Bullet impact induces transmutation in bismuth

  • Marakhtanovs have been doing this research for several years.


    It appears that 'the impact of a bullet can induce transmutation of bismuth to platinum..


    Mechanical Impact on Metal: from the Destruction of Crystal

    to the Transmutation of the Nucleus


    Marakhtanov and Marakhtanov, Res Rep Metals 2018, 2:


    ""It has been experimentally established that dusty products of

    an inertial explosion of the projectile containing a

    bismuth alloy emit single α-particles with energy of ~ 8 MeV [10].

    Spectral analysis showed the presence of platinum and boron.


    Of course if one were to ask the DOD if this could happen

    with depleted.uranium tankshells they would

    probably say IMPOSSIBLE... if anything..


    https://www.scitechnol.com/dow…n-of-the-nucleus-pBqy.pdf

  • A company called First Light Fusion claims they have achieved inertial confinement fusion by accelerating the sample with a railgun. The website is unclear, but I suppose the sample whacks into a target, similar to the way a bullet does. With conventional inertial confinement the sample is imploded with lasers.


    See:


    https://firstlightfusion.com/


    Krivit criticize this claim. I think his reasons are unreasonable:


    http://news.newenergytimes.net…first-light-fusions-fake/


    I do not see any indication that with a commercial version of this the energy overhead would be extremely high, the way it is with tokamak reactors. Railguns have reasonable efficiency as far as I know. They are being developed for use as weapons aboard navy ships, which have only limited amounts of power available.

  • I do not see any indication that with a commercial version of this the energy overhead would be extremely high,


    Marakhtanovs' wrote


    In experiments with the target-trap, a Bismuth projectile was examined.

    The thermal energy measured in the target was 1.81 times greater than the kinetic energy of the projectile.

    The mass of the projectile is 0.0245 kg, diameter is 14.2 mm, and the velocity is 1183 ± 20 m /s.


    Neglecting air friction and oxidation

    COP=1.81?,2.81?

  • Railguns have reasonable efficiency as far as I know. They are being developed for use as weapons aboard navy ships, which have only limited amounts of power available.


    The power is presumably very high, judging by all those thick cables, but those naval rail guns use less energy per shot than is found in a box of donuts.

  • The power is presumably very high, judging by all those thick cables, but those naval rail guns use less energy per shot than is found in a box of donuts.


    They use less energy? Or they impart less energy?


    There's gotta be a lotta overhead. They must get hot!


    Just asking. I don't know a thing about them. But anyway, I doubt that Krivit's critique is valid, because I don't think the energy overhead would be as extreme as laser inertial confinement. See the lasers shown here:


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…media/File:NOVA_laser.jpg

  • This source from 1995 says rail gun efficiency is 47%:


    https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/364679


    Abstract: Railgun launchers must be energy efficient to realize use in practical systems, especially mobile applications which require compact power supplies. This paper shows that railgun launcher efficiency has already been demonstrated at 47 percent at launch kinetic energies up to 8 MJ. Improvements in armature performance have made this performance level possible. Foreseeable improvements in armatures and power supply-launcher integration will push launcher efficiencies to at least 66 percent.

  • They use less energy? Or they impart less energy?


    I believe it’s use, I don’t know the efficiency, (50% sounds reasonable but they have no doubt improved a lot since 1995).


    My point was more that amazing efficiencies aren’t that necessary, as the required joules are fairly easy to come by. 50 MJ is a reasonably large in kinetic terms, but not that much in terms of chemical storage. I guess on-board power limitations might be an issue, but that only affects rate of fire really.

  • For those interested in rail-guns, here is an interesting paper from US Naval Research which suggests that these devices breach the usual parameters of Newton's 3rd.


    ABSTRACT
    An interesting debate in railgun research circles is the location, magnitude, and
    cause of recoil forces, equal and opposite to the launched projectile. The various claims
    do not appear to be supported by direct experimental observation. The goal of this
    research paper is to develop an experiment to observe the balance of forces in a model
    railgun in a static state. By mechanically isolating the electrically coupled components of
    such a model it has been possible to record the reaction force on the rails and compare
    that force with the theoretical force on a projectile. The research is ongoing but we have
    observed that the magnitude of the force on the armature is at least seventy times greater
    than any predicted equal and opposite reaction force on the rails.



    https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a473387.pdf