LENR vs Solar/Wind, and emerging Green Technologies.

  • I read that the Hoover dam concrete was laid about a foot in each layer. There are myths that workers sank into the concrete and were never seen again, but that could not have happened.


    What I would like to know is, did they really find the skeleton of a boy when they broke up The Great Eastern? Probably not, but it is a good story.


    No reason why a concrete-making one couldn’t be built. Feeding in the correct raw materials in the required volume would be the biggest bottleneck for big projects.

    The document referenced above describes this. QUOTE:


    Don’t be fooled by the fact that the main construction medium here is concrete. This is high-tech work. The mobile concrete batch plant, for example, is loaded with sensors that weigh sand, stone and cement, measure the moisture content in the ingredients, and monitor the mixing torque, the rheology — the flow of the printing mixture — and other factors for each individual batch. Operators monitor and adjust the factors from a computer inside a glass cab in the middle of the trailer. “Once we mix it and make the concrete, we have only so much time to be able to print it,” Kenny says. “Based on a combination of testing, computer modeling and simulation work, the concrete is designed to develop strength at a certain rate to handle the layers above it and the weight of the rebar. This allows us to build the structure within our targeted time frame.”


    The whole system is designed to work like this: The batch plant blends the cement from the storage tank and the stone, sand and water, and sends the concrete to the printer. The printer then extrudes layers of concrete in the desired shape through a special nozzle. Each layer is several inches thick. Like at the batch plant, the process is monitored by sensors and cameras.


  • limited. You cannot easily 3D print with molten steel.

    yes you can. ..

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    And one day it will be also relevant to the LENR field

  • what happened about the idea of mining Helium 3 from the moon-dust?

    No can do until we find a reasonably cheap way to get to the Moon and back. I think a space elevator might be a solution. A space elevator from the moon would be very long.


    A space elevator on Mars would have to avoid Phobos and Deimos. I do not know how this could be done. Arthur Clarke suggested the tether should be given a permanent vibration, moving it out of the way then the moons pass by.

  • Paradigmnoia - what happened about the idea of mining Helium 3 from the moon-dust? Directly deposited by the Sun. This tech could revolutionise fusion energy once a concrete pad was laid down on the moon.

    Totally uneconomic. Not even close.


    1100000 tons of H3 distributed over 38000000 square km.

    That’s about 0.03 tons per million square km.
    At 100 % recovery.

  • But hopefully Silicon Valley will come up with the technology for printing LENR matrices on the nano and femto-levels so the rate of reaction of nuclear events can be repeatably controlled. I guess it's all down to miniaturisation and how many nuclear-active sites can be aligned together. Then we can have 'table-top' sized LEN reactors for powering central-heating systems for our homes. Once this engineering problem has been overcome, we will all be on our way to a much greener future.

  • Totally uneconomic. Not even close.

    Indeed, it does not sound promising. See this estimate:


    https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1515K/abstract


    QUOTE:


    Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining


    . . . To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. . . .


  • by Julian Spector, Maria Virginia Olano


    Lithium-ion batteries have powered consumer electronics and the smartphone revolution for years. But now that electric vehicles are starting to take significant market share from gas-powered cars, battery demand has shifted into even higher gear.

    Prices of lithium carbonate, the commodity that puts the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, have shot to the moon this year. It’s impossible to look at that trajectory without wondering what will become of the movement to shift transportation and a growing portion of the electrical grid to run on batteries.

    The key thing to remember is that prices reflect current supply and demand, not the actual supply of lithium in the world. Today’s mining output reflects investments made years before it was clear that electric vehicles would take the auto industry by storm. The obvious antidote to skyrocketing prices is to mine more lithium.

    But that takes time, and it requires material intervention in the landscape. Recycling batteries won’t meaningfully help supply anytime soon because the pool of old EV batteries is just a drop in the ocean of future need.

    Over the last decade, lithium-ion battery prices kept falling and falling. Continued declines acquired the aura of natural law. But pandemic-related supply-chain disruptions for all sorts of materials and commodities hit the battery industry just like everybody else, at a time when demand for batteries specifically reached new highs. A prolonged shortage of battery ingredients could slow the industry just when it’s poised to take off.

    It’s in a lot of people’s interest to make sure that doesn’t happen. Tesla CEO Elon Musk tweeted last month about lithium prices hitting “insane levels,” saying that “Tesla might actually have to get into the mining & refining directly at scale, unless costs improve.” It was an odd revelation from someone who told the world back at his “Battery Day” in 2020 that he’d acquired mining rights to a 10,000-acre lithium deposit in the U.S.

    Perhaps the stratospheric jump in lithium prices will spur Musk and his peers to action on this long-simmering to-do-list item.


    Canary Media | Covering the clean energy transition
    Ambitious, nonprofit journalism powered by RMI for the clean energy transition, economy-wide decarbonization, and climate tech markets.
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  • The Salton Sea could produce the world's greenest lithium (cnbc.com)


    About 40 miles north of the California-Mexico border lies the shrinking, landlocked lake known as the Salton Sea. Though the lake was once the epicenter of a thriving resort community, water contamination and decades of drought have contributed to a collapse of its once-vibrant ecosystem and given rise to ghost towns.


    the California Energy Commission estimates that there’s enough lithium here to meet all of the United States’ projected future demand and 40% of the world’s demand. That’s big news for the booming electric-vehicle industry, as lithium is the common denominator across all types of EV batteries.

  • Coal fired electricity is more expensive than a simple analysis shows because coal has lingering add-on costs for the power company. I do not mean the cost of global warming, or the ill health and 20,000 annual deaths from coal smoke. The power companies do not pay for any of that. I think one of the biggest add-on costs is for coal ash retention ponds. They cause damage, and they are expensive to remediate. It is costing Georgia Power $9 billion to clean them up. Local people are suing the power companies, saying they are not doing enough. This was in the news today in Atlanta:


    Georgia coal ash fights hit pivotal point in metro Atlanta and beyond


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    People say that disposing used turbine blades from wind turbines may become a problem. It might cost a lot to bury them or recycle them. However, I think the mass of coal ash is far greater, and coal ash is more toxic. Here is an estimate that 130 million tons of coal ash were generated in 2014:


    Coal Ash Basics | US EPA
    Coal ash, also referred to as Coal Combustion Residuals (CCR), is the material produced primarily from the burning of coal in coal-fired power plants.
    www.epa.gov


    Fortunately, the use of coal is declining rapidly.

  • Here is an interesting proposal from NREL. They suggest that concentrated solar can be used to generate hydrogen using perovskite materials. As we have discussed here, concentrated solar has lost the competition with PV solar and wind, so it does not seem to have much of a future in energy generation. I do not think hydrogen has much of a future either. But it may be that combining two obsolescent technologies together produces a new approach that can compete. It would not be the first time a dead-end technology suddenly comes back to life. Wind turbines are perhaps the most dramatic example of that in the last 100 years. I think most people assumed they were obsolete until the 1990s.


    See:


    NREL advances green hydrogen production method
    Perovskite materials may hold the potential to play an important role in a process to produce hydrogen in a renewable manner, according to an analysis from…
    www.renewableenergyworld.com

  • JedRothwell

    Pam might be interested in hydrogen for her lighter than air vehicle...🎯


    Note the four year lapse from filing date.

    Also the published and patent granted dates are the same.


    Anyways

    Congrats to Pamela...


    Patent Granted!!


    FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    The System and Method for Supplying a Lighter-Than-Air Vehicle with Hydrogen Gas is assigned to the United States Government. Licensing inquiries may be directed to the Office of Research and Technical Applications, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, Code 72120, San Diego, Calif. 92152. Phone: (619) 553-5118; email: [email protected]. Reference Navy Case No. 103431.

    BACKGROUND

    An increase in worldwide manufacturing processes using helium has correspondingly increased the demand for helium. Since helium is a non-renewable source, this increased use in manufacturing has led to decreased helium supplies and a corresponding increase in costs. At the same time, the use of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles for military and commercial applications has increased. Traditionally, LTA vehicles have been inflated using helium; however, with the rising costs and scarcity of helium, the use of hydrogen gas to inflate LTA vehicles is gaining greater acceptance.


    Just a thought...

    I wonder what kind of fuel savings this thing gets?

    System and method for supplying a lighter-than-air vehicle with hydrogen gas

    US US11072525B2 Pamela A. Boss United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy

    Priority 2016-06-23

    • Filed 2017-06-22

    • Granted 2021-07-27

    • Published 2021-07-27

    A system for supplying hydrogen gas to a lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicle includes a manifold having multiple vessels. Each vessel has a first chamber that is separated from a second chamber by a barrier. A trigger assembly integrated with the barrier allows a liquid to be combined with a reactant …

  • It would not be the first time a dead-end technology suddenly comes back to life. Wind turbines are perhaps the most dramatic example of that in the last 100 years.

    Using remote computer resources is another dramatic example. This was called timesharing in the 1970s. (Timesharing also meant multiuser, multitasking mainframe and minicomputers, but I mean computers connected by telephone.) In the early 80s it was considered passé because computers were so cheap. The idea came roaring back to life with high speed internet connections. Nowadays many companies sell both computing services and on-line cloud storage.


    See:


    Timesharing as a Business - CHM Revolution

  • Promotional video from EPRI about the changing patterns of electricity use. Nice to look at....


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  • But hopefully Silicon Valley will come up with the technology for printing LENR matrices on the nano and femto-levels so the rate of reaction of nuclear events can be repeatably controlled. I guess it's all down to miniaturisation and how many nuclear-active sites can be aligned together. Then we can have 'table-top' sized LEN reactors for powering central-heating systems for our homes. Once this engineering problem has been overcome, we will all be on our way to a much greener future.

    I don't think that we have to go that far....and the nano manufacturing technology is available, not only in US or Japan, but also in Europe.


    Additive Nanoimprint Lithography | Profactor

  • LENR vs Solar or Wind


    Solar? I Imagine it would be nice to have a solar panel to keep the starter battery charged up if your CMNS energy unit is not in use for a while. Wind? Same same but less so. Basically these techs market share will shrink to a fraction.


    Sailing and Sailplane popularity will continue to grow.


    High energy fusion will gain insight from advanced CMNS research and continue a trend to scale down.


    High energy fission will be competitive when married to LENR Transmutation energy technologies.


    Other?

  • But we all tend to use the technology that 'works the best for now'. For example drone aeroplanes are about to be deployed by the Post Office to deliver the mail to the Scilly Isles, the Outer Hebrides and other remote locations around the UK. Plenty of electricity for the purpose generated by local wind and solar farms. No point in waiting for LEN reactors to come online!