• Interesting to see that Rossi is now confirming and affirming the Atom-Ecology reports of distinctive lovely gammas as being also present in his work. He's a good wordsmith having never quite denied it rather saying it was all contained inside his devices. Now noting that when Rossi opens up his devices, lovely definitive gamma rays shine out and he admits to knowing they are there, as in he obvioulsly has suitable instruments to catch and count them. The real test of whether those claiming to have cold fusion and LENR in their experiments is as simple and inexpensive as employing the simpliest tools that anyone 'skilled in the art' might naturally employ instead of BS. This has always been the inconvenient truth of cold fusion and lenr, the many claiming to have it even at tiny levels could most certainly have confirmed it with thier own lovely gammas. Those who did not, whether they wrote self-serving books proclaiming their prowess or delivered papers over and over again at ICCF conferences, almost all never had the reactions in hand. That original challenge from the very first days of Pons and Fleischmann of , 'where there is nuclear fire, there must be nuclear smoke' was always an unavoidable inconvenient truth.

  • Alan… ohayoogozaimasu

    Russ’s neologism atom-ecology is thought provoking.

    Wyttenbach mentioned something

    about matching gamma emissions with equivalent flux holes.

    Would a more complex mixture of metals ( say 3-6)

    be more stable and provide more continuity than say

    just a Pd/D2 mix?

    Just as supposedly a natural rainforest is more stable than

    a monoculture of oil palm?

    Btw “Cold fusion” is still to be avoided in polite academia discourse.

  • Cold fusion was the original and very suitable name, which was 'sanitised' by some to LENR. I have no inbuilt objection to either term, but feel that 'cold fusion' reflects more accurately what is happening. And for the record, we use very complex fuel mixtures, which seem to be getting more complex as we expand our knowledge..

  • Dr Richard - getting 'good fuel' is (we hope( only weeks away. Achieving 'optimal' might be years away. The IC engine has been with us for over 100 years, and has been 'good' since around 1960, but it still isn't optimal as the ongoing improving power to weight ratio and incremental increases in fuel efficiency demonstrate.

  • Dr Richard - getting 'good fuel' is (we hope( only weeks away. Achieving 'optimal' might be years away. The IC engine has been with us for over 100 years, and has been 'good' since around 1960, but it still isn't optimal as the ongoing improving power to weight ratio and incremental increases in fuel efficiency demonstrate.

    You must know by now what makes LENR fuel function, since you are in the process of optimizing that quality. Can you reveal what that quality is?

  • Cold fusion was the original and very suitable name

    Cold fusion from a sociolinguistic POV is much easier than LENR

    Maori- "whakarewa makariri "glowing cold"

    Welsh- "Ymuniad oer" "cold combination" ..... perhaps Josephson can help

    Japanese "冷たい融合" "tsumetai nantoka" ..... perhaps Jed can help

    In Japanese academia 'cold fusion" may be polite

    "In this experiment, by using a high-frequency carpet type refrigeration gas cell apparatus which is the technique invented by this research group,

    a rare transuranic element isotope beam generated and separated by a cold fusion reaction or a hot fusion reaction is captured by an ion trap

    The mass data obtained in this experiment supports the hypothesis that the neutron number 152

    is a semi-magic number in Mendelevium and Lawrencium isotopes."

    High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Elementary Particle Nuclear Research March 29/2018

  • I'm eager for him to test protium with his best fuel mix to see if it produces a similar quantity of excess heat. Although I cannot recall the references, I remember documents that predict that in some LENR systems protium would still produce excess heat but with less gamma radiation. Basically, PP fusion would be far less likely but the protium fusion rates with nickel and other elements could increase.

  • Zeiner-Gundersen, has just received the reactor from Mizuno.

    I’m guessing I was one of the first to contact Mizuno after his lab went down in the earthquake, to continue and verify his important work, and I’m also working in a well equipped lab as well. Opening the shipping box was like Christmas. All the excitement in the world.”
    “I believe its not the glow discharge reactor but filled with ZrPd powder that will activate when the temperature reaches a critical point after being loaded with deuterium. I think this is the same design that yielded 12% excess heat that Jed presented at ICCF21.

    How does zirconium participate?

    Zirconiumhas no readily available metastables like Pd107m (117 kev)? (via neutron capture Pd106>>>Pd107)

    Perhaps niobium??

  • The Atom Ecology of the E-Cat QX/SK

    Many of the various devices in the past that utilized pulses in the negative resistance area of the Abnormal Glow Discharge regime used primarily singular fuel components (not counting the metal vapor from the electrodes). As an example, the Chernetsky device utilized low pressure hydrogen alone and the Correa device utilized argon alone. Although there was some metal vapor from the electrodes and perhaps tiny quantities of hydrogen from the environment, the number of fuel interactions were limited. Other technologies that produced electric discharges utilized only atmosphere which may have provided more combination of gaseous elements but were probably not optimal.

    The Atom Ecology approach (at least when it comes to powder based systems) is to utilize a broad array of elements that synergistically work together to induce LENR reactions. Perhaps systems that use very limited number of elements (like nickel and hydrogen) can be forced to produced high output if sources of atomic hydrogen are provided. However, from what Russ George has explained, it seems like without any extremely complicated or sophisticated loading apparatus or extensive preparation routine a mixture of elements can produce significant quantities of excess heat. I suspect some of Rossi's powder based systems utilized similar mixes of elements.

    The QX seems to also utilize the Atom Ecology approach because multiple elements are present in the reactor. According to Rossi, LiAlH4 is used as a fuel. Moreover, it's likely one or more inert gases such as argon are used as well. Also, nano-particles from possibly platinum coated nickel electrodes are present. So from here we have a mixture of hydrogen, lithium, aluminum, argon/helium/xenon, platinum, and nickel. There may be other elements in the plasma as well. This mixture of elements probably helps facilitate the production of altered forms of hydrogen (look at Simon Brink's hydrogen theory) so that it can fuse with other atoms. I would go so far as to say a QX like device with only one of these elements would be less likely to produce excess heat.

    I think that replicators of the QX will be able to test many mixtures of elements that produce excess heat. Some mixtures may be more optimum than others.

  • So from here we have a mixture of hydrogen

    Jurg Wyttenbach advocates using deuterium.

    Full Does the quantization of the proton magnetic moment explain LENR V21.pdf…r-and-particle-physics-20

    ""To get a successful LENR reaction you need the right mixture of magnetic isotopes.

    The typical released fusion energy of an A-D fusion is about 16MeV's and for D-D direct fusion 23.8MeV. This reaction energy can be used to induce stable nuclear magnetons, that are able to polarize the fuel.

    A strong external feld is also able to squeeze/stabilize/align fusing proton/deuterium nuclear charge orbits, what potentially leads to new fuel. Further you must guarantee that the activation energy of the basic D-D fusion is high enough to get a useful amount of energy

    . The first step of “massifcation” is the transformation of potential energy into rotating energy. The externally visible condensed matter – EM-felds – make three rotations.

    Most critical is the timing of the overall reaction chain, that must be in high agreement with the used magnetic isotopes. We also see the need for isotopes that can mediate a neutron hole wave! It looks like the first nuclear bond made is equivalent to one neutron wave.

    Because the NAE should remain stable, we strongly urge you to use only D-D fusion, that decays magnetically and you should also avoid secondary D-A and A1-A2 fusion, because of kinetic/ destructive outputs! A direct corollary of this is: Try to stay in medium temperature ranges.""

  • It's a curious coincidence that reports about Rossi's putative SK power output is within order of magnitude agreement with my Atom-Ecology's 'hot dry' cold fusion appliances based on energy in hand from numerous experiments with a variety and ever improving fuel mixtures and oeprational specifications. I hope his promised new year demonstration creates that rising Italian tide that will lift all boats. Our path now well underway has been to engage with impeccable scientific institutions with whom we are sharing our work and together will perform with their assitance ,as they have asked, 'impeccable' proof of cold fusion, (not lenr).

  • 27kW/ 1kg = approx. 25W/g

    that is well within an order of magnitude

    perhaps the tide in San Francisco raises the boats in Florida?

    Rossi's Italian tide is already helping with understanding of scaling factors. It's good to have close agreement in such details. Now about those 'lovely gammas', it is clear that Essex gamma girls are more lovely and friendly than Italian girls ;) Further to the cause of cold fusion providing useful energy and other effects I am finding in review of my very old notes and data that led to my founding of my first cold fusion company, based on 'hot dry' cold fusion in Washington DC decades ago, that the path then and now was and is very clear and valid. Too bad the investors and friends/judas' in the company choose to 'shoot the inventor', what scoundrels and fools they are now shown to be.

  • Things continue to go well, for sure. Our lab findings and Wyttenbach's theories continue to lead us along closely aligned paths to better performance, and the latest upgrade in our fuel preparation system seems to have produced some tasty biscuits. Readers might have noticed with gratitude my often short posts have at times been even shorter, but the pressure to produce documentation to satisfy various very interested parties has been huge, over 120 pages of workprogramme and system notes on the hydrogen process alone in under a week. Today I am catching my breath a little for tomorrow we will be starting a new round of system designs and so on for both of our experimental efforts. That is not any kind of complaint btw, we all find this very stimulating, better (when going well which it certainly is) than a blonde and a bottle of whisky.

  • Still tentative, but looks like Russ is bringing his AE to Alan and Martin's Ecalox, to form "Ecalox Ltd & Atom Ecology Ltd" as partner companies. .Should make a great team. They anticipate running separate projects, with both financed (so far) by Ecalox. Alan and Martin's hydrogen system is conventional (non-LENR), positive COP, and zero-carbon chemistry. Russ will be sharing resources and lab space, but working solely on the AE cold fusion/LENR. There is, and will be some cross collaboration.

    Lots of amazing things happening in that Dairy Barn. Who ever said creativity dies in the later years...Well, they were wrong.

  • Here are a few of my thoughts on cold fusion. I'm presenting them as facts, but I do NOT claim they are facts or absolute truths. They are my best guesses at this time.

    The CF reactions involving light hydrogen typically take place between atomic protium and other elements that are nearby. A few examples could be nickel, titanium, palladium, copper, etc. Relatively few atomic protium-protium reactions take place due to the small cross section of the two atoms. To make light hydrogen systems produce significant excess heat methods of producing high loading ratios and/or techniques of applying electromagnetic stimulation are required. Hence, this is why Rossi reported that he found it very difficult to make a pure "gas cat" using only heat as stimulation and no electricity. By the time he began testing "gas cats" he had abandoned extensive fuel prep to maximize hydrogen absorption (such as applying layers of palladium) and the loading ratio was low. The combination of a low loading ratio and no electromagnetic stimulation minimized excess heat production.

    The CF reactions involving heavy hydrogen can take place either between atomic deuterium atoms or other elements nearby - see list above. Deuterium - deuterium reactions have a higher cross section so vastly more "DD Fusion" reactions can take place. Hence, by using deuterium, especially with a broader mixture of secondary elements, it can be easier to produce excess heat even without outrageously exotic fuel preparation techniques. If electromagnetic stimulation was applied, the excess heat could go even higher.

    On the surface, this makes it look like using deuterium is preferable. And this could be the case. However, I believe Rossi and those who have replicated his effect have demonstrated that light hydrogen or nearly light hydrogen (the ordinary isotopic ratio) can work very well when either loading ratios are high enough and/or electromagnetic stimulation is applied. Moreover, I'd say in the replications made so far relatively very little was done to increase loading ratios or optimize the electromagnetic stimulation. As an example, I'll mention the recent extended run of a Ni-H system by Parkhomov. Instead of providing an additional source of atomic hydrogen, he depending upon reaching an ultra high temperature in which both some percentage of molecular hydrogen would dissociate and the liquid nickel would be especially permeable to the hydrogen. In other systems that used LiAlH4, I have yet to read of a case that used additives to the LiAlH4 or high energy ball milling to prevent the melting phase so that the nickel surface was not smothered during loading.

    Studying what has been shared by Me356 and a few others, I firmly believe that in a powder based system the utilization of plasma to produce atomic hydrogen and "hot hydrogen" species with extra kinetic energy to increase loading can make up for a lack of deuterium. Moreover, in such plasma based systems the sputtering of the nickel powder produces an atomized mist which plausibly could react more directly with the atomic hydrogen. I personally would like to see such systems replicated so as to prove not only the reality of cold fusion but the fact that using the more rare and more costly deuterium is not a requirement.

    When it comes to nearly pure plasma based systems like the QX in which the reactions are mostly taking place in a thin column of plasma between two electrodes rather than on the electrodes themselves, I think very high reaction rates are likely to be produced with either protium or deuterium. These systems, in my opinion, are likely the future of LENR in that they are controllable (instant on and off), have the highest reaction rate, and likely can be made to produce minimal "strange radiation." There will be applications for all forms of cold fusion devices -- especially when it comes to the production of heat. But when Andrea Rossi decides to capture the anomalous electrical surges produced by his system (the same ones that were witnessed by a long list of individuals who have built similar systems) it will revolutionize electrical energy production.