4D optics lasers

  • Lasers optics experiment passes into the fourth dimension


    Physicists can now investigate not just on paper, but also experimentally the effects that phenomena

    occurring in four (or even more) dimensions can have in our usual 3D world

    Oded Zilberberg et al Zurich,2018

    https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-an…the-fourth-dimension.html

    Ever since Albert Einstein developed the special theory of relativity in Zurich in 1905, by «4D» one usually means time.

    But how can one visualize a fourth spatial dimension – in addition to top-bottom, right-left and front-back?

    In the arts Salvador Dalí tried that: his crucifixion scene painted in 1954 shows as cross consisting

    of the 3D unfolding of a hypercube in 4D (similarly to the unfolding of a cube into squares).

    A completely different, but no less fascinating, look into the fourth spatial dimension was now obtained by two teams of scientists from

    Switzerland, USA, Germany, Italy and Israel. The researcher Oded Zilberberg, professor at the Institute for Theoretical Physics,

    played a pivotal role in both publications, which were recently published in the scientific journal Nature.

    He provided the theoretical basis for the experiments in which a 4D physical phenomenon could be observed in 2D.

    The quantum Hall effect

    Both experiments dealt with the so-called quantum Hall effect. Commonly, that effect manifests in the boundary layer between two materials,

    in which electrons can only move in two dimensions. A magnetic field perpendicular to the material initially leads to the classical Hall effect:

    a current flowing through the material gives rise to a voltage in the perpendicular direction – the larger the magnetic field, the higher the voltage.

    The reason for this is that the magnetic field generates a force acting at right angles to the direction of motion (the Lorentz force)

    that deviates the electrons. At very low temperatures and very large magnetic fields, however, quantum mechanics starts playing a role,

    which means that the voltage no longer increases continuously, but rather jumps in discrete steps.

    Three Nobel Prizes in Physics have so far been awarded for experimental and theoretical work on the quantum Hall effect.


    "At the time, however, that was more like science fiction”,

    as actually observing something like that in an experiment seemed impossible

    – after all, physical space only has three dimensions.” Zilberberg said

    Zilberberg had a clever idea: using so-called topological pumps it should be possible to add a virtual dimension to both of the real dimensions

    of the quantum Hall effect. A topological pump works by modulating a specific control parameter of the physical system, which causes its

    quantum state to change in a characteristic way over time. The end result then looks as though the system had been moving in an

    additional spatial dimension. In this way one can, theoretically, turn a 2D system into a 4D one.

  • Maxwell ,my favourite physicist-poet 4eva., was out there in 4D in 1871.

    How far ahead of the pack was he?


    The peculiarity of our space is that of its three dimensions, none is before or after another.

    As is ‘x’,so is ‘y’, and so is ‘z’.

    If you have 4 dimensions, this becomes a puzzle.

    For first, if three of them are in our space, then which three?

    Also, if we lived in space of ‘m’ dimensions,

    but were only capable of thinking ‘n’ of them,

    then first, which ’n’ ?

    Second, if so, things would happen requiring the rest to explain them
    , and so we should either be stultified or made wiser.

    I am quite sure that the kind of continuity which has four dimensions all co-equal,

    is not to be discovered by merely generalising Cartesian space equations.”


    — James Clerk Maxwell, in correspondence with C.J. Monro, Esq., 15 Mar 1871[1]

  • Are there any 4D magnetic effects in bismuth-tellurium nanoarticles in graphene

    Hatsuda et al,november 2018


    http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/11/eaau6915?rss=1


    Realization of the quantum spin Hall effect in graphene devices has remained an outstanding challenge dating back to the inception of the field of topological insulators

    . Graphene’s exceptionally weak spin-orbit coupling—stemming from carbon’s low mass—poses the primary obstacle.

    We experimentally and theoretically study artificially enhanced spin-orbit coupling in graphene via random decoration with dilute Bi2Te3 nanoparticles.

    Multiterminal resistance measurements suggest the presence of helical edge states characteristic of a quantum spin Hall phase;

    the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the resistance peaks, x-ray photoelectron spectra, scanning tunneling spectroscopy,

    and first-principles calculations further support this scenario.

    These observations highlight a pathway to spintronics and quantum information applications in graphene-based quantum spin Hall platforms.


    Bismuth and Tellurium have quite a few metastable isotopes


  • . A topological pump works by modulating a specific control parameter of the physical system, which causes its

    quantum state to change in a characteristic way over time. The end result then looks as though the system had been moving in an

    additional spatial dimension. In this way one can, theoretically, turn a 2D system into a 4D one.

    The holographic principle is a math trick that can convert a high dimensional problem into a problem with fewer dimensions without loss of meaning.


    Here is an example of how General Relativity can be converted into a 2 D math representation.


    General Relativity Holography:On a null

    hypersurface Nin a vacuum Petrov type D

    spacetime with a non trivial Killing tensor

    (which describes all the astrophysical black

    hole spacetimes), the gravitational dynamics

    of four dimensional general relativity reduces

    to an euclidean conformal field theory in two

    dimensions for four scalar variables


    Mastering this reductionist method might be a good thing to know when dealing with problems expressed in higher dimensions.


    See


    https://www.researchgate.net/p…_type_D_vacuum_spacetimes

  • General Relativity can be converted into a 2 D math representation.

    In his formulation of General Relativity Einstein rejected the notion of five dimensions(4D)

    and stayed with 3D +time....for unclear reasons...even though Maxwell's equations were compatible with the five dimensions


    In dense matter/energy situations 4D has been shown to be operational in 2018

    and by early 2019 probably 6D will also be shown to be reality.


    The new 6D papers by Zhang and Zilberberg do not reference General Relativity

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…sality_(dynamical_systems)


    In Russ's system, there is a phase transition that marks the disappearance of gamma radiation with the appearance of heat production. There must be a parametric connecting between two LENR related parameters that controls this transition. The gamma energy level plots sure look like the universality distribution plots.


    main-qimg-f8d934670551ae5e476b91d631da3241

  • I will respond to you for as many times as it takes to get through to you


    You through to me Axil.

    I could only find "blackening of the emulsion" in your reference .https://mephi.ru/content/artic…EMENT_ID=1689&SHOWALL_1=1

    But I guess there could be a black hole in that reference in the fifth dimension,

    which I could not see, in 2D.


    Michio Kaku said "We believe,but we cannot yet prove......multiple dimensions"


    https://www.sciencealert.com/a…relativity-say-physicists.


    Perhaps Michio Kaku will believe in cold fusion when he sees it in multiple dimensions.

  • Axil has forgotten his pills again.... he links almost every shit out there to LENR.






    @lobseRvable has been banned for this post, since he has had several warnings about insulting behaviour. He is not considered by the moderation team to be any kind of an asset.

  • Thanks Axil,for making me seek outside the square hole


    I hope Roy Kerr can help me understand flux holes and 5D versus black holes.

    Black holes Roy says are very large

    Hope his 3D health stands up...84 years old...

    He is more famous outside NZ than inside...I might write to him.

    However I have heard he intends to sail to 7 continents on an ocean going yacht.



  • Once LENR is understood and if it is found to be associated in some way to 4D EM models and experimental data. I imagine the next big thing on our radar will be what this implies for fundamental physics.


    Experimentally evidence for particle physics comes down to energetic resonances after all.”


    What underlies the particle families,QCD, resonance's and apparent constants in the SM. What does it tell us about what underlies other apparent Quantum behavior such as entanglement and duality. What does it tell us about relativity and space time. I’m pretty sure it will introduce a new window on theory along with data and constraints.


    There are some interesting ideas already from concept level to more established theory touch on the topic.


    For example there are magneto electrodynamic models of nucleon structure that quite well model nucleon resonances. Such as the Ceshire cat model.


    http://www.physics.princeton.e…/EP/zahed_pr_142_1_86.pdf


    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skyrmion


    there are also EM models of neutrinos although they are still not well understood.


    https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2012/459526/


    I’m curious where if all leads some of the nucleon theories already touch on some of the SO(4) concepts mentioned by Wyttenbach I think so it very curious to see where this is going.


    I have a whole bundle of intuitive questions and maybe insights maybe red herrings... that I’m trying to answer for my own curiosity. Which I won’t confuse you all here with. But I suspect the answers will be found in these developments.