new field of science called nanoplasmonics that deals with SPPs.


    http://mafija.fmf.uni-lj.si/se…ehind_the_application.pdf


    nanoplasmonics: the physics behind the applications


    Surface plasmon polaritons are produced by Evanescent Waves on the surface of metals and other boundaries. The infrared EMF range are optimal for SPP production when nickel is used as the reflective substrate. Lasers are ineffective in producing the dipole motion necessary for the generation of SPPs because laser light is a plane wave.


    Electron_density_wave_-_plasmon_excitations.png


    Schematic representation of evanescent waves propagating along a metal-dielectric interface. The charge density oscillations, when associated with electromagnetic fields, are called surface plasmon-polariton waves. The exponential dependence of the electromagnetic field intensity on the distance away from the interface is shown on the right. These waves can be excited very efficiently with light in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evanescent_wave



    In recent research, read how evanescent waves convert light into magnetism where dipole motion forms the basic power source for the LENR reaction.


    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1308/1308.0547.pdf


    images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQSfQhFzsWoOaZoMw18DDACze2Hax-tHInk5Tin7b7zKW22X74O


    In LENR, Polaritons are just spin particles. Science sometimes gives this particles a new name: magnons.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnon


    Polaritons form a soliton of two counter-rotating spin currents. One current contains right handed spins and the other left handed spins. The SPP produces chiral separation as a double spin vortex.


    Falaco%20Soliton%20particle%20-%20RM%20Kiehn.png


    The proper science name for the SPP vortex is falaco solitons. The magnetic flux tube that connects the two counter rotating spin currents is a wormhole.


    The amazing thing about the SPP is that it imbues it quantum mechanical nature onto the entity that it is symbiotic with.


    The SPP can form on the surface of metal, on nano particles, on ultra dense hydride molecules of various types including HHO, on thin films, on the surface of a collapsing cavitation bubble, on noble gas molecules and clusters, on boundaries between materials, even in plasma...wherever the LENR reaction can be found, we will find the SPP there also. All these various systems will demonstrate, more or less, the same quantum mechanical behavior because of the SPP. All these various systems will produce the same LENR reaction because of the SPP.

  • What is Chirality anyway?


    Not many people know about this, but it is very important to science. One type of particle can pass on its chirality to other types of particles. This is why radiation is a chirality pump. A radioactive isotope will always produce left handed particles including photons. This ability to control particle chirality is important in organic chemistry and spintronics. By the way, Jo Papp was a very smart man. The reason why Papp ionized the noble gases in his fuel preparation process was because he wanted to change the chirality of the nuclei of the gases. When I reread his patent for fuel prep, it started to make sense when chiral particle polarization was understood.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chirality_(physics)


    760px-Right_left_helicity.svg.png

  • Is nickel also needed in the entire compression mirror or can it be just the target plate at the base of the carbon mirror?


    Nickel is commonly used in LENR reactors because it is the element that is most resistant to the transmutation effects of the LENR reaction. Carbon is a light atomic weight element and is highly likely to be transmuted by the LENR reaction.


    Nickel also performs well as a generator of SPPs, especially in the infrared spectrum.

  • One of the critical characteristics of the LENR reaction is provided by the feature that is deep into the quantum mechanical nature of the polariton, that is its nature to readily form a Bose Einstein condinsate at any temperature based on polariton density.


    Density of polaritons is what makes a aggregation of polaritons form a condensate, and a condensate of polaritons is what allows the energy that the polaritons produce to be formatted as heat. Without a lot of polaritons around, most of the energy that they produce is wasted as sub atomic particle creation...mostly muons. But when a lot of polaritons are generated, a Bose condensate will form, and heat will be produced by that condensate,


    Here is a video about Bose condensation of polaritons by the top guy in that subject that is not too hard to understand.



    At 55:09 in the video, the two counter rotating rings of polaritons in a high angular momentum state was shown. This is a non equilibrium condensate. That means that it is non thermal. Non thermal means that the temperature of the condensate can be just about any temperature.i



    We have seen evidence of this type soliton in the LION reactor meltdown.


    When a LENR reactor is heated, this input of energy is pumping the polariton condensate. When the condensate forms, a large burst of Bremsstrahlung is generated and when the pumping stops, there is also Bremsstrahlung produced as the polariton codensate breaks up.


    The Polariton condensate can pump itself, this is where self sustain mode comes from. When self pumping occurs, the condensate can moves around in space as a free particle and leave tracks on surfaces as the condensate transmutes matter as it moves along its way.