QX Concepts - A less critical Rossi thread.

    • Official Post

    Rossi can be seen lifting the box up from the power supplyand seemingly flipping several switches. Obviously, Rossi doesn’t want us tofigure his system out.


    JohnO,


    Just so you know, when that part of the video was reported shortly after the demo, it was a hot topic. Still is when we get around to talking, or joking about it. If interested, you can find all that on the Rossi thread.

  • So do you think he is pulsing the reactor and each pulse is creating sinusoidal waves?

    With the disqualifier that I am not even up to novice rank when it comes plasmas, I am entertaining that idea. I have searched for clues on how Langmuir oscillations might affect the overall plasma current but have not found any information yet. From my EE perspective, it seems logical that it might.


    I’ll float another idea too. I think it is possible that the power supply could be as simple as a DC supply that is switched on/off and feeds a simple RC network that delivers the high voltage/current initiation pulse from a capacitor and quickly decays to supply the desired sustaining voltage/current. (With the Langmuir waves producing the oscillation of that current.)

  • With the disqualifier that I am not even up to novice rank when it comes plasmas, I am entertaining that idea. I have searched for clues on how Langmuir oscillations might affect the overall plasma current but have not found any information yet. From my EE perspective, it seems logical that it might.


    I’ll float another idea too. I think it is possible that the power supply could be as simple as a DC supply that is switched on/off and feeds a simple RC network that delivers the high voltage/current initiation pulse from a capacitor and quickly decays to supply the desired sustaining voltage/current. (With the Langmuir waves producing the oscillation of that current.)


    You will get insight into the SK setup and controller/ballast if you become familiar with the high intensity discharge bulb control protocol and circuitry.


    https://www.edn.com/design/pow…g-technology-fundamentals

  • One thing the oscilloscope shows quite clearly in the Mats / Rossi demo is that the current through the reactor is always in one direction. Yes it oscillates, but it has a DC bias => 2 X (peak-to-peak oscillation). SAFIRE is also DC. I do not know about others. The HID supplies seem to switch polarities driving the lamps.

  • One thing the oscilloscope shows quite clearly in the Mats / Rossi demo is that the current through the reactor is always in one direction. Yes it oscillates, but it has a DC bias => 2 X (peak-to-peak oscillation). SAFIRE is also DC. I do not know about others. The HID supplies seem to switch polarities driving the lamps.


    In SAFIRE there also exists a level of pimping that produces oscillation. The plasma guy said he could not yet explain it.

  • I found a text at Jet Propulsion Labs titled “Fundamentals of Electric Propulsion: Ion and Hall Thrusters” in which Chapter 3 is on the topic of “Basic Plasma Physics.” https://descanso.jpl.nasa.gov/…s1/Goebel__cmprsd_opt.pdf


    As to a power supply design for the replication… Argon ion lasers are a plasma tube though they seem to require much higher excitation currents than the QX/SK and they have heated filaments. There are many different types available including some DIY designs. They look like a good place for us to start.

    https://pe2bz.philpem.me.uk/Li…nLaserSysteems/mod4-3.htm

    http://technology.niagarac.on.…le/lasers/LasersArgon.htm


    I'll start playing around with a lower current version based on based on one of the laser designs and will include an isolation transformer (direct connected systems to AC line are too dangerous).


  • Rossi has both told us anf showed us that the QX can be dimmed, that is its rate of power production can be controlled by the character of the pumping that it receives. This is a big clue to what that pumping is. I had thought that the pumping was the same as that of the HID bulb. But dimming a HID bulb is not possible.


    The other way to pump a plasma is to use spin or magnetics. The signal could be polarized RF, the RF can be adjusted to increase or decrease the amount of energy pumped into the plasma by adjusting the spin that is injected into the plasma. Polarized Spin injection is how a polariton laser is pumped. In that case, the spin comes from electrons that are spin filtered by a magnet.


    http://news.ifmo.ru/en/news/6919/

  • At this juncture, I currently believe that the KEY to the QX/SK is chiral electron spin pumping. These chiral electrons will form a polariton BEC as in a polariton laser, To produce these spin selected electrons, a tool from spintronics is required. It is called a "Spin injector device".


    Here is a patent for one type


    https://patents.google.com/patent/US9362488



    Here is a picture of another one


    http://www.next-toulouse.eu/re…iconductor-hybrid-systems


    Elesihs-picture.jpg


    Rossi must have found a way to pump the plasma in a less complicated way. Maybe just polarized RF is enough.


    Edited once, last by axil ().

  • I will continue to work toward a replication power supply based upon argon laser supply designs. I will endeavor to make it easy to add features like a wave form generator and amplifier to super impose other properties (such as the 100khz AM sine wave) onto the DC pulse/bias.

  • I will continue to work toward a replication power supply based upon argon laser supply designs. I will endeavor to make it easy to add features like a wave form generator and amplifier to super impose other properties (such as the 100khz AM sine wave) onto the DC pulse/bias.

    Your posit that the 100khz AM sine wave) pump signal that appears on the scope is caused by the plasma is undercut by the abrupt termination of the signal at the 4 second point in the controller activation cycle. If the AM signal was produced by the plasma, it would terminate is a more gradual way or not at all.


    The high voltage arc seems to be required that initiates the controller cycle. Most likely, you will need to ass this feature to your designs.


    Rossi has stated the the QX/SK is covered under his E-cat patent. That means that the plasma has aluminum lithium hydride in it. The initial arc might be required to vaporize this compound into a plasma at the start of every pump cycle.

  • Your posit that the 100khz AM sine wave) pump signal that appears on the scope is caused by the plasma is undercut by the abrupt termination of the signal at the 4 second point in the controller activation cycle. If the AM signal was produced by the plasma, it would terminate is a more gradual way or not at all.


    I believe the plasma also terminates at the 4 second point and any signal that it ‘might’ be generating would terminate at the same time.


    Here’s what I think we are seeing evidence of in the QX video:

    1) At start of cycle, there is a high voltage pulse that ionizes the gas in the reactor and starts an arc. This can be seen in the video as a momentary bright flash in the reactor.

    2) Subsequently the voltage/current to the reactor is reduced to a much lower value to sustain the plasma which can still be seen glowing in the reactor but at a much lower level.

    3) At the 4 second point, the excitation voltage/current is turned off by the controller, the plasma dissipates and its glow can no longer be seen in the video.

    4) After an OFF period, the controller initiates another starting pulse and the above sequence repeats.


    Note: The low level glow is very hard to see but it can be discerned by watching closely for a few cycles starting at 1:27:28 into the video. During step 2 in the cycle above, a slight glow/reflection can be seen at the base of the nut/shaft on the end of the reactor. What is most noticeable is the change in the glow from slight to non-existent at the 4 second point.


    Another interesting anomaly is that the ignition pulse strikes twice in a cycle starting at about 1:28:12.

  • JohnO,


    Good analysis. I agree.


    My guess is that the initial pulse of high voltage not only conventionally ionizes the gas, but the atomic hydrogen present interacts with catalytic elements such as lithium, argon, and other components of the plasma to produce Black Light Power's "resonant transfer plasma" effect which would allow for the plasma to be sustained using a much lower voltage/current than the initial pulse. I'm thinking that the wave forms applied after the initial pulse somehow maximize additional reactions between altered forms of hydrogen and lithium.

  • I am in way over my head and It is just a thought... Though I 'think' Langmuir oscillations are likely to be much higher frequency...

    I also have the thought that it might be an intentional signal generated in the power supply for some constructive purpose in the reactor.

    ???

  • I am in way over my head and It is just a thought... Though I 'think' Langmuir oscillations are likely to be much higher frequency...

    I also have the thought that it might be an intentional signal generated in the power supply for some constructive purpose in the reactor.

    ???


    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.05249.pdf




    No oscillation appear in the QX

  • I think I should mention that Paulo Correa's Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge device was tuned to work at an optimum resonant frequency. One factor I think we should consider when designing a power supply is that a large back spike was discharged into the power supply of the PAGD. I am pretty sure that Rossi is experiencing the same phenomena due to his claim there is a requirement for active cooling of the power supply. The Correa's often used resistors in their circuit to thermalize the back spikes (and prevent them from doing damage to their power supply) and the same resistor can help prevent the discharge from moving out of the negative resistance zone.

  • In the Lewan/Rossi QX demonstration: https://animpossibleinvention.…cat-qx-demo-in-stockholm/

    Near the beginning of the video, Mats indicates that the reactor power supply is ‘supposedly’ a pulsed DC supply [Video 0:12:10]. In the write up he states “The voltage across the 1-ohm resistor was about 0.3V (pulsed DC voltage at about 100kHz frequency), thus the current 0.3A.” This implies a power supply wave form similar to the following image.



    If the reactor impedance is primarily resistive as indicated by Rossi, we would expect the wave form of the current (shown on the oscilloscope) to have close to the same shape as the power supply output. But that is not what we see on the oscilloscope across the 1 ohm resistor.


    Again, assuming the reactor impedance is primarily resistive, the current wave form on the oscilloscope would imply a power supply wave form that is more along the following lines.



    I’m intrigued by that AM modulated sine wave on the oscilloscope. If it’s not from oscillations driven by reactor behavior, it must come from the power supply and it’s not likely that it is an accident.


    Plasma Flash, Glow, Out images (easier to see in actual video)...


  • JohnO. If I recall correctly there were 3QX in the device used at Stockholm.


    If the oscillations are driven by the reactor behavior rather than the supply. Could slight mismatch in oscillating frequency between the 3 devices. Result in the observed beat pattern?


    If designed that way could an applied power supply wave form help drive and sustaine the resonance of the oscillations in a more controlled way than if just one is used?


    Are other Plasma (or Acoustic) waves implicated such as Alfvén waves. This could lead to density fluctuations at certain points that perhaps could enhance interactions in this locations.

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