QX Concepts - A less critical Rossi thread.

  • Great work John!


    I'm wondering if the main 100khz sine wave could be smooth but aspects of the plasma are manipulating it. For example, there are all sorts of anomalous currents being generated in these devices. The Correa's described their system as a DC to AC inverter in that a pulsed DC input produced two outputs both in the forward and backwards direction. I'd also suggest that someone take a look at Harold Aspden's "Law of Electrodynamics" which might explain some of the current surges in these systems.

  • Plasma Resonance.



    Starting from the Boltzmann transport equation, a formula is derived for the rate of change of electron density in a gas plasma. With its aid a study is made of the oscillations of electron density (about the steady state value) in a discharge confined between parallel plates. The oscillations are described in terms of a set of normal modes characteristic of the plasma under study. An expression is obtained for the impedance of the discharge as a function of frequency: for the one case calculated in detail, this formula gives a resonance in power absorption at a frequency of 0.7 of the plasma resonance frequency corresponding to the central electron density.


    https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.103.845

  • Wow, do not tell this to axil :-D

  • I'm posting this here because I cannot find a better place, and I don't want to create a new thread.


    It seems to me that many technologies utilize the same basic method of producing a discharge to the point just below a true arc discharge (with a positive resistance) and without going beyond the negative resistance zone. Doing this repeatedly in various atmospheres seems to produce excess energy, radiation, anomalous emissions (strange radiation), and other phenomena.


    If we look at this with producing Kenneth Shoulder's EVOs or "plasmoids" in mind, what's happening is that we are creating non-linear discharges with a high rate of change and sufficient current. All of this combines to produce a magnetic field strong enough to allow self-organization of the electrons and positive ions to form extremely dense structures, many of which may be toroid shaped. The properties of these structures could then allow for nuclear reactions to be induced by many possible mechanisms. This includes reactions within the torus, with other objects that the torus impacts, and when the torus is slammed into another torus.


    If we look at this from the perspective of producing BLP's hydrinos, then if catalytic elements are present the same conditions that promoted EVO formation may induce hydrino production. The same pulses of high current may allow hydrogen to interact with argon or other atoms (perhaps even metal vapor from the electrodes) and produce hydrinos.


    A wide array of technologies seem to be utilizing this zone: BLP's Suncell, Tesla's Spark Gap, Chernetsky's Self Generating Discharge Tube, Shoulders EV Generators, Correa's Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Device, Papp's Noble Gas Engine, and several others.


    I'm wondering how the EVO phenomenon and the Hydrino phenomenon overlap in these systems. Do some systems produce more of either EVOs or Hydrinos than other systems? Can EVO's drag hydrino atoms with them? How much of the excess energy is produced by EVOs and how much is generated by Hydrinos?


    My guess is that there's a great deal of overlap and systems that produce EVOs can in some cases be enhanced by making sure to add catalytic elements in the environment such as argon, lithium, and metal vapor. In systems that would normally produce relatively low amounts of excess heat and perhaps significantly more electrical output (such as Chernetsky's device which only hydrogen or Correa's device that used argon), the combination of elements can allow for the manipulation of hydrogen. These manipulated hydrogen atoms can then induce nuclear reactions with other elements producing heat. I think a great example of this is probably the QX.


    I believe that I know the the rabbit hole that Me356 followed that led him to breaking his promises and going silent. If what I'm saying is accurate, then this represents nothing short of a technological revolution that would go beyond unlimited energy towards exotic propulsion and other technologies. Although I'm sure me356 wanted a piece of the financial "pie", I also think that he didn't want to be responsible for this technology getting loose and spreading far and wide. In a very short period of time, even small nations with meager budgets could build a wide array of devices that could provide dirt cheap energy that would be totally portable and more energy dense than any that currently exist. Moreover, by studying these systems that could alter the active vacuum and start manipulating the "space time metric" to build reactionless vehicles like the Fluxliner ARV.


    This is nothing short of Pandora's Box. Instead of being full of demons, though, I'd say it is full of technologies from science fiction.


    I hope it's opened so that we can reap all the consequences good and bad.

  • Sam

    December 28, 2018 at 8:10 PM

    Hello Dr Rossi

    You said you learned important safety

    issues from Prof Sergio Focardi.

    Can you name something important

    you learned from Prof Sven Kullander.

    The best to you in 2019.

    Sam

    Andrea Rossi

    December 28, 2018 at 8:20 PM

    Sam:

    1- Theoretically, the bases upon which I am working with Carl-Oscar Gullstrom and Giorgio Vassallo, plus one other scientist that wants for the time being remain behind the curtains

    2- Experimentally, he has explained to me the role of Lithium, that formerly I had undervalued: read my first patent, granted in Italy in 2011 and my second patent, applied for in March 2012 and granted in the USA in 2015 and eventually granted in all North America, South America, all Europe, Japan, Russia, China, Australia, South Africa: the substantial difference is a heritage of what I learnt from Prof Sven Kullander.

    Also to you I wish the best from the New Year,

    Warm Regards,

    A.R.



    http://www.hydrobetatron.or...

  • Good! We are all wondering/thinking and not simply assuming the sustaining 3 second excitation was 100khz DC pulses.

    1. CC December 28, 2018 at 9:51 PM

      Dear Dr Andrea Rossi,

      you said here that in the set up of the experiments on course to define the theory related to the Rossi effect there was a frequency generator.

      Can you answer to this: do have frequency variations any influence upon the effect?

      Happy New Year

      CC

    2. Translate Andrea Rossi December 29, 2018 at 7:44 AM

      CC:

      Yes.

      Warm Regards,

      A.R.

  • I have been further studying the papers of George Egely, and I'm becoming more impressed with the similarities between the Chernetsky Self Generating Discharge Tube and the QX/SK. The basis for the concept seems to be that when highly non-linear and out of equilibrium conditions exist in the reactor (for example at the moment where a discharge in the "negative resistance" zone of the abnormal glow discharge regime is turned off), anomalous energy is produced in the forms of heat, electricity, and light - in addition to longitudinal waves. To produce such a condition, you provide a sufficiently high voltage and high current pulse (that has a critical current density), turn off the input before a true positive resistance arc discharge takes place (this accelerates the destruction of the electrodes), and allow self generating and self powering oscillations to take place that produce even more energy. In an optimized system in which the power supply is tuned to the reactor so the whole setup is highly resonant, these oscillations can continue for some time. Interestingly, George Egely states that by not allowing a return path back to the power supply (for example using a diode) these oscillations will thermalize into heat. But I'm also thinking that utilizing such a diode may make the system less resonant. If it was easy to simply stick a diode in the circuit to prevent the power surges that heat up the power supply, Rossi would have already done it.


    With the QX, Rossi only applies a high powered pulse once and then either allows the self generating oscillations to continue without input OR he helps them along by applying additional pulses. I wonder if you can determine the exact structure of such self generating oscillations and supply a wave form with low voltage and low current that would help them continue to exist for a longer period of time. This way, you don't have to continuously use high voltage and high current that could erode your electrodes.


    I'm also thinking that the use of lithium in the QX may be another factor that dramatically boosts the output compared to Chernetsky's technology. The lithium combined with argon (the bright blue light from the QX makes me think that argon is being used) and hydrogen would reproduce one of Black Light Power's best "resonant transfer plasma" catalyst combinations (equal or even better than their hydrogen, argon, strontium combination).


    So here's my thinking of how a typical setup might work.


    1) Have a reactor and power supply tuned to a highly resonant state.

    2) Pulse the reactor with high voltage/current with a FAST RISE TIME with a cathode that has already been pulsed several times at even higher current to produce a sharp, rough tip at the apex.

    3) Cut off the pulse before a true "positive resistance" arc discharge is achieved.

    4) The atomic hydrogen produced will interact with the catalysts argon and lithium along with possibly small amounts of nano-metal particles from cathode erosion to produce a resonant transfer plasma. At the same time, fusion events between lithium and hydrogen will take place.

    5) Due to the existence of only the slowly degrading resonant transfer plasma and the nuclear reactions taking place (the self generating discharge) resonant oscillations will appear in the plasma. These oscillations produce even more excess energy by allowing hydrogen and lithium to fuse in addition to zero point energy extraction.

    6) To optimize these self generating oscillations and make them last even longer, a series of pulses with wave form generators can be applied to help support them. Instead of high voltage and high current, only a small voltage and current need to be applied. This is absolutely critical because the biggest problem with the Chernetsky device and the PAGD is that the small tips erode away. Coating the electrodes in platinum could be a way of minimizing the erosion because it is a very poor thermionic emitter which would make it more difficult to push the device into a true arc discharge.


    I really think this is a simple system that would not take a fortune to replicate. In fact, the most expensive equipment would be the oscilloscope to monitor what is going on.

  • Let's try to keep this thread on the QX and related technologies.


    Once again, I'd like to highly suggest that people read George Egely's series of articles. They are full of information that detail how the plasma based LENR has been around in one form or another for a very long time. The information on Chernetsky and Paulo Correa's work is also directly applicable to the QX. I do NOT claim that he is 100% correct on all aspects of theory. However, I think the information he provides is extremely useful when it comes to linking together REPEATED COMMON THEMES that can help replicators build systems.


    One common theme is pulsing the discharge into the negative resistance zone and quickly disrupting it so that a highly non-linear, out of equilibrium environment is produced in the plasma.


    Another common theme is the presence of sharp points or roughened surfaces on the electrodes. This can be in the form of cracks or tips on electrodes or nano-particles from cathode erosion.


    Yet another common theme is magnetism: these high rate of change discharges produce magnetic fields powerful enough to allow for electrons and positive ions to self organize into plasmoid structures.


    Perhaps another interesting theme is the use of noble gases in addition to hydrogen. Bostic discovered that the addition of even a small quantity of argon (five percent) to a hot fusion spheromak plasmoid increases stability and increases x-ray output ten fold, Papp used noble gases in this engine, Black Light Power uses argon as a hydrino catalyst, and Shoulders discovered that noble gases would aid EVO formation.


    A common theme in LENR also seems to be LITHIUM. Multiple researchers have been able to induce hydrogen lithium reactions at very low energies. For example, look at the work of Unified Gravity Corporation.


    In my opinion, bringing these themes together is what allowed Andrea Rossi to produce the QX.

  • Alan Smith


    Quote

    So you don't think that the verification of the Brillouin reactor by SRI really happened?


    I think tests were performed at SRI and there is some chance that they were properly reported. But absent credible replication by an investigator in a prestigious, preferably national, test lab, I don't trust results from SRI because they have a vested interest. The results are modest and could represent errors. SRI's LENR work was run by Dr. McKubre, the same investigator who, not long ago, spoke enthusiastically about Rossi's potential and even attended to Papp's claims. This, of course, indicates excessive and misplaced trust and credulity. There are also the grandiose claims made in the past by Brillouin principals going all the way back to Sterling Alan's PESN web site. None seems to have come true. Based on the facts so far, I do not trust that either Brillouin principals or the SRI lab Dr. McKubre ran will be as cautious and objective as necessary to prove conclusively that Brillouin really has Eout>Ein. Of course, they might. I do not think the evidence for it is objectively very strong. It's just an opinion.

  • Reading through G. Egeley's reviews certainly focuses the mind on what is needed for LENR to work reliably, for a commercial fusion reactor. The central theoretical idea is that unless we have a tried and tested method for producing muons ie heavy electrons to form D-u-D complexes (to overcome Coulombic repulsion) ending up with He and GeV of energy release, all we are going to see is very low rates of LENR. Enough to detect some transmutation of elements etc but no reliable energy source. Unless AR has somehow found a way of doing it? Maybe by some freak of chance he has found a way of splitting the proton into quarks and then re-synthesized them into long-lasting muons, for example, but then he's not even using deuterium. Utter genius. He's managed to make it work just with hydrogen!

  • Reading through G. Egeley's reviews certainly focuses the mind on what is needed for LENR to work reliably, for a commercial fusion reactor. The central theoretical idea is that unless we have a tried and tested method for producing muons ie heavy electrons to form D-u-D complexes (to overcome Coulombic repulsion) ending up with He and GeV of energy release, all we are going to see is very low rates of LENR. Enough to detect some transmutation of elements etc but no reliable energy source. Unless AR has somehow found a way of doing it? Maybe by some freak of chance he has found a way of splitting the proton into quarks and then re-synthesized them into long-lasting muons, for example, but then he's not even using deuterium. Utter genius. He's managed to make it work just with hydrogen!


    What if "producing muons ie heavy electrons to form D-u-D complexes " might be an invalid fundamental assumption. Maybe the LENR reaction is getting its energy primarily from the vacuum. It might be that particles are also produced, bit as a minor factor of what is really going on. Isn't it logical to suspect that if no fusion related gammas are detected, then fusion is not occurring.

  • https://arxiv.org/abs/1302.7041




    Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and dusty plasmas

    Sung Nae Cho

    (Submitted on 28 Feb 2013 (v1), last revised 9 Apr 2013 (this version, v2))

    An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by the fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to the positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and the surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in the DC glow discharges. Furthermore, this alternative description provides an elegant explanation to the formation of plasma fireballs in the laboratory plasma. It has been found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with the electric field. The presented mechanism also describes self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, which demonstrates that self-sustained oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow discharges involve common physical processes.
  • Quote

    mmckubre is a member. He might care to answer for himself- though i would not blame him if he chose not to.


    Yes, thanks, I know that. I would guess many details of what Brillouin has and does are under NDA though of course, I don't know. I would be pleased to engage Dr. McKubre in, from my side for sure, polite discourse about Brillouin but I doubt that he would want to which is fine also. It would be peachy if Brillouin were the answer to our energy needs but from the news releases I have seen from the company's principals over the years, mostly before they teamed up with SAI, I doubt it.

  • e axil

    Because cold fusion running on muons has been well established since Luis Alvarez's work in the fifties and the D-u-T complex has since been observed experimentally. Muon catalysed fusion does generate gammas of similar spectra to Russ George's published data (on here) - why propose much more esoteric mechanisms like vac energy and evo's when we have one clear well researched mechanism already in existence? Maybe one idea is that under certain conditions ordinary electrons can be made to act like muons-could their effective mass be artificially increased by applying RF pulse/laser stimulation for instance? Is this mode of stimulation understood in terms of its effect on electron spin and thus magnetic field...possibly increasing effective inertia and thus mass? Wyttenbach's theories have really concentrated on proton spin rotatoral issues, maybe more theoretical work on electron spin might be appropriate at this point. It would be a neat answer to all the disparate cold fusion data going back to F&P's electrolytic expts - were they simply synthesizing muon-like heavy electrons which in turn catalysed D-D fusion and thus a vast release of energy causing one or two melt-downs? If the electron spin is increased towards infinity could its effective mass increase relativistically to mimic a muon? Relativistic electron mass increases by an amount equal to the Lorentz factor of 100X as their velocity approaches the speed of light. This could explain both Brillouin Energy's conservative, cautious over energy results and Rossi's claims (which we all agree he tends to exaggerate).

    l