Yokose et al. report 3 kW peak power from Cu-Ni-ZrO composite

  • See:

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…_by_CNZ7_Sample_and_H-Gas

    My comment:

    The sample is ~1 kg. That is much more material than you were using years ago. That's good! I am very pleased to see that people are increasing the mass of reactant. I believe that is why the level of heat increased. I believe more heat comes from a larger number of active sites.

    Okay, that may seem like an odd thing to say. It may seem obvious that heat will increase as the mass of reactant increases. But I do not think that has been tested -- or demonstrated -- up until now. We just assumed that is how it works.

    Even what we consider obvious aspects of the phenomenon should be tested. It is possible that a giant mass of reactant might have no active sites. Or it might sinter and stop working.

    I am pleased to see larger samples being tested, but that does not mean small scale tests such as Beiting and Staker are useless. They do superb calorimetry and their signal to noise ratio is high, so there is much to be learned from their tests as well. I am glad to see high s/n small-scale tests AND glad to see scaled-up tests. Both are valuable.

    Note that Staker also reported run-away heat events. I believe they are roughly similar in scale to this, when you adjust for the amount of reactant and surface area.

    Beiting:

    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/BeitingEinvestigat.pdf

    Staker:

    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StakerMRpreprintco.pdf

  • Staker link returns a not found error.


    Ha! I jumped the gun. It will be there in about a half hour.


    . . . Okay, it is there now.


    What is Propulsion Science Department/Space Materials Laboratory

    and what cataloging system does the report number, AEROSPACE REPORT NO. ATR-2017-0176, refer to pls.?

    It is one of the laboratories at the Aerospace Corporation (https://aerospace.org/). It is at their headquarters in El Segundo. The report number is their numbering system. It is a pretty big company, with 3,900 employees and many locations. See p. 26 and p. 28:


    https://aerospace.org/sites/de…eAerospaceCorp-AR2017.pdf

  • Great, and greater that it is in line with replicated work done in cooperation before.

    This is a replication, with scale-up.

    Scientifically this is an answer to the reproducibility crisis!


    Too bad it was only a burst...


    Now there is hope of some "funny" application, like what JF Geneste proposed, a looped engine-reactor, and hope for engineers to tweak the reactor so it is usable as a toy, not just an experiment.

    If the toy works for a month, at least engineers will be interested.


    Now why CuNiZrO works well, maybe better explained by Staker paper ;-)

    We need metallurgy experts

  • I would like to see both the number of active sites produced per unit volume of fuel and the total quantity of fuel increased.


    To produce more active sites, I suspect that either nickel needs to be tediously cycled again and again in an ordinary hydrogen atmosphere (like what Focardi and Piantelli did) or that an external source of atomic hydrogen and other gases (perhaps argon) need to be utilized to both texture the surface and to force more hydrogen into the lattice. I think the key is producing a greater quantity of super abundant vacancies and then inducing powerful electric fields in these vacancies. The electric fields can be triggered by bombarding the highly textured surface with charged particles to produce electron waves that can penetrate below the surface or fractoemission.


    There's a problem though. If you put a large quantity of fuel in the reactor it may be difficult to expose it all to a plasma. Probably, you need some sort of system of loading the fuel in an external corona discharge of a hydrogen and argon mixture and then putting it all in the active reactor.

  • Maybe active sites are cooperative via some kind of long range magnetic effect?

    I doubt that, although I wouldn't know. I just mean there are more sites because there are more chances the NAE will be formed. All else being equal, 1 kg of material will have many more sites than 10 to 50 g, which is the size of the samples Takahashi et al. were testing a few years ago. They could only make small batches of material, which they then separated into even smaller amounts. They were testing 10 and 20 g samples. See:


    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/KitamuraAmdemetalde.pdf


    I still have some doubts about the calorimetry, mostly because I have not read it carefully enough to feel confident I understand it. It is complicated.

  • Katsuaki Tanabe had an interesting session

    based on classical pre-W calculations


    Perhaps Tanabe-San can pass

    through Ginza to buy some silver (Gin)


    On his way back from Morioka, to Kyoto


    Perhaps there is gold in Kobe

    But the best gold may be in Switzerland .


  • Takahashi's group update on three alloys November,2018


    The current Technova leading “alloys” are

    PNZ6, PNZ6r ,PNZ7k

    Nickel+ Palladium+ Zirconium(ZrO2)

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…origin=publication_detail

    Ni and Pd have NO METASTABLE isotopes

    .. maybe they form by neutron capture?

    Zirconium does have Zr90m1 ,m2, 91m..

    but these 3 have huge energy jumps of 3Mev.


    Perhaps Ni63 ,Ni65 or Pd103 ,Pd107 ,Pd109

    form by neutron capture from ‘even’ isotopes?


    Hopefully Ag107/109 or Sn117 will be added soon.


  • Biberian's 'Ot spot" at ICCF21


    Was the yellow peak


    Ag107? (stable)


    or Pd107? formed from Pd106 by neutron capture?


    Pd106+n ------>Pd107

    Pd108+n --------> Pd109--------->Ag109m +B(-)

    ........................................13.5 hr

    very important isotope in nickel system is Ni63 (lasts 100yr)

    Ni62 +n --------> Ni63

    however it may not last so long in magnetic environment

    because B- decay to Cu63 may speedup.






  • Perhaps the IAEA isotopic database would be informative.


    "the one of the important 61Ni magnetic state with the background. We see such signals up to five times above background already in screening tests." Wyttenbach-Ato-Ecolgy thread


    Yes Longview THE IAEA data is more complex... less pictorial..eg

    "States in 61Ni were populated.

    The analysis of the angular distributions and linear polarizations allowed spin and parity assignments of

    Jsup(π) = 7-/2, 7-/2, 5-/2, 9-/2, 9-/2, 5-/2, 7-/2, 9+/2 and 11-/2 to be made for the levels at 1015, 1454, 1609, 1807, 1987, 1997, 2018, 2121 and 2129 keV respectively.

    . The mean lifetimes(femtoseconds ) of (500, 450, 140, 1200 , 370, 99, 1600 , 960 , 72 , 580 and 84 . ) for the (908, 1132, 1186, 1454, 1609, 1729, 1807, 1987, 1997, 2018, 2124 keV )levels were deduced

    '

    Femtosecond states in ' stable' isotopes such as Ni 61may be important. These may not be all the femtosecond states... there are probably more in the 0-1000 keV range

  • So those data points show curious trends. The femtosecond data are apparently range data (?), that are still puzzling even with the punctuation (11 numbers, 6 demarcated sets...) . We should somehow see nine distinct times, or perhaps some time ranges, or should we (?).

  • Sorry.. they used different techniques for the spin assignments and the lifetimes...only 9 results for the former and 11 for the latter.

    http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0305-4616/3/1/007

    The problem is the data is not replicated ...there are too many isotopes ..too few measurers.. perhaps Wyttenbach with the help of other mathematicians

    will come up with a method of accurately predicting "gamma" quantum quantised states and probabilities.


    I think the 4D gamma states="orbits" of Wyttenbach are interesting..but also challenging

  • In-situ XRD and XAFS Analyses for Metal Nanocomposites Used in Anomalous Heat Generation Experiments,2018

    Hioki et al

    "It was inferred that nano-scale Ni-Pd alloy particles
    enhance kinematics of hydrogen absorption and desorption of NiZr2

    which have high hydrogen storage capacity.

    The remarkable AHE observed in PNZ6 may be correlated

    with such complex structure of nanoscale Ni-Pd alloy particles

    dispersed in mixed matrix of highly hydrogen absorptive NiZr2

    and hydrogen inactive ZrO2.




    https://www.researchgate.net/p…origin=publication_detail

  • very important isotope in nickel system is Ni63 (lasts 100yr)

    Ni62 +n --------> Ni63

    however it may not last so long in magnetic environment

    because B- decay to Cu63 may speedup.


    The SIMs isotope detection system does not distinguish between Pd107 and Ag107,

    because they have the same mass.(Biberian 2018 video)


    In the Rossi nickel reactor " Cu63" and "Cu65" isotopes were said to increase. This was hearsay?.

    But for Violante et al 2003 the increase was well-documented.

    "Violante, V & Mazzitelli, G & Capobianco, L & Mckubre, Michael & Tanzella, Francis & Sarto,Francesca & Santoro, Emilio & Sibilia, C. (2005).

    "Search for Nuclear Ashes in Electrochemical Experiments".

    https://www.google.com/url?q=h…Vaw2bIpPLNiYI5KKgyTsj7Gwp

    These "Cu63/cu65" peaks may indicate Ni 63 and Ni 65 isotopes

    formed by simple neutron capture from stable Ni-62 and Ni-64 .


    Both Ni 63 and Ni 65 have metastable forms., which are important for

    Wyttenbach's emergent mechanism of energy transfer in LENR.


    Cu63 and Cu65 have no metastable forms.

    The SIMS can not distinguish between copper and nickel of same mass,


    Perhaps I should ask Michael?

  • What I found interesting in this study by Hioki et al is the simultaneous presence of a crystalline phase of a metal alloy and of a metal oxide (though amorphous ZrO2 may still dominate). It is known that the desorbtion of H out of a metal oxide leads to excited states of H that can then form clusters at the surface of a metal. A nice continuation of the work by Iwamura who was using alternate layers of CaO and Pd to get radiations, transmutations and excess heat.


    That said, I disagree with the assertion that ZrO2 is "H-inactive". On the contrary, it is known that H can diffuse through Zr oxides layers, with some diffusion processes being actually quite complex.