Nickel-Hydrogen reactor - Important findings

  • Hello,


    I am trying to investigate elevated radiation phenomenon and I found very interesting behavior with Nickel-Hydrogen system.

    My cell is just Nickel powder and Hydrogen. Heater is made of Kanthal wire.


    What I found out could be very important for E-Cat replicators.


    For few years people were wondering why some reactor can load so much hydrogen and some can't. Pressure is basically constant in some cases.

    The key factor is container material!


    I found that my Nickel powder is very active and that it can transform Hydrogen molecules to Protons! And that it can do this for months!

    I did the research several months ago but I was unable to understand what is happening.


    I found that if Nickel is contained in a Stainless Steel tube then protons can escape freely even at low temperature such as 200°C. And I could transform all the hydrogen to protons until there is near vacuum. And it can do this again and again.

    Example: I fill container with hydrogen to 10 Bars. And then I will let it run at 200°C for few days and then there is around 10 mBar (absolute pressure). This mean that there is no leak, instead hydrogen, its protons are just fired from the cell. Then I can repeat it for lets say 10 times and result is always same. Near vacuum pressure without any slow down.


    Then I will take same Nickel powder and fill it in a high purity Alumina tube. I can do the same and guess what? Nothing. Pressure is constant.


    What does it mean? Stainless steel is Proton conductor even at low temperature. But if Nickel powder is not inside and I repeat the test even at 1000°C then pressure is constant at this temp too!


    What are implications? Nickel-Hydrogen system itself can generate unlimited amount of Protons. But it is necessary to focus at the container material and anything that is around. Only then there will be excess heat.


    I also found that at elevated temperatures hydrogen is transformed to Protons even faster.

    I think that these Protons carry very low energy for this reason they can't be detected easily.


    Let me know your opinion.

  • I am saying that people could think that their replications failed. But at least one important part is very likely working well - Nickel. And that it is doing "something" even if they can't see excess heat or radiation.

    The problem is that replicators are not using same materials for container. And this could be very likely reason why there is NO excess heat and that pressure behavior is very different than expected.


    I am not saying there is excess heat. But I am convinced that there is strong stream of Protons coming from the cell. They just can't react with anything due to Coulomb repulsion.

    So another step is to allow them to react with something.

  • Oh yes, but you know what elements must be added and in which way.

    So in your case container could be whatever. But people that are replicating pure Ni-H system are using what they think is good. But this is mistake.


    You would do much better if you can just tell what elements are necessary. Then people can save a lot of time and resources.

  • Wouldn't the above behavior be a demonstration of the hydrogen spillover effect?


    Basically, it is known that hydrogen can permeate easily metals or other materials in atomic form. Significant adsorption and subsequent dissociation of molecular H2 into 2H will not occur on the surface of the untreated surfaces of the steel tube alone, but it will on sufficiently finely divided catalytically active metals like nickel. Then, once this happens, the adsorbed hydrogen atoms can migrate from the Ni grains to the steel container (or other support) they are in contact with and more easily escape to the outside environment this way compared to the same conditions in absence of a dissociation catalyst.


    Non-porous alumina is impermeable to hydrogen at the temperatures used in these experiments.


    Hydrogen_Spillover_Diagram_3.png

  • I think the capability of the metal of dissociating hydrogen isn't strictly related to its ability to absorb it and form a hydride. Also, TiH2 once formed probably doesn't work as well as metallic Ti on this regard.


    Like Nickel, Platinum does not normally form a hydride but it should work even better than Nickel at dissociating molecular hydrogen, although it's probably going to be expensive to try out with it.


    Attempts for example with iron oxide (often used in industrial catalysts, although it is sensitive to reduction to metallic Fe) or perhaps partially oxidized titanium powder could be made to verify the behavior with other materials often used in actual catalysts and thus supposedly good at dissociating molecular hydrogen.

  • Interesting. If there is really at least Atomic Hydrogen then it can be still greatly used.

    Normally we have this reaction with Titanium:

    H2 -> 2H - 103 800 cal

    Ti + 2H -> TiH2 + 120 500 cal

    -----------------------------------

    Ti + H2 -> TiH2 + 16 700 cal


    But with Nickel as spillover we can get:

    Ti + 2H -> TiH2 + 120 500 cal


    This is excess heat (probably COP 7) from chemical process but still excess heat. Or is this calculation wrong?

  • The calculation doesn't "feel" correct but I'm not sure I can prove this without making silly mistakes myself.


    Atomic hydrogen will exist on the surface of the Ni metal powder and, according to what I'm aware about the current understanding of the spillover effect, at a limited distance (mm~cm) on the surface of the support it's been placed on. Although typically the spillover effect is in reference to hydrogen atoms from the catalytically active elemental metal spilling over carbon or metal-oxide supports, in the LENR literature I've often read about it occurring from a more hydrogen-active metal to one that is less active (e.g. Pd->Ni).

  • Have you been able to measure hydrogen absorption into the nickel powder itself? Because that's what we're after. Piantelli and Focardi were able to document significant absorption. Actually, the rate of hydrogen absorption (fast or slow) after many cycles of absorption and degassing was what determined the intensity of the "excited state" that would produce excess heat. I think what you are observing is really the opposite of what we want -- unless perhaps you want to replace the stainless steel with a nickel tube. I'd suggest utilizing the spillover process to try and get hydrogen into the nickel. A multitude of particles much smaller than that of your nickel will work: palladium, platinum, copper, or even smaller nickel particles. But they need to be distributed broadly. One possible way would be to have a small high temperature crucible in your reactor that would vaporize a small sample of palladium or platinum.


    Of course what I think would be best is to use some method of ionizing the hydrogen gas to create a plasma. Considering the *energy* implications, this is even better than using a spillover catalyst. Why? Consider this example. To get hydrogen to load into nickel you have to pay an energy cost three times: for adsorption, dissociation, and absorption. Each stage costs energy. With a spillover catalyst you can reduce the cost for adsorption and dissociation. However, you still have to pay for absorption. By ionizing the gas into a plasma, you are not only creating atomic hydrogen (skipping the first two) but adding energy to the hydrogen. This way when they contact they will not have to sit there for a while but can automatically go into the lattice.


    The production of atomic hydrogen is absolutely critical to getting an Ni-H system to work. It's the atomic hydrogen in the lattice that will experience intense electric fields from surface plasmon polaritons and fracto-emission to produce EVOs and strange radiation.


    I firmly believe that before someone tries to utilize a more complex system like Ni and LiAlH4, that they learn how to achieve excess heat with simple nickel and hydrogen. This probably isn't easy on the first or even fifth try. Piantelli and Focardi spent a decade gaining the know how to achieve sufficient hydrogen loading to generate excited states. But once you have this knowledge and start producing strange radiation, the sky is the limit. If, of course, like virtually everyone else in this field, you don't get inventors syndrome. Sadly, this affliction is spreading like wildfire. I'm actually observing it mutating into variations that are infecting those that have not invented anything themselves.


    So are you in a position to perform a series of tests with Ni-H until you are able to regularly produce excess heat and share the results with us?


    No, I shouldn't even ask that. We've already been down that road. We had a user named Me356 that went down this same road you are on and made several promises that he'd be open and teach us what we need to know to replicate. But he quickly caught an especially horrible strain of inventors syndrome, broke his word, put his personal enrichment before proving the reality of the technology to the world, grew paranoid about safety issues, and vanished.


    Before we ask anyone to share data or know how again we better have had the CDC in Atlanta working on a cure. Knowing how virtually everyone who achieves positive results ends up the same way, asking for you to continue your testing is like urging you to walk into a tuberculosis ward without a facemask.

  • That's why I have been advocating re-creating the Safire system to study LENR using a low temperature plasma in a spherical discharge tube-ionize the fuel gases H or D,- create a LENR 'reaction zone' in the double-layer formed near the cathode by co-localizing Ni or C, B, Pd nanoparticles in the dusty plasma so formed. Can't see any reason why it shouldn't work as a fusion reactor if the Safire team were correct in proposing LENR in their disclosure last year. Well, maybe they're doing this already, none of this is patentable being in the public domain, so we don't have to worry about inventor's syndrome. :)

  • Dr. Richard,


    There are multiple variations of this technology that can be built if someone understands the mechanisms in play.


    Regardless what we build, the goal should be to minimize the input power required. For example, I like the idea of building a conical resonator filled with hydrogen gas (perhaps with a little argon or helium mixed in) that could ionize the internal environment, produce atomic hydrogen (including "hot" atomic hydrogen), and rapidly load the nickel. However, we may not want to load the nickel too quickly. It's possible that we don't want to produce "pure" nickel hydride layers. Instead, we simply want to boost absorption so that nano-scale bubbles form in the lattice in defects. As these nano-scale bubbles move around and damage the lattice, charge separation and fracto-emission will take place which could be what produces the EVOs and SR. I'd suggest that the same routines for cycling absorption and vacuum degassing that Focardi and Piantelli used be followed. The difference is that with a percentage of atomic hydrogen in the reactor the loading will happen much more rapidly. The internal atmosphere of the reactor may not even need to be completely ionized and the RF antenna may not have to be operated at high power once a certain temperature in the reactor is reached.

  • Thanks for the comments guys.


    As you can see I try to share anything interesting. I was doing few different experiments for some time but there was no success in term of excess heat. So I try to focus and go systematically and measure also other factors.


    I think that my Nickel has very good dissociation capability. The Hydrogen amount that is transformed and fired out of the cell is relatively respectable. So if it is Atomic Hydrogen then this is really great.


    If there is plenty of atomic hydrogen I believe that exothermic reaction from loading of other material can be only beneficial.


    Alexander Parkhomv switched to pure Nickel-Hydrogen system too, right? And he obtained COP near 4. Described process is too easy to be true.

    So maybe same cell materials are needed. He shared that there are plenty of transmutations in these tubes. Among others there is Titanium, Vanadium, Calcium, etc.



    So why it wouldn't work for me? I think that all replicators were doing mistake at this point.


    Just count who used very same materials and design as those that reported excess heat? Instead people are trying to make it clean and free of impurities. But impurities such as these in Alumina and Mullite tubes are probably good.

    Probably it is similar as trying to burn a Coal without Air.

  • JohnyFive

    For what it's worth, on the E-CatWorld QA, Parkhomov pointed out that liquid lithium "poisons" the reactor because (paraphrasing) its wetting and corrosive properties decrease the exposed surface area of nickel powder, causing it to dissociate less hydrogen than it normally would. I think this would be true of other liquid metals as well, which are generally aggressive towards other materials and can wet metals. Perhaps if lithium is to be included in these "dry" reactors, it should not be placed in direct contact in liquid form with the Ni powder, or only be allowed to permeate the atmosphere as a gas.


    http://e-catworld.com/2018/10/…with-alexander-parkhomov/


    Quote

    AP: Metallic lithium poisons the reactor. [...]


    AP: LiAlH4 at a temperature of 180-200 ° C is decomposed into hydrogen and LiH. With further heating at temperatures above 300 ° C, hydrogen dissolves in nickel. Large surface of nickel powder supports to this process . If lithium metal is contained in the fuel mixture, it is melted at 180 ° C and absorbed by nickel powder. In this case, the porous structure of nickel is disturbed, as a result of which the saturation of nickel with hydrogen becomes difficult.

  • Johny5,

    you filled a SStube with hydrogen and nickel powder, you saw that hydrogen was leaking.

    With alumina tube no leak, but did you try a run with SS tube and Hydrogen inside without any powder ?

    DF

  • Cydonia You can find answer in my very first post of this thread.

    can It would be interesting to have SS tube only for Nickel-Hydrogen. But around this tube Lithium metal can be stored. Or maybe Boron-rich water. Maybe this is right configuration.

    If Alexander Parkhomov observed transmutations centimeters away from his core I can't find a reason why this is bad idea.
    Instead this could be right way. Nickel-Hydrogen will do its job without any contamination but what it produces is not wasted in the air.


    By the way on YouTube there is some Video with early E-Cat where Rossi state that certain amount of Hydrogen is used in ONE Day. Reason why it was consuming Hydrogen in the process could be very same as in my case.

    As far as I know there is nobody that can explain why his early patent describe usage of Boron. Was there ever any replicator that used Boron as shielding?

    But what we are actually shielding? Neutrons? I guess not. Or he just wanted to make his patent more interesting, hehe.

  • The patent US 201110005506 Al describe usage of Boron as must have. Perhaps next version of E-Cat replaced Boron for Lithium, who knows.

    It would be nice to run Nickel-Hydrogen reactor in a Copper container surrounded by Borated water.

  • i think that A. Parkhomov was using a reactor core made of boron nitride. (According to info of Bob G.)

    We are in a conceptual stage to design a hot type reactor using hBN as core material and tungsten as heater coil shielded by Argon gas. The whole apparatus will be surounded by heat exchanger. Ideas for additional pumping methods like arc discharge exist.

  • The patent US 201110005506 Al describe usage of Boron as must have. Perhaps next version of E-Cat replaced Boron for Lithium, who knows.

    It would be nice to run Nickel-Hydrogen reactor in a Copper container surrounded by Borated water.

    Don't you run into a heat issue with copper? It is also my understanding that strange radiation likes to consume electric conductors.

  • JohnyFive

    Isotope effects exist for the permeability of hydrogen into metals. It seems that metals are generally more permeable to protium than deuterium, but this might not necessarily always be the case for all alloys. There are a number of papers about this but they're mostly paywalled.


    https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5277693

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/…cle/pii/S0360319914016796

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/…cle/pii/S0022311510009487

    etc.


    At low temperatures copper has a very low hydrogen permeability compared to iron (from the graph below about 100 times less at 350C), so if you decide to use the same powder with a copper container you can check out if the effect described in the opening post still occurs to the same extent.


    http://rebresearch.com/H2perm2.htm


    Graph of permeability of hydrogen in several metals, with temperature

  • Oh and I forgot to mention the Nickel-Deuterium system is displaying very same behavior. But rate of consumption is two times slower than with ordinary Hydrogen.


    Yup. Hydrogen usually gets through metals quicker than deuterium (nuclei are more zippy because half the mass).


    These differences between H and D are one reason why you need to be careful using H as control for D or vice versa. There are different physical mechanisms at play that can alter pretty well any physical characteristic.

  • This mean that there is no leak, instead hydrogen, its protons are just fired from the cell.

    Not sure I understand what you mean by "fired from the cell". Do you mean permeation with the protons that are first absorbed within the internal wall of the SS cell, which then diffuse across the SS cell, to finally desorb at the external wall the cell? Or do you have any other process in mind?


    Related to this, is the decrease in pressure progressive over a few days (as expected from the permeation process described above) or do you see a sudden change in pressure anytime during these few days?

  • JohnyFive,


    Are you attempting to produce excess heat in these experiments or are you seeking to measure the migration of hydrogen through steel?


    If you are going for migration of hydrogen through steel, I'd suggest using nickel with a very small particle size.


    If you want to go for excess heat, I'd suggest you think about finding ways to get hydrogen to go into the nickel.

  • Have you dropped the strange radiation tests? Are you working with Magicsound.


    Do not follow the path others have taken, jumping from one target to another.


    You stated the radiation test was very highly repeatable. Work with Magicsound to replicate and change history.


    Otherwise, this will be just another LION, ME356, Orbo and others. 😖

  • Un séjour sans faille

    J'ai aussi essayé cela avec une poudre de titane. Là, de l'hydrogène était chargé dans la poudre mais la pression restait constante. Pourtant, le titane peut dissoudre beaucoup plus d'hydrogène, non?

    Johny5 what type of nickel powder you used for this ? what type of titanium too ? SStube 304 or 316 ? Were your SS tube fully filled with Ni powder, Did the powder touch the wall ?

    Thanks for your reply;