QX Concepts - A less critical Rossi thread.

  • By the way, BLP had a LOT of activity before Christmas. Now, activity has slowed down to almost nothing. I have not seen a new article or video posted on their YouTube channel in weeks. I wonder if it has anything to do with Rossi's pre-recorded demo.

  • By the way, BLP had a LOT of activity before Christmas. Now, activity has slowed down to almost nothing. I have not seen a new article or video posted on their YouTube channel in weeks. I wonder if it has anything to do with Rossi's pre-recorded demo.


    I wondered about the silence also. They had that DOD visit...maybe that had something to do with it?

  • I don't think it was the DOD visit. After the DOD visit they continued to post videos. I am thinking it might be that they are waiting on the demo of the SK to decide what to do next.


    What I would do if I were them is to build a system that is purely plasma based with no liquid metal electrodes and no constant flow of hydrogen. They would be able to have something far superior in terms of complexity in short order. Even if they have to admit that nuclear reactions are taking place, they would be able to have a produce that could be mass produced extremely quickly.

  • I think that a QX or SK would be a fascinating device to play with. If you alter the gas pressure the frequency of the self sustaining oscillations would be altered. Additionally, if you reduce or increase the gap the frequency of the self sustaining oscillations would be altered. By adding a few percent of different gases you would be able to change the shape and frequency of the oscillations.


    I think it would be fun as all get out to build and test a QX. With an oscilloscope, you would be able to see the consequences of every little change you make. In a typical powder based system you might be able to monitor the input power with an oscilloscope, but you wouldn't be able to see what was going on inside the reactor with the traces. Just imagine being able to monitor how much excess power you are producing by being able to look at a screen in REAL TIME. You could adjust the frequency of your input and watch as the reactor goes into ion acoustic resonance.

  • I am finding more and more papers describing how sudden motions of ions or even small particles can polarize the vacuum. I am starting to wonder if there is a dual effect in which the same conditions that allow for the vacuum to be polarized also make LENR reactions more likely. If this is true, then it's possible that it would be hard to distinguish between energy produced by LENR and vacuum energy.


  • If the temperature is constant regardless of the output power i think that means he must also be varying the flow rate of the fluid being heated.

  • How would it be possible to control or change any flowrate in a little closed quartz cylinder, 30mm long and 1mm diameter at all? And imagine of having thousands of those little reactors to manage in a 40MW power plant. Wireless control? Operated remotely from an apartment in Miami (there is no new or other information on Leonardos manufacturing or company facility)...quite a challenge.

  • The new Brillouin hot tube now seems to operate on the power delivered by the Q-pulses alone, which suggests they've upped the voltage and frequency so are probably creating a plasma environment in the tubes for LENR to occur. Stiff competition for the QX or SK E-cats I'd say. Be nice to replicate their tech for a home central heating system!

  • Dr Richard

    AFAIK, Brillouin apply narrow pulsed square wave or DC to layers of metals alternated with dielectric materials. Not too much related with QX/SK or BLP other than the presence of a pulsed (on-off) signal.


    http://brillouinenergy.com/new…12/SRI_ProgressReport.pdf


    Quote

    Design

    The cores consist of a metal substrate, which in some configurations includes a heater and thermocouple, with several spray-coated layers. Generally, these coatings alternate between a hydrogen-absorbing metal and an insulating ceramic. One example is shown in Figure 1. Other designs may have more or less layers. All of the layers are porous, allowing the gas(es) in the reactor chamber access to all coatings. There is a heater and thermocouple in the center of the core. The power to the heater is measured directly from the voltage and current supplied by the direct current (DC) power supply.


    Quote

    Measurement

    The outer active layer is stimulated by sending pulses through the outer layer or layers and returning electrically through the innermost layer. The nature of the pulses is such that its current travels primarily on the surface of the metal in contact with the ceramic (the “skin effect”). This effect is caused by the very fast rise time of the pulses. An example of this pulse design, which Brillouin refers to as a “Q Pulse”, is shown in Figure 4. The pulse width is from ~80 – 1000ns with a duty cycle of less than 1%. This example shows a pair of pulses with alternating polarity, although same polarity pulse trains have also been used.

  • Does anyone have any thoughts about the mechanisms that make the QX work?


    Here is a quick list.


    1 - High manganese alloy nickel electrodes plated in platinum.


    2 - Some type of sharp protrusion on the tip. Artificial hollow cathode for "pseudospark" production or a sharp tip produced after a series of discharges at high current.


    3 - Reactor fueled with combination of noble gas mixture (mostly argon with perhaps traces of neon or others), hydrogen or perhaps extra deuterium (deuterium may increase thermal output at cost of more radiation), lithium, and nano-particles from electrodes.


    4 - At near atmospheric pressure and a decent gap between electrodes (to allow self sustaining oscillations to be in kilohertz range instead of megahertz range), the device is pulsed with a high voltage and current with a fast rise time. This produces a macro-scale plasmoid as the negative resistance zone is passed through.


    5 - Multiple things happen at nearly the same time. First, the atomic hydrogen interacting with the BLP like catalytic mix produces a resonant transfer plasma which can sustain for a longer period of time without input power than an ordinary plasma (seconds instead of milliseconds). Second, the plasma ball moves off the cathode and travels to the zone of weakest magnetic field at a position between the two electrodes (permanent magnets behind electrodes far from the hottest zone in the reactor are producing a magnetic mirror effect). Third, self generating oscillations start in the plasma due to the plasma ball absorbing heat and transforming it to electrical current.


    6 - The control box switches to providing additional stimulating pulses perhaps at the resonant frequency of the plasma oscillations. However, due to the resonant transfer plasma effect and LENR reactions, the plasma continues to exist with only a small input power.


    7 - The anomalous electrical current that is not thermalized in the reactor goes into the power supply. This is the reason for the cooling system.


    There may be aspects of the system that I'm overlooking. If you think I am overlooking any, please speak up. I'm trying hard to conceptualize how the system works.


    Here are a few thoughts about unknown areas:


    a) What kind of radiation is emitted? I think this could depend upon the fuel used.

    b) BLP produces mostly x-rays and EUV light. Since these two systems are so similar, I would think that the QX produces the same type of output.

    c) The material that Rossi uses for the transparent tube is supposed to be a custom material. What optically transparent materials would block most soft x-rays?

    d) Could Rossi be operating the QX in a mode that limits nuclear reactions and instead is extracting electron positron pairs from the vacuum to produce energy?


    So what are all of your thoughts?


    I wish we could get some serious and focused discussion started.

  • TheFutureIsNow
    January 15, 2019 at 8:48 PM

    Dear Andrea,

    Please review this paper.

    https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9506023

    Basically, it provides an explanation for the light produced by sonoluminescence. According to this theory, the abrupt collapse of the bubble induces vacuum polarization of electron positron pairs that then emits radiation. I think that the sudden in surges and collisions in the SK could be extracting energy from the vacuum in this manner.


    The abrupt collapse of the bubble induces vacuum generation of photon pairs via hawking radiation. The blue light comes from the negative energy photon that has a negative frequency that corresponds to the frequency of the positive photon partner.

  • Director

    I deleted it due to needless detail and speculation and lack of proper sources on some paragraphs. I guess though that the following considerations are harmless and of general interest (not Rossi-specific).


    * * * * *


    a-b) If you're assuming that a BLP-like reaction occurs, initially mostly light, EUV and soft x-rays (as often mentioned by Randell Mills, e.g. here - a randomly picked paper from his published works) as the hydrogen atoms transition towards lower energy levels. These would have an energy of a few keV at most depending on the level into which they fall. Some people like Simon Brink have calculated the energy released by the transition of hydrogen from the ground state to the various sub-ground levels (for example see table halfway in this page).


    c) Any sufficiently thick (fractions of mm) transparent material would attenuate all of the x-rays produced by this step. Since they would have quite a low energy the difficult part would actually be detecting them under normal conditions. Check out attenuation distances with the tool available on http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/atten2.html.




    d) It can be supposed that if the shrunken H atoms could be disposed of or somehow excited back to the ground level before they can accumulate and get triggered for a larger energy release, perhaps spontaneous nuclear reactions and other emissions caused by their short atom-atom distance/small size could be prevented. However for this to produce useful energy, the transition to lower levels must yield more energy than that required to go back to higher levels, but seen it this way this could be considered as getting energy from "nothing" and be unphysical.