QX Concepts - A less critical Rossi thread.

  • And another thing-in a complex plasma cloud of electrons, protons, deuterons, transition metals / carbon nano or pico-particles He Xe and Ar gas atoms as catalysts (might as well throw in the kitchen sink as well!) the heavier atomic structures will be relatively stationary with respect to the electrons zapping about. Sufficiently high voltage RF stimulation could well accelerate electrons to say 0.995c ie just below light speed giving them a relative mass 100X their stationary mass, approaching in effect half the known muon mass of 207X. The probability of protons or deuterons undergoing fusion due to muon-like electrons whizzing past could be therefore half that of muons which do, of course whizz past at similar velocities and have 2 millionths of a second half-lives. How electron spin or consequent magnetic fields fits into this scenario I am not sure, but it is conceivable that interaction with P or D magnetic fields could promote tunnelling through the Coulomb barrier (if we now assume that the nuclear strong force is a magnetic interaction between up and down quarks)...all just bog standard physics really?

  • The other intriguing piece of evidence is that replacing the electron with a muon results in a smaller diameter proton (measured now in both P and D) - this could be caused by an increased strong nuclear force binding the three component quarks more tightly together - and if this force is magnetic how does the presence of a muon increase it? The simplest answer is probably that the muon orbits much more closely to the proton, so induces a more powerful magnetic field within the proton - which if true opens the door to electron spin modulation/electron induced magnetic fields influencing proton structure and therefore probabilities of proton or deuterium fusion. Could this be a much simpler theoretical explanation for cold fusion underlying AR's new SK? Are both electron spin and velocity important factors in mimicking muon-induced fusion.? Hasn't this ever been suggested or analysed before? (maybe Hagelstein?)

  • The simplest answer is probably that the muon orbits much more closely to the proton, so induces a more powerful magnetic field within the proton - which if true opens the door to electron spin modulation/electron induced magnetic fields influencing proton structure and therefore probabilities of proton or deuterium fusion. Could this be a much simpler theoretical explanation for cold fusion underlying AR's new SK? Are both electron spin and velocity important factors in mimicking muon-induced fusion.? Hasn't this ever been suggested or analysed before? (maybe Hagelstein?)


    If you understand the 10 digits exact 4D hydrogen model, then you will also understand that there is no classically orbiting electron. The electron must be treated as magnetic flux - as already Mills explained for the reduced mass effect. Nevertheless a kinetic model is not wrong as it still gives about 5 digits and also explains most things.


    LENR - aka fusion is not about storing energy - it's about releasing energy to be able to fuse. That's why kinetic fusion is nonsense. The muon 4D-flux is much larger that the minimal "bond" (156keV released/exchanged) needed to form out the weakest "nuclear bond" (= flux change/ flux compression) thus it can compensate for the energy released by a proton.


    In Deuterium fusion (A+D) we also see the Deuterium (temporarily) added like 2 combined proton's what looks like two protons are held together by magnetic flux.

  • Yes, that's right, the effect of the electron is to exert a magnetic flux on the nucleon(s) it orbits-just like an electrical coil wrapped around a conductor induces a magnetic flux through the conductor. The magnitude of the magnetic flux presumably increases as the electron velocity approaches light speed and becomes an electron cloud with no discrete orbit. The question arises as to what changes in electron spin exert on this system, can spin actually be modified or is it a fixed parameter? I'm sure you'll agree that most of the hypotheses around LENR/cold fusion seem to be proton-centric, neglecting other possibilities based on electron anomalies (eg acting like muons for millionths of a second). Maybe as you say the possibility can be ruled out on energetics grounds, as was the case for electron capture.

  • This is very weird-the magnetic dipole moment (a function of charge and spin) of the electron is over two orders of magnitude greater than that of the muon even though they have the same -1 charge and 1/2 spin. (-9.284.10^-24 electron/-4.290.10^-26 J/T muon). Maybe the stronger magnetic force exerted by the electron on the proton/deuteron is a factor in increasing the probability of fusion, ie of electrons acting like muons. Doesn't this suggest also the spin of all subatomic particles is not fixed as the QED/Standard model would like us to think, but spin velocities can go fro zero to possibly light speed?

  • This is very weird-the magnetic dipole moment (a function of charge and spin) of the electron is over two orders of magnitude greater than that of the muon even though they have the same -1 charge and 1/2 spin. (-9.284.10^-24 electron/-4.290.10^-26 J/T muon). Maybe the stronger magnetic force exerted by the electron on the proton/deuteron is a factor in increasing the probability of fusion, ie of electrons acting like muons. Doesn't this suggest also the spin of all subatomic particles is not fixed as the QED/Standard model would like us to think, but spin velocities can go fro zero to possibly light speed?


    This is easy to explain. All mass is electro magnetic mass (field flux). The mass equivalence is given by the de-Broglie radius, which in fact is much smaller for the muon.

  • its similar to test with a mig welder changing out the gas mixes to learn what will do what. not much video and not much written. Also having a chamber to magnetically levitate the molten ball or lightning ball would take a more like a particle accelerator tube to keep it centered and not blow out a wall, its an engineers nightmare.

  • Maybe the plasma ball is sustained by electrons resonating in the high frequency electric fields - yielding very high spin velocities? Energy is then released as photons and heat. Same thing occurring In the SK - with additional energy released from high spin electrons muonically inducing fusion of p to He plus heat plus gammas? Be nice if it did, we'd have a plausible theory for cold fusion/LENR quantum physicists couldn't argue with.

  • In regards to the plasma balls, my biggest question is how Rossi manages to prevent erosion of his electrodes. Every other system I've came across that produced plasma balls also produced massive cathode erosion.

    TheFutureIsNow


    January 7, 2019 at 11:46 AM

    Dear Andrea,


    The following document contains a wealth of information, but please specifically read the paper on page 172 entitled Comparative studies performed on “fireballs” formed in direct current and high frequency discharges


    M.Sanduloviciu, C.Borciat, V.Melnig and C.Gherman

    “Al.l. Cuza” University, Department of Plasma Physics, 6600 Iasi, Romania t

    present address: Universit6 Paris-Sud, L.P.G.P., bat. 212, 91405 Orsay cedex, France


    https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/...


    The paper explains how plasma balls can be formed on electrodes during DC discharges and can then become free floating when exposed to high frequency electric currents. I really think that this paper is absolutely and directly applicable to the production of plasma balls in the SK. Would you please read the article and provide your thoughts on how it applies to what is happening inside the QX/SK?


    My guess is that you are producing a plasmoid with the initial high voltage and high current impulse when you cross the “negative resistance” zone of the abnormal glow discharge. Self generating oscillations at high frequency are produced that you re-inforce with additional signals that allow the plasmoid to exist free floating. This prevents the plasmoid from continually sitting on the electrodes and producing massive erosion.

    _________________________________________

    Andrea Rossi

    January 7, 2019 at 4:55 PM


    TheFutureIsNow:


    Sorry, you are floating in a confidential field of information. I cannot answer in positive or in negative.


    Warm Regards,

  • In regards to the plasma balls, my biggest question is how Rossi manages to prevent erosion of his electrodes. Every other system I've came across that produced plasma balls also produced massive cathode erosion.


    See also this post on the Tao effect


    High Temperature Superconductivity and LENR


    Explanation of the Tao effect

    J.E. Hirsch

    (Submitted on 26 Feb 2005)


    https://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0502626

  • Here is my latest theory on the operation of the QX.


    A fast, sudden pulse of sufficient rise time of sufficient current/voltage produces a "fireball" (plasmoid, spheromak, etc) as the "negative resistance zone" is arrived at; however, it is the production of the plasma ball according to papers online that allows for the negative resistance phenomenon to take place. Apparently, the double layer on the surface functions as a source of ions.


    Nearly simultaneously, the plasma ball which is allowing the negative resistance effect to take place starts to oscillate and exchange energy and matter with the overall plasma. It's existence is literally fed by the heat in the plasma.


    Also, during this time, the very nature of this plasmoid is inducing nuclear reactions. Perhaps, it is due to the double layer surface of the plasmoid which contains postive ions on the interior and negative ions (electrons) on the exterior.


    The plasmoid uses some of this anomalous nuclear heat to sustain itself and produce more oscillations which consist of current flowing through the plasma. This current produces both heat and light.


    The main factors required to make these devices function is to provide the most optimal elements for nuclear reactions to take place.


    Hydrogen and Argon is probably adequate to produce the effect. However, the addition of lithium and perhaps tiny quantities of platinum emitted during the sputtering of the cathode produces an optimum fuel source.


    By using a magnetic mirror effect, perhaps with permanent magnets behind the cathode and anodes, you can trap the plasmoid in the center of the tube so that cathode erosion does not take place.


    In short, the fireball or plasmoid is the key to LENR in the SK. The fireball is a unique self organizing structure that produces nuclear reactions and exchanges the energy with the plasma via self generating oscillations which exchange matter and energy.


    Final notes.


    1) The same type of fireball can be produced by biasing the anode. In this case, the fireball will be produced at the anode. In systems where the anode is not biased, the fireballs can be produced at the cathode. They are the same phenomenon regardless where they are located.


    2) This phenomenon is probably taking place inside the lattice of metals where hydrogen can exist as a plasma and setup double layers.

  • Here is one citation out of many that show that for a negative resistance to take place in a plasma discharge that a fireball or at least a plasma column with a double layer must exist.


    https://books.google.com/books…2%20and%20cathode&f=false


    For its appearance, a negative resistance requires an active component in the electrical circuit able to act as a source of energy. In the case of plasma, this component is the self consistent DL existing at the border of a fireball. The potential drop across the self-consistent DL is almost equal with the ionization potential of the working gas. The initially thermal electrons are accelerated when passing through the DL, gaining enough energy to produce electron-neutral excitation and ionization impacts. In this way, an enhancement of the charged particles (electrons and ions) production takes place, leading to a sudden increase of the current collected by the electrode. The DL works as a nonlinear circuit element able to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy, i.e., it is a source of energy in the electrical circuit, creating all of the conditions necessary for the appearance of the S-type NDR effect in the current voltage characteristic of a plasma conductor.

  • http://www.jspf.or.jp/JPFRS/PDF/Vol3/jpfrs2000_03-614.pdf



    Flicker Noise Related to Electrical Double Layer Dynamics
    SANDULOVICIU Mircea*, SCHRITTWIESER ROMAN I, LOZNEANU ETZ|I|A,
    AVRAM Codrina, BALAN Petru and POHOATA Valentin
    Department of Plasma Physics, "Al. I. Cuza"University, RO-6600 lasi, Romania
    llnstitute for lon Physics, IJniversity of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    (Received: 18 January 2000 / Accepted: 4 April 2000)
    Abstract
    Transport of particles and energy by the effect of double layers, self-assembled at the edge of a
    confined plasma, towards a space charge configuration able to perform natural oscillations, reveals a new
    mechanism of anomalous transport of particles and energy in plasma devices. Based on these
    experimental results we suggest a new phenomenological basis for the explanation of flicker noise in
    fusion devices.
    Keywords:
    double layers, anomalous transport, instability stimulation.

  • The elegance of the QX is amazing.


    For a negative resistance to form in a plasma, a double layer much exist on the surface of a plasma ball that can serve as an ion source and exchange energy and matter. This plasma ball feeds off heat from the plasma and starts to oscillate. In the QX, if nuclear reactions are taking place in the plasma ball or more precisely in the double layers, additional oscillations can be produced. Basically, we have a self organizing structure that is converting LENR heat into current traveling through the plasma. This is literally a heat to electricity conversion device! However, only a portion of the current produced from the LENR reaction makes it out of the device and most is converted into heat or light.


    To optimize such a device, a few things need to be done.


    First, the best LENR fuel needs to be used. I'm guessing lithium is an ideal fuel.

    Secondly, the power supply needs to be tuned so that it can resonate with the self generating oscillations. This will extend the lifespan of the plasma ball.

    Third, the plasma ball needs to be kept off the surface of the electrode so that it does not produce massive erosion. The solutions are three fold: high frequencies applied to the device, a magnetic mirror effect, or a magnetic cusp effect.


    Do all of you realize how significant this is? The only thing that's lacking is PROOF that nuclear reactions take place in the plasma ball during the negative resistance zone. I think that will require third party replication. However, there is a lot of information that indicates that anomalous energy is produced. Just look at the anomalies witnessed by Chernetsky, Correa, Shoulders, Moray, and even the Saphire project!