The Trillion Dollar Concept: Negative Differential Resistance

  • I find the wording of that bit of the patent rather unsatisfactory. It says "as the voltage dropped.." and not "as the voltage was reduced". Why did the voltage reduce?


    The power supply can operate in constant voltage or constant current modes but the data suggests both changed. Which is only possible if the power supply was adjusted or used near its limits (for example in constant voltage mode but with current limiting kicking in.)... or perhaps there was something between the power supply and the cell?

  • Here is a great paper that details the self organization process of the fireball or complex space charge configuration (CSCC) that allows for the negative resistance to take place. What I find interesting is that there are multiple stages that take place and at each one the fireball further self organizes. The final configuration is a "free floating fireball." I'm convinced that these represent macro-scale EVOs.


    https://www.researchgate.net/p…asis_of_Self-Organization


    These structures are at the heart of all exotic energy and LENR devices. Tiny EVOs are produced via fracto-emission in systems like Mizuno's and large EVOs are produced in the Suncell and Rossi's SK.


    The quantity and type of output you get is a function of the degree of resonance allowing for the maximum level of self organization and amplitude of ion acoustic oscillations and the fuel mixture.


    I think if you achieve a high degree of resonance, you can induce LENR and ZPE tapping reactions.


    Additional notes:


    - Using mixtures of hydrogen and heavier elements such as noble gases like Argon will stabilize the EVO.

    - Trace quantities of nano-particles sputtered from the electrodes or intentionally added could have important effects.


    I wish that we had at least a couple teams working on building such a system.

  • https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0207046.pdf


    This paper proposes a theory that protons when accelerated can extract energy from the electron-positron pairs and be accelerated. In a system with a negative resistance, the complex space charge configuration continuously emits and absorbs ions, producing ion acoustic waves. I believe that in a system that's tuned to resonance the amplitude of the oscillations increase to the point that the protons extract energy from the vacuum. Of course, it is likely that under these conditions LENR reactions will also be optimized.

  • Ball (or Baloney?) lightning and cold fusion


    https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Ball_lightning


    "Cranks

    Kirill Chukanov, who claims to have some background in work on cold fusion, has indicated that ball lightning is likely to be the solution to the problem of free energy, and his work has been likened to that of Andrea Rossi. It is, to put it mildly, unclear how ball lightning is supposed to provide free energy, but at least Chukanov can rest assured that he is on the right path, since the Canadian government has apparently launched an "official conspiracy" against him.[10] Independent confirmation for Chukanov's efforts seems to consist to a large extent of the testimony Sterling D. Allan (a reporter for freeenergynews.com and perennial presidential candidate for the Providential Party), who alleged that a "visual intuitive" in his extended family had seen the "skeletal structure" of Chukanov's ball lightning.[11]"


    "About RationalWiki

    Our purpose here at RationalWiki includes:


    Analyzing and refuting pseudoscience and the anti-science movement;

    Documenting the full range of crank ideas;

    Explorations of authoritarianism and fundamentalism;

    Analysis and criticism of how these subjects are handled in the media."


    please note:

    1) nobody seems really interested in discussing your theories

    2) arxiv is not a peer-reviewed journal and International Journal of Modern Physics has a low h-index

  • I don't know who Shoulders is, but I have found this:


    https://crackpotwatch.wordpress.com/2013/12/04/why-pseudoscientists-abhor-free-speech/


    "When it comes to perpetual motion and antigravity, there is a shortage of ‘man-in-the-street’ buyers, so the cranks have to go after wealthy suckers or large companies and appeal for ‘blue-sky’ investment. This actually works! A rich chicken-farmer was persuaded to fund the crackpot ‘work’ of one Kenneth Shoulders (he shrugs-off accusations of fraud, haha). However, the main targets are big organisations ‘with more money than sense’. None of them have any sense, it seems. "


    other sites against anti-science and pseudo-science:


    http://doubtfulnews.com/

    http://www.skeptics.com.au/publications/magazine/

    http://crispian-jago.blogspot.it/

  • I don't know who Shoulders is, but I have found this:


    https://crackpotwatch.wordpress.com/2013/12/04/why-pseudoscientists-abhor-free-speech/


    "When it comes to perpetual motion and antigravity, there is a shortage of ‘man-in-the-street’ buyers, so the cranks have to go after wealthy suckers or large companies and appeal for ‘blue-sky’ investment. This actually works! A rich chicken-farmer was persuaded to fund the crackpot ‘work’ of one Kenneth Shoulders (he shrugs-off accusations of fraud, haha). However, the main targets are big organisations ‘with more money than sense’. None of them have any sense, it seems. "

    Well, Walter Pegeto, meet Kenneth Shoulders, and learn something in the process:




    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_R._Shoulders

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • He is in exalted company then. For a more balanced view than wikipedia can provide, there's this.


    Kenneth Shoulders Retrospective.pdf

    I think the Wikipedia article is rather balanced, focused in his formal career rather than his controversial side. But your article is much more comprehensive, so thanks for bringing it forth Alan.


    About Shoulders being “black listed” I think that is laughable and not worth commenting upon. Even Richard Feynman had to admit Shoulders was right. Being blacklisted in science is meaningless in short term.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • May be. However it's sure that he is considered a non mainstream, fringe scientist by the international scientific community, at least in western democratic countries where the highly reliable and widely used scimago indexes are used for evaluating research quality.

    New, ground breaking and revolutionary ideas rarely come from mainstream, tho. I wonder what you are doing here if you go by that kind of standards. However, If you look at Scimago, currently the top position is held by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the research of transmutation I am currently engaged in designing an experiment to validate comes from Dr. Lu who is a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, so you might be more inclined to agree with him by that metric?

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • May be. However it's sure that he is considered a non mainstream, fringe scientist by the international scientific community, at least in western democratic countries where the highly reliable and widely used scimago indexes are used for evaluating research quality.


    He worked at MIT (during this time he fabricated the world’s first microcircuits) and later did some exotic and confidential work for the CIA and others. Ken has a history of working at the edge of science and engineering. He worked at SRI International for ten years as a staff scientist and started a field now called vacuum nanoelectronics, which is based on field emission active devices.

    Ken was also admired for his earlier work for SRI International , at Menlo Park , CA, USA, which resulted in many patents. Other inventions that were based on Ken’s designs were the first commercially available quadrupole mass spectrometer, which he built in 1958 at SRI, and was then developed by Finnigan Instruments.


    So obviously a waste of space.

  • May be. However it's sure that he is considered a non mainstream, fringe scientist by the international scientific community, at least in western democratic countries where the highly reliable and widely used scimago indexes are used for evaluating research quality.


    May be such an index works well for finding the best chicken breeding technique and the most knowledgeable guys in such a general and well defined field.


    But.. basic research with unknown outcome can not be indexed by any method.


    Does this index explain us why we wasted 20 billion for hot fusion albeit we know since 1978 that the ITER approach (D,T fusion) is not feasible at all ??

  • The evidence is becoming clearer and clearer that the negative resistance regime is how to produce massive excess energy.


    I also believe that the physics of the self organizing plasma ball and the fields that are produced will lead to control of apparent mass, inertia, and gravity.


    But the powers that be in this world who have already developed extremely advanced technologies do NOT want these developed. Huge corporations like Lockheed are more than happy to continue selling billions of dollars worth of fighter jets instead of watching hundreds of competitors pop up around the world building anti-gravity vehicles.

  • Eugene Mollove would agree with me about the negative resistance regime.


    http://www.hutchisoneffect.com…t%20Radio%20Interview.php


    [18:30]

    EM: [...] There's absolutely no doubt that the devices -- patented devices, no less - by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa in Canada are over-unity, OK? This is clear a case where vacuum-energy can be seen, in technically published information that is irrefutable, as far as I'm concerned -- and I've personally been at the lab and seen it -- there's no doubt that these machines exist. Now Steve [Greer] would say that the government has much more advanced technology, which they've maybe learned from (WORD FORBIDDEN ON LENR FORUM) or something.

  • It doesn't matter if your skeptical of vacuum energy. These devices that are utilizing the negative resistance regime to produce complex space charge configurations or macro-EVOs are capable of producing enormous amounts of safe, clean, and cheap energy. I personally believe the energy can come from either LENR reactions, the zero point energy field, or a combination of the two depending on how the device is configured, tuned, and what fuels are utilized. However, fundamentally, all matter is continually exchanging aether particles and energy with the environment. Aether is being transferred to and from every sub-atomic particle. Consider this quote by Tesla:


    http://www.institutotesla.org/tech/TeslaGravity.html



    "My second discovery was a physical truth of the greatest importance. As I have searched the scientific records in more than half dozen languages for a long time without finding the least anticipation, I consider myself the original discoverer of this truth, which can be expressed by the statement: There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment. On my 79th birthday I made a brief reference to it, but its meaning and significance have become clearer to me since then. I applies rigorously to molecules and atoms as well as the largest heav-enly bodies, and to all matter in the universe in any phase of its existence from it: very formation to its ultimate disintegration."


    The above statement from the greatest scientist who ever lived should guide us in our efforts.

  • The negative resistance has a good meaning in exploitation of vacuum energy, as I already explained in the beginning of this thread. It's negentropic effect of activation energy assisted with vacuum fluctuations in essence. Just try to imagine: electrons in PN junction cannot move, because of activation energy. The only force which could initiate avalanche like effect is energy of vacuum fluctuations and in this very moment we forced vacuum to do some usable macroscopic work. In equilibrium thermodynamics such a thing can never happen.


    Of course as a whole the resulting process is generally dissipative and differential negative resistance is not negative resistance - so that we need to apply additional tricks which would bring the overunity yield for us. In this regard it may be significant, both Andrea Rossi, both Brilliant Light process utilize processes which have negative resistance in their theory: Andrea Rossi in form of quantum Zitterbewegung, Randel Mills in form of nonradiative "hydrino" transitions.

  • Laws of thermodynamics disallow overunity, but they also apply to equilibrial phenomena. All metastable avalanche-like processes (and negative differential resistance is typical aspect of avalanche diodes) thus involve process, which classical thermodynamics has nothing very much to tell about. Locally or temporarily the thermodynamics can get violated, just the extending of description to a sufficiently wider scale makes such an process compliant with classical thermodynamics again. Therefore local negentropic (energy generating) process is always followed by classical entropic process, which dissipates the energy and reduces energy yield bellow unity. For to eliminate energy dissipation, we should apply tricks of time-reversed thermodynamics.


    One such a trick is, the energy dissipation like friction of heat collisions is associated with motion across spatial domain, which we thus must eliminate. Our system must change, or the energy couldn't be generated - but it must change only along temporal dimension, not spatial one. In dense aether model description it means, it can only rotate and/or expand or collapse, while staying at rest. Such a type of transition is limited to spherically symmetric objects, like s-orbitals of atomic hydrogen or noble gases, which cannot radiate energy due to Gauss non-radiation condition. Once the energy can get radiated, it just means, it can get dissipated and wasted. Furthermore the expansion or collapse must proceed very fast and it must be metastable. Only the overcoming energy barrier of activation energy can be assisted with vacuum fluctuation, all the rest is dissipative, therefore the activation energy must be high with compare to potential energy difference between original and final state, which is dissipative.


    One system with negative differential resistance is famous transistor wiring, which emulates avalanche diode, for example in Joule-Thief circuit (1, 2) Their coils are often wound on paper of plastic, so that their overunity (if really exists) cannot originate from ferromagnetism like at the case of another devices. Note also, they're wound like bifilar coils, so that radiation of circuit into outside gets suppressed.